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Increased circulating ferritin concentration

MedGen UID:
69130
Concept ID:
C0241013
Finding
Synonym: Increased serum ferritin
 
HPO: HP:0003281

Definition

Increased concentration of ferritin in the blood circulation. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVIncreased circulating ferritin concentration

Conditions with this feature

Neonatal hemochromatosis
MedGen UID:
82768
Concept ID:
C0268059
Disease or Syndrome
Neonatal hemochromatosis (NH) is characterized by hepatic failure in the newborn period and heavy iron staining in the liver. In addition, there is marked siderosis of extrahepatic tissues, including the heart and pancreas (Driscoll et al., 1988). Whitington (2007) postulated that some cases of neonatal hemochromatosis result from maternal alloimmunity directed at the fetal liver, and therefore do not represent an inherited mendelian disorder. Other causes may result from metabolic disease or perinatal infection. In particular, he commented that the disorder is not related to the family of inherited liver diseases that fall under the classification of hereditary hemochromatosis (see, e.g., 235200). Whitington (2007) proposed the term 'congenital alloimmune hepatitis.' In the past, the disorder has loosely been labeled 'neonatal hepatitis' and 'giant cell hepatitis,' which are pathologic findings in the liver representing a common response to a variety of insults, including cholestatic disorders and infection, among others (Fawaz et al., 1975; Knisely et al., 1987; Kelly et al., 2001).
Lysinuric protein intolerance
MedGen UID:
75704
Concept ID:
C0268647
Disease or Syndrome
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) typically presents after an infant is weaned from breast milk or formula; variable findings include recurrent vomiting and episodes of diarrhea, episodes of stupor and coma after a protein-rich meal, poor feeding, aversion to protein-rich food, failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, and muscular hypotonia. Over time, findings include: poor growth, osteoporosis, involvement of the lungs (progressive interstitial changes, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis) and of the kidneys (progressive glomerular and proximal tubular disease), hematologic abnormalities (normochromic or hypochromic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, erythroblastophagocytosis in the bone marrow aspirate), and a clinical presentation resembling the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophagic activation syndrome. Hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and acute pancreatitis can also be seen.
Harderoporphyria
MedGen UID:
137981
Concept ID:
C0342859
Disease or Syndrome
Harderoporphyria (HARPO) is a rare erythropoietic variant form of hereditary coproporphyria (HCP; 121300) characterized by neonatal hemolytic anemia, sometimes accompanied by skin lesions, and massive excretion of harderoporphyrin in feces. During childhood and adulthood, a mild residual anemia is chronically observed (review by Schmitt et al., 2005).
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma
MedGen UID:
99306
Concept ID:
C0522624
Neoplastic Process
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is an uncommon form of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in which cytotoxic CD8 (see 186910)+ T cells infiltrate adipose tissue forming subcutaneous nodules. Both children and adults can be affected, with a median age at diagnosis of 36 years and a female gender bias. Most patients have accompanying systemic features such as fever or flank pain. A subset (about 20%) of patients develop hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), usually associated with CD8+ T cells rimming adipocytes in the bone marrow. An infectious agent is not identified, and the disorder is believed to result from improperly activated inflammation. Immunosuppressive therapy may be helpful; hematopoietic bone marrow transplantation is usually curative (summary by Gayden et al., 2018). For a general discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLH, see HLH1 (267700).
Deficiency of ferroxidase
MedGen UID:
168057
Concept ID:
C0878682
Disease or Syndrome
Aceruloplasminemia is characterized by iron accumulation in the brain and viscera. The clinical triad of retinal degeneration, diabetes mellitus (DM), and neurologic disease is seen in individuals ranging from age 30 years to older than 70 years. The neurologic findings of movement disorder (blepharospasm, grimacing, facial and neck dystonia, tremors, chorea) and ataxia (gait ataxia, dysarthria) correspond to regions of iron deposition in the brain. Individuals with aceruloplasminemia often present with anemia prior to onset of DM or obvious neurologic problems. Cognitive dysfunction including apathy and forgetfulness occurs in more than half of individuals with this condition.
Hereditary hyperferritinemia with congenital cataracts
MedGen UID:
318812
Concept ID:
C1833213
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome is a disorder characterized by an excess of an iron storage protein called ferritin in the blood (hyperferritinemia) and tissues of the body. A buildup of this protein begins early in life, leading to clouding of the lenses of the eyes (cataracts). In affected individuals, cataracts usually develop in infancy, rather than after age 60 as typically occurs in the general population. Cataracts that are not removed surgically cause progressive dimming and blurriness of vision because the clouded lenses reduce and distort incoming light.\n\nAlthough the hyperferritinemia in this disorder does not usually cause any health problems other than cataracts, the elevated ferritin levels in the blood can be mistaken for a sign of certain liver disorders. These conditions result in excess iron in the body and may be treated by blood-drawing. However, individuals with hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome do not have an excess of iron, and with repeated blood draws will develop reduced iron levels leading to a low number of red blood cells (anemia). Therefore, correct diagnosis of hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome is important to avoid unnecessary treatments or invasive test procedures such as liver biopsies.
