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Polyhydramnios

MedGen UID:
6936
Concept ID:
C0020224
Pathologic Function
Synonym: Polyhydramnios (disease)
SNOMED CT: Polyhydramnios (86203003); Hydramnios (86203003); Excessive liquor (86203003)
 
HPO: HP:0001561
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0004585

Definition

The presence of excess amniotic fluid in the uterus during pregnancy. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVPolyhydramnios

Conditions with this feature

Achondroplasia
MedGen UID:
1289
Concept ID:
C0001080
Congenital Abnormality
Achondroplasia is the most common cause of disproportionate short stature. Affected individuals have rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, macrocephaly, and characteristic facial features with frontal bossing and midface retrusion. In infancy, hypotonia is typical, and acquisition of developmental motor milestones is often both aberrant in pattern and delayed. Intelligence and life span are usually near normal, although craniocervical junction compression increases the risk of death in infancy. Additional complications include obstructive sleep apnea, middle ear dysfunction, kyphosis, and spinal stenosis.
Glycogen storage disease, type IV
MedGen UID:
6642
Concept ID:
C0017923
Disease or Syndrome
The clinical manifestations of glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) discussed in this entry span a continuum of different subtypes with variable ages of onset, severity, and clinical features. Clinical findings vary extensively both within and between families. The fatal perinatal neuromuscular subtype presents in utero with fetal akinesia deformation sequence, including decreased fetal movements, polyhydramnios, and fetal hydrops. Death usually occurs in the neonatal period. The congenital neuromuscular subtype presents in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, respiratory distress, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Death usually occurs in early infancy. Infants with the classic (progressive) hepatic subtype may appear normal at birth, but rapidly develop failure to thrive; hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, and progressive liver cirrhosis; hypotonia; and cardiomyopathy. Without liver transplantation, death from liver failure usually occurs by age five years. Children with the non-progressive hepatic subtype tend to present with hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, myopathy, and hypotonia; however, they are likely to survive without progression of the liver disease and may not show cardiac, skeletal muscle, or neurologic involvement. The childhood neuromuscular subtype is rare and the course is variable, ranging from onset in the second decade with a mild disease course to a more severe, progressive course resulting in death in the third decade.
Prader-Willi syndrome
MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present.
Achondrogenesis type II
MedGen UID:
66315
Concept ID:
C0220685
Congenital Abnormality
Achondrogenesis type II (ACG2) is characterized by severe micromelic dwarfism with small chest and prominent abdomen, incomplete ossification of the vertebral bodies, and disorganization of the costochondral junction. ACG2 is an autosomal dominant trait occurring mostly as new mutations. However, somatic and germline mosaicism have been reported (summary by Comstock et al., 2010).
Fryns syndrome
MedGen UID:
65088
Concept ID:
C0220730
Disease or Syndrome
Fryns syndrome is characterized by diaphragmatic defects (diaphragmatic hernia, eventration, hypoplasia, or agenesis); characteristic facial appearance (coarse facies, wide-set eyes, a wide and depressed nasal bridge with a broad nasal tip, long philtrum, low-set and anomalous ears, tented vermilion of the upper lip, wide mouth, and a small jaw); short distal phalanges of the fingers and toes (the nails may also be small); pulmonary hypoplasia; and associated anomalies (polyhydramnios, cloudy corneas and/or microphthalmia, orofacial clefting, renal dysplasia / renal cortical cysts, and/or malformations involving the brain, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, and/or genitalia). Survival beyond the neonatal period is rare. Data on postnatal growth and psychomotor development are limited; however, severe developmental delay and intellectual disability are common.
Miller Dieker syndrome
MedGen UID:
78538
Concept ID:
C0265219
Disease or Syndrome
PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression.
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome
MedGen UID:
120516
Concept ID:
C0265224
Disease or Syndrome
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS), or DA2A, is phenotypically similar to DA1. In addition to contractures of the hands and feet, FSS is characterized by oropharyngeal abnormalities, scoliosis, and a distinctive face that includes a very small oral orifice (often only a few millimeters in diameter at birth), puckered lips, and an H-shaped dimple of the chin; hence, FSS has been called 'whistling face syndrome.' The limb phenotypes of DA1 and FSS may be so similar that they can only be distinguished by the differences in facial morphology (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120).