Heme oxygenase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
333882
Concept ID:
C1841651
Disease or Syndrome
Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency (HMOX1D) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with a complex clinical presentation including direct antibody negative hemolytic anemia, low bilirubin, and hyperinflammation (summary by Chau et al., 2020). Other features may include asplenia and nephritis (Radhakrishnan et al., 2011).
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to XIAP deficiency
MedGen UID:
336848
Concept ID:
C1845076
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) has two recognizable subtypes, XLP1 and XLP2. XLP1 is characterized predominantly by one of three commonly recognized phenotypes: Inappropriate immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection leading to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or severe mononucleosis. Dysgammaglobulinemia. Lymphoproliferative disease (malignant lymphoma). XLP2 is most often characterized by HLH (often associated with EBV), dysgammaglobulinemia, and inflammatory bowel disease. HLH resulting from EBV infection is associated with an unregulated and exaggerated immune response with widespread proliferation of cytotoxic T cells, EBV-infected B cells, and macrophages. Dysgammaglobulinemia is typically hypogammaglobulinemia of one or more immunoglobulin subclasses. The malignant lymphomas are typically B-cell lymphomas, non-Hodgkin type, often extranodal, and in particular involving the intestine.
Hemochromatosis type 5
MedGen UID:
341982
Concept ID:
C1851316
Disease or Syndrome
A rare disorder of iron metabolism and transport characterised by elevated serum ferritin levels, increased serum iron, increased transferrin saturation and heavy iron deposition in hepatocytes. Iron deposition has also been indicated in heart and bone marrow, while haematological examination of peripheral blood shows no abnormalities.
Hemochromatosis type 4
MedGen UID:
340044
Concept ID:
C1853733
Disease or Syndrome
Hemochromatosis type 4 (HFE4) is a dominantly inherited iron overload disorder with heterogeneous phenotypic manifestations that can be classified into 2 groups. One group is characterized by an early rise in ferritin (see 134790) levels with low to normal transferrin (190000) saturation and iron accumulation predominantly in macrophages. The other group is similar to classical hemochromatosis, with high transferrin saturation and prominent parenchymal iron loading (summary by De Domenico et al., 2005). For general background information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary hemochromatosis, see 235200.
Hemochromatosis type 3
MedGen UID:
388114
Concept ID:
C1858664
Disease or Syndrome
TFR2-related hereditary hemochromatosis (TFR2-HHC) is characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption resulting in iron accumulation in the liver, heart, pancreas, and endocrine organs. Age of onset is earlier than in HFE-HHC. The majority of individuals present with signs and symptoms of iron overload in the third decade (e.g., weakness, fatigue, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, arthritis, arthralgia, progressive increase in skin pigmentation). Others present as young adults with nonspecific symptoms and abnormal serum iron studies or as adults with abnormal serum iron studies and signs of organ involvement including cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, and arthropathy.
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 2
MedGen UID:
400366
Concept ID:
C1863727
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-2 (FHL2) is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized clinically by fever, edema, hepatosplenomegaly, and liver dysfunction. Neurologic impairment, seizures, and ataxia are frequent. Laboratory studies show pancytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, hypofibrinogenemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. There is increased production of cytokines, such as gamma-interferon (IFNG; 147570) and TNF-alpha (191160), by hyperactivation and proliferation of T cells and macrophages. Activity of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells is reduced, consistent with a defect in cellular cytotoxicity. Bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver show features of hemophagocytosis. Chemotherapy and/or immunosuppressant therapy may result in symptomatic remission, but the disorder is fatal without bone marrow transplantation (summary by Dufourcq-Lagelouse et al., 1999, Stepp et al., 1999, and Molleran Lee et al., 2004). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FHL, see 267700.
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 4
MedGen UID:
350245
Concept ID:
C1863728
Disease or Syndrome
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a hyperinflammatory disorder clinically diagnosed based on the fulfillment of 5 of 8 criteria, including fever, splenomegaly, bicytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia and/or hypofibrinogenemia, hemophagocytosis, low or absent natural killer (NK) cell activity, hyperferritinemia, and high soluble IL2 receptor levels (IL2R; 147730). The disorder typically presents in infancy or early childhood. Persistent remission is rarely achieved with chemo- or immunotherapy; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only cure (summary by Muller et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL), see 267700.
GRACILE syndrome
MedGen UID:
400428
Concept ID:
C1864002
Disease or Syndrome
GRACILE syndrome is an autosomal recessive lethal disorder characterized by fetal growth retardation, lactic acidosis, aminoaciduria, cholestasis, and abnormalities in iron metabolism. Patients develop fulminant lactic acidosis during the first day of life. Despite intensive care, about half of affected infants die during the first days of life, and the remainder within 4 months of life. Finnish and British patients have been reported, with slightly different phenotypes; the British patients have additional features of complex III deficiency and neurologic symptoms (Visapaa et al., 2002).
Hemochromatosis type 2A
MedGen UID:
356321
Concept ID:
C1865614
Disease or Syndrome
Juvenile hemochromatosis is characterized by onset of severe iron overload occurring typically in the first to third decades of life. Males and females are equally affected. Prominent clinical features include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, cardiomyopathy, glucose intolerance and diabetes, arthropathy, and liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. Hepatocellular cancer has been reported occasionally. The main cause of death is cardiac disease. If juvenile hemochromatosis is detected early enough and if blood is removed regularly through the process of phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion, morbidity and mortality are greatly reduced.
Hemochromatosis type 2B
MedGen UID:
356040
Concept ID:
C1865616
Disease or Syndrome
Juvenile hemochromatosis is characterized by onset of severe iron overload occurring typically in the first to third decades of life. Males and females are equally affected. Prominent clinical features include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, cardiomyopathy, glucose intolerance and diabetes, arthropathy, and liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. Hepatocellular cancer has been reported occasionally. The main cause of death is cardiac disease. If juvenile hemochromatosis is detected early enough and if blood is removed regularly through the process of phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion, morbidity and mortality are greatly reduced.
Megaloblastic anemia, folate-responsive
MedGen UID:
440842
Concept ID:
C2749656
Finding
Folate-responsive megaloblastic anemia (MEGAF) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by megaloblastic anemia resulting from decreased folate transport into erythrocytes. Although serum levels of folate are normal, there is folate deficiency in tissues, including erythrocytes and possibly nerve cells. Serum homocysteine levels are increased and vitamin B12 levels may be decreased. Treatment with oral folate corrects the anemia and normalizes homocysteine (summary by Svaton et al., 2020)
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 5
MedGen UID:
416514
Concept ID:
C2751293
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-5 with or without microvillus inclusion disease (FHL5) is an autosomal recessive hyperinflammatory disorder characterized clinically by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, and other laboratory findings. Some patients have neurologic symptoms due to inflammatory CNS disease. There is uncontrolled and ineffective proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes, NK cells, and macrophages that infiltrate multiple organs, including liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and the CNS. The phenotype is variable: some patients may present in early infancy with severe diarrhea, prior to the onset of typical FHL features, whereas others present later in childhood and have a more protracted course without diarrhea. The early-onset diarrhea is due to enteropathy reminiscent of microvillus inclusion disease (see MVID, 251850). The enteropathy, which often necessitates parenteral feeding, may be the most life-threatening issue even after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). More variable features include sensorineural hearing loss and hypogammaglobulinemia. Treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and chemotherapy can ameliorate signs and symptoms of FHL in some patients, but the only curative therapy for FHL is HSCT. HSCT is not curative for enteropathy associated with the disorder, despite hematologic and immunologic reconstitution (summary by Meeths et al., 2010; Pagel et al., 2012; Stepensky et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL, HLH), see 267700.
Hemochromatosis type 1
MedGen UID:
854011
Concept ID:
C3469186
Disease or Syndrome
HFE hemochromatosis is characterized by inappropriately high absorption of iron by the small intestinal mucosa. The phenotypic spectrum of HFE hemochromatosis includes: Persons with clinical HFE hemochromatosis, in whom manifestations of end-organ damage secondary to iron overload are present; Individuals with biochemical HFE hemochromatosis, in whom transferrin-iron saturation is increased and the only evidence of iron overload is increased serum ferritin concentration; and Non-expressing p.Cys282Tyr homozygotes, in whom neither clinical manifestations of HFE hemochromatosis nor iron overload are present. Clinical HFE hemochromatosis is characterized by excessive storage of iron in the liver, skin, pancreas, heart, joints, and anterior pituitary gland. In untreated individuals, early symptoms include: abdominal pain, weakness, lethargy, weight loss, arthralgias, diabetes mellitus; and increased risk of cirrhosis when the serum ferritin is higher than 1,000 ng/mL. Other findings may include progressive increase in skin pigmentation, congestive heart failure, and/or arrhythmias, arthritis, and hypogonadism. Clinical HFE hemochromatosis is more common in men than women.
Lymphoproliferative syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
765548
Concept ID:
C3552634
Disease or Syndrome
Lymphoproliferative syndrome-1 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by onset in early childhood of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated immune dysregulation, manifest as lymphoma, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Hodgkin disease, and/or hypogammaglobulinemia. Autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia or renal disease, may also occur. Patients show a high EBV viral load and decreased invariant natural killer T cells. It is unknown whether patients with ITK mutations are intrinsically susceptible to development of lymphoma or dysgammaglobulinemia in the absence of EBV infection (summary by Stepensky et al., 2011; Linka et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lymphoproliferative syndrome, see XLP1 (308240).
Severe congenital hypochromic anemia with ringed sideroblasts
MedGen UID:
815250
Concept ID:
C3808920
Disease or Syndrome
STEAP3/TSAP6-related sideroblastic anemia is a very rare severe non-syndromic hypochromic anemia, which is characterized by transfusion-dependent hypochromic, poorly regenerative anemia, iron overload, resembling non-syndromic sideroblastic anemia (see this term) except for increased erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels.
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
854829
Concept ID:
C3888244
Disease or Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known.
Periodic fever-infantile enterocolitis-autoinflammatory syndrome
MedGen UID:
863504
Concept ID:
C4015067
Disease or Syndrome
Autoinflammation with infantile enterocolitis is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by onset of recurrent flares of autoinflammation in early infancy. Affected individuals tend to have poor overall growth and gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy associated with laboratory evidence of activated inflammation. This initial presentation is followed by recurrent febrile episodes with splenomegaly and sometimes hematologic disturbances, arthralgias, or myalgias. The disorder results from overactivation of an arm of the immune response system (Romberg et al., 2014; Canna et al., 2014).
Sideroblastic anemia 3
MedGen UID:
895975
Concept ID:
C4225155
Disease or Syndrome
Sideroblastic anemia-3 is an autosomal recessive hematologic disorder characterized by onset of anemia in adulthood. Affected individuals show signs of systemic iron overload, and iron chelation therapy may be of clinical benefit (summary by Liu et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sideroblastic anemia, see SIDBA1 (300751).
Sideroblastic anemia 2
MedGen UID:
899109
Concept ID:
C4225425
Disease or Syndrome
Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis with or without pseudohyperkalemia and/or perinatal edema
MedGen UID:
1638271
Concept ID:
C4551512
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 1
MedGen UID:
1642840
Concept ID:
C4551514
Disease or Syndrome
Familial Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by a macrophage activation syndrome with an onset usually occurring within a few months or less common several years after birth.
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 1
MedGen UID:
1634824
Concept ID:
C4551958
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is a rare autosomal recessive oxidative phosphorylation disorder specific to skeletal muscle and bone marrow (Bykhovskaya et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Myopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Sideroblastic Anemia MLASA2 (613561) is caused by mutation in the YARS2 gene (610957) on chromosome 12p11. MLASA3 (500011) is caused by heteroplasmic mutation in the mitochondrially-encoded MTATP6 gene (516060).
Pseudo-TORCH syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1708513
Concept ID:
C5394391
Disease or Syndrome
Pseudo-TORCH syndrome-3 (PTORCH3) is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation and neuroinflammation apparent from early infancy. Affected individuals have developmental delay with acute episodes of fever and multisystemic organ involvement, including coagulopathy, elevated liver enzymes, and proteinuria, often associated with thrombotic microangiopathy. Brain imaging shows progressive intracranial calcifications, white matter abnormalities, and sometimes cerebral or cerebellar atrophy. Laboratory studies show abnormal elevation of interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene (ISG) transcripts consistent with a type I interferonopathy. The phenotype resembles the sequelae of intrauterine infection, but there is usually no evidence of an infectious agent. The disorder results from defects in negative regulation of the interferon immunologic pathway. Death in early childhood is common (summary by Duncan et al., 2019 and Gruber et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PTORCH, see PTORCH1 (251290).
Immunodeficiency 69
MedGen UID:
1735911
Concept ID:
C5436498
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-69 (IMD69) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased susceptibility to disseminated mycobacterial infection, including after BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin) vaccination. Affected individuals develop fever, hepatosplenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis during the acute infection. There appears to be normal immunologic function against other pathogens, including viruses and bacteria. Immunologic work-up shows normal parameters, but patient T and NK cells fail to produce gamma-interferon (IFNG) when stimulated in vitro (summary by Kerner et al., 2020). IMD69 is a form of mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) (see, e.g., IMD27A; 209950).
Immunodeficiency 80 with or without congenital cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
1786417
Concept ID:
C5543344
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-80 with or without congenital cardiomyopathy (IMD80) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder with variable manifestations. One patient with infantile-onset of chronic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection associated with severely decreased NK cells has been reported. Another family with 3 affected fetuses showing restrictive cardiomyopathy and hypoplasia of the spleen and thymus has also been reported (summary by Baxley et al., 2021).
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794200
Concept ID:
C5561990
Disease or Syndrome
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome (BRENS) is an autosomal recessive complex ciliopathy with multisystemic manifestations. The most common presentation is severe neonatal cholestasis that progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Most patients have additional clinical features suggestive of a ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly, hydrocephalus, retinal abnormalities, and situs inversus. Additional features of the syndrome may include congenital cardiac defects, echogenic kidneys with renal failure, ocular abnormalities, joint hyperextensibility, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients have global developmental delay. Brain imaging typically shows dilated ventricles, hypomyelination, and white matter abnormalities, although some patients have been described with abnormal pituitary development (summary by Shaheen et al., 2020 and David et al., 2020).
Immunodeficiency 97 with autoinflammation
MedGen UID:
1802936
Concept ID:
C5676946
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-97 with autoinflammation (IMD97) is an autosomal recessive complex immunologic disorder with variable features. Affected individuals present in the first decade of life with inflammatory interstitial lung disease or colitis due to abnormal tissue infiltration by activated T cells. Patients develop autoimmune cytopenias and may have lymphadenopathy; 1 reported patient had features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH; see FHL1, 267700). Some patients may have recurrent infections associated with mild lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and NK cell dysfunction. Immunologic workup indicates signs of significant immune dysregulation with elevation of inflammatory serum markers, variable immune cell defects involving neutrophils, NK cells, and myeloid cells, and disrupted levels of T regulatory cells (Tregs). Two unrelated patients have been reported (summary by Takeda et al., 2019 and Thian et al., 2020).
Iron overload, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
1814970
Concept ID:
C5703292
Finding
Iron overload (IO) is characterized by the onset of increased systemic iron levels apparent in mid-adulthood. Laboratory studies show increased serum ferritin, normal or high transferrin saturation, increased liver iron content, and inappropriately low or normal levels of hepcidin. Presence of a BMP6 mutation confers susceptibility to the disorder, but additional factors, including alcohol consumption, increased body weight, and possibly HFE gene (613609) variants, may contribute to the severity of the manifestations (Daher et al., 2016; Piubelli et al., 2017).
Liver disease, severe congenital
MedGen UID:
1823968
Concept ID:
C5774195
Disease or Syndrome
Severe congenital liver disease (SCOLIV) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of progressive hepatic dysfunction usually in the first years of life. Affected individuals show feeding difficulties with failure to thrive and features such as jaundice, hepatomegaly, and abdominal distension. Laboratory workup is consistent with hepatic insufficiency and may also show coagulation defects, anemia, or metabolic disturbances. Cirrhosis and hypernodularity are commonly observed on liver biopsy. Many patients die of liver failure in early childhood (Moreno Traspas et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Mantovani A, Csermely A, Castagna A, Antinori E, Danese E, Zusi C, Sani E, Ravaioli F, Colecchia A, Maffeis C, Valenti L, Girelli D, Targher G
Liver Int 2023 Nov;43(11):2434-2444. Epub 2023 Jun 14 doi: 10.1111/liv.15649. PMID: 37312616
Ghanim H, Abuaysheh S, Hejna J, Green K, Batra M, Makdissi A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona P
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 Apr 1;105(4) doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa057. PMID: 32044999
Kataria Y, Wu Y, Horskjær PH, Mandrup-Poulsen T, Ellervik C
Nutrients 2018 May 15;10(5) doi: 10.3390/nu10050621. PMID: 29762515Free PMC Article
Lyseng-Williamson KA, Keating GM
Drugs 2009;69(6):739-56. doi: 10.2165/00003495-200969060-00007. PMID: 19405553
Pieracci FM, Barie PS
Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2005;6 Suppl 1:S41-6. doi: 10.1089/sur.2005.6.s1-41. PMID: 19284357

Diagnosis

Fonseca Ó, Ramos AS, Gomes LTS, Gomes MS, Moreira AC
Molecules 2023 Nov 22;28(23) doi: 10.3390/molecules28237707. PMID: 38067440Free PMC Article
Kathamuthu GR, Rajamanickam A, Sridhar R, Baskaran D, Babu S
Front Immunol 2022;13:999614. Epub 2022 Oct 20 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.999614. PMID: 36341407Free PMC Article
Comas F, Latorre J, Ortega F, Arnoriaga Rodríguez M, Lluch A, Sabater M, Rius F, Ribas X, Costas M, Ricart W, Lecube A, Fernández-Real JM, Moreno-Navarrete JM
Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Feb;45(2):415-426. Epub 2020 Oct 10 doi: 10.1038/s41366-020-00696-z. PMID: 33040077
Kataria Y, Wu Y, Horskjær PH, Mandrup-Poulsen T, Ellervik C
Nutrients 2018 May 15;10(5) doi: 10.3390/nu10050621. PMID: 29762515Free PMC Article
Skikne BS
Am J Hematol 2008 Nov;83(11):872-5. doi: 10.1002/ajh.21279. PMID: 18821709

Therapy

Ghanim H, Abuaysheh S, Hejna J, Green K, Batra M, Makdissi A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona P
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 Apr 1;105(4) doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa057. PMID: 32044999
Kataria Y, Wu Y, Horskjær PH, Mandrup-Poulsen T, Ellervik C
Nutrients 2018 May 15;10(5) doi: 10.3390/nu10050621. PMID: 29762515Free PMC Article
Akter S, Nanri A, Kuwahara K, Matsushita Y, Nakagawa T, Konishi M, Honda T, Yamamoto S, Hayashi T, Noda M, Mizoue T
J Diabetes Investig 2017 Jul;8(4):462-470. Epub 2017 Mar 6 doi: 10.1111/jdi.12617. PMID: 28060459Free PMC Article
Fairweather-Tait SJ, Wawer AA, Gillings R, Jennings A, Myint PK
Mech Ageing Dev 2014 Mar-Apr;136-137:22-8. Epub 2013 Nov 22 doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2013.11.005. PMID: 24275120Free PMC Article
Lyseng-Williamson KA, Keating GM
Drugs 2009;69(6):739-56. doi: 10.2165/00003495-200969060-00007. PMID: 19405553

Prognosis

de Nooijer AH, Antonakos N, Markopoulou D, Grondman I, Kox M, Pickkers P, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Netea MG
Shock 2023 Mar 1;59(3):344-351. Epub 2022 Dec 2 doi: 10.1097/SHK.0000000000002063. PMID: 36455260Free PMC Article
Assimakopoulos SF, Mastronikolis S, DE Lastic AL, Aretha D, Papageorgiou D, Chalkidi T, Oikonomou I, Triantos C, Mouzaki A, Marangos M
In Vivo 2021 Jul-Aug;35(4):2483-2488. doi: 10.21873/invivo.12528. PMID: 34182534Free PMC Article
Comas F, Latorre J, Ortega F, Arnoriaga Rodríguez M, Lluch A, Sabater M, Rius F, Ribas X, Costas M, Ricart W, Lecube A, Fernández-Real JM, Moreno-Navarrete JM
Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Feb;45(2):415-426. Epub 2020 Oct 10 doi: 10.1038/s41366-020-00696-z. PMID: 33040077
Ghanim H, Abuaysheh S, Hejna J, Green K, Batra M, Makdissi A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona P
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 Apr 1;105(4) doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa057. PMID: 32044999
Akter S, Nanri A, Kuwahara K, Matsushita Y, Nakagawa T, Konishi M, Honda T, Yamamoto S, Hayashi T, Noda M, Mizoue T
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Clinical prediction guides

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