Agnathia-otocephaly complex
MedGen UID:
78541
Concept ID:
C0265242
Congenital Abnormality
Agnathia-otocephaly is a rare condition characterized by mandibular hypoplasia or agnathia, ventromedial auricular malposition (melotia) and/or auricular fusion (synotia), and microstomia with oroglossal hypoplasia or aglossia. Holoprosencephaly is the most commonly identified association, but skeletal, genitourinary, and cardiovascular anomalies, and situs inversus have been reported. The disorder is almost always lethal (review by Faye-Petersen et al., 2006).
Achondrogenesis, type IA
MedGen UID:
78546
Concept ID:
C0265273
Congenital Abnormality
The term achondrogenesis has been used to characterize the most severe forms of chondrodysplasia in humans, invariably lethal before or shortly after birth. Achondrogenesis type I is a severe chondrodystrophy characterized radiographically by deficient ossification in the lumbar vertebrae and absent ossification in the sacral, pubic and ischial bones and clinically by stillbirth or early death (Maroteaux and Lamy, 1968; Langer et al., 1969). In addition to severe micromelia, there is a disproportionately large cranium due to marked edema of soft tissues. Classification of Achondrogenesis Achondrogenesis was traditionally divided into 2 types: type I (Parenti-Fraccaro) and type II (Langer-Saldino). Borochowitz et al. (1988) suggested that achondrogenesis type I of Parenti-Fraccaro should be classified into 2 distinct disorders: type IA, corresponding to the cases originally published by Houston et al. (1972) and Harris et al. (1972), and type IB (600972), corresponding to the case originally published by Fraccaro (1952). Analysis of the case reported by Parenti (1936) by Borochowitz et al. (1988) suggested the diagnosis of achondrogenesis type II, i.e., the Langer-Saldino type (200610). Type IA would be classified as lethal achondrogenesis, Houston-Harris type; type IB, lethal achondrogenesis, Fraccaro type; and type II, lethal achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis, Langer-Saldino type. Superti-Furga (1996) suggested that hypochondrogenesis should be considered separately from achondrogenesis type II because the phenotype can be much milder. Genetic Heterogeneity of Achondrogenesis Achondrogenesis type IB (ACG1B; 600972) is caused by mutation in the DTDST gene (606718), and achondrogenesis type II (ACG2; 200610) is caused by mutation in the COL2A1 gene (120140).
Achondrogenesis, type IB
MedGen UID:
78547
Concept ID:
C0265274
Congenital Abnormality
Clinical features of achondrogenesis type 1B (ACG1B) include extremely short limbs with short fingers and toes, hypoplasia of the thorax, protuberant abdomen, and hydropic fetal appearance caused by the abundance of soft tissue relative to the short skeleton. The face is flat, the neck is short, and the soft tissue of the neck may be thickened. Death occurs prenatally or shortly after birth.
Atelosteogenesis type I
MedGen UID:
82701
Concept ID:
C0265283
Congenital Abnormality
The FLNB disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild to severe. At the mild end are spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) syndrome and Larsen syndrome; at the severe end are the phenotypic continuum of atelosteogenesis types I (AOI) and III (AOIII) and Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD). SCT syndrome is characterized by postnatal disproportionate short stature, scoliosis and lordosis, clubfeet, hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia, carpal and tarsal synostosis, and vertebral fusions. Larsen syndrome is characterized by congenital dislocations of the hip, knee, and elbow; clubfeet (equinovarus or equinovalgus foot deformities); scoliosis and cervical kyphosis, which can be associated with a cervical myelopathy; short, broad, spatulate distal phalanges; distinctive craniofacies (prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, malar flattening, and widely spaced eyes); vertebral anomalies; and supernumerary carpal and tarsal bone ossification centers. Individuals with SCT syndrome and Larsen syndrome can have midline cleft palate and hearing loss. AOI and AOIII are characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism; dislocated hips, knees, and elbows; and clubfeet. AOI is lethal in the perinatal period. In individuals with AOIII, survival beyond the neonatal period is possible with intensive and invasive respiratory support. Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD) is a perinatal-lethal micromelic dwarfism characterized by flipper-like limbs (polysyndactyly with complete syndactyly of all fingers and toes, hypoplastic or absent first digits, and duplicated intermediate and distal phalanges), macrobrachycephaly, prominant forehead, hypertelorism, and exophthalmos. Occasional features include cleft palate, omphalocele, and cardiac and genitourinary anomalies. The radiographic features at mid-gestation are characteristic.
Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome
MedGen UID:
120537
Concept ID:
C0265342
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrocostomandibular syndrome (CCMS) is characterized mainly by severe micrognathia, rib defects, and mental retardation. A spectrum of rib gap defects have been reported ranging from a few dorsal rib segments to complete absence of ossification. In about half of the 65 reported cases to date, there is cerebral involvement including mental retardation, microcephaly, and histologic anomalies. Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive forms of the disorder have been described (Zeevaert et al., 2009). See CDG2G (611209) for a cerebrocostomandibular-like syndrome.
CHARGE association
MedGen UID:
75567
Concept ID:
C0265354
Disease or Syndrome
CHD7 disorder encompasses the entire phenotypic spectrum of heterozygous CHD7 pathogenic variants that includes CHARGE syndrome as well as subsets of features that comprise the CHARGE syndrome phenotype. The mnemonic CHARGE syndrome, introduced in the premolecular era, stands for coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies (including deafness). Following the identification of the genetic cause of CHD7 disorder, the phenotypic spectrum expanded to include cranial nerve anomalies, vestibular defects, cleft lip and/or palate, hypothyroidism, tracheoesophageal anomalies, brain anomalies, seizures, and renal anomalies. Life expectancy highly depends on the severity of manifestations; mortality can be high in the first few years when severe birth defects (particularly complex heart defects) are present and often complicated by airway and feeding issues. In childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, decreased life expectancy is likely related to a combination of residual heart defects, infections, aspiration or choking, respiratory issues including obstructive and central apnea, and possibly seizures. Despite these complications, the life expectancy for many individuals can be normal.
Pallister-Killian syndrome
MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but is also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
Pyloric atresia
MedGen UID:
75601
Concept ID:
C0266159
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital secretory diarrhea, chloride type
MedGen UID:
78631
Concept ID:
C0267662
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital secretory chloride diarrhea is an autosomal recessive form of severe chronic diarrhea characterized by excretion of large amounts of watery stool containing high levels of chloride, resulting in dehydration, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. The electrolyte disorder resembles the renal disorder Bartter syndrome (see 607364), except that chloride diarrhea is not associated with calcium level abnormalities (summary by Choi et al., 2009). Genetic Heterogeneity of Diarrhea Other forms of diarrhea include DIAR2 (251850), caused by mutation in the MYO5B gene (606540) on 18q21; DIAR3 (270420), caused by mutation in the SPINT2 gene (605124) on 19q13; DIAR4 (610370), caused by mutation in the NEUROG3 gene (604882) on 10q21; DIAR5 (613217), caused by mutation in the EPCAM gene (185535) on 2p21; DIAR6 (614616), caused by mutation in the GUCY2C gene (601330) on 12p12; DIAR7 (615863) caused by mutation in the DGAT1 gene (604900) on 8q24; DIAR8 (616868), caused by mutation in the SLC9A3 gene (182307) on 5p15; DIAR9 (618168), caused by mutation in the WNT2B gene (601968) on 1p13; DIAR10 (618183), caused by mutation in the PLVAP gene (607647) on 19p13; DIAR11 (618662), caused by deletion of the intestine critical region (ICR) on chromosome 16p13, resulting in loss of expression of the flanking gene PERCC1 (618656); and DIAR12 (619445), caused by mutation in the STX3 gene (600876) on 11q12.
Infantile hypophosphatasia
MedGen UID:
75677
Concept ID:
C0268412
Disease or Syndrome
Hypophosphatasia is characterized by defective mineralization of growing or remodeling bone, with or without root-intact tooth loss, in the presence of low activity of serum and bone alkaline phosphatase. Clinical features range from stillbirth without mineralized bone at the severe end to pathologic fractures of the lower extremities in later adulthood at the mild end. While the disease spectrum is a continuum, seven clinical forms of hypophosphatasia are usually recognized based on age at diagnosis and severity of features: Perinatal (severe): characterized by pulmonary insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Perinatal (benign): prenatal skeletal manifestations that slowly resolve into one of the milder forms. Infantile: onset between birth and age six months of clinical features of rickets without elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Severe childhood (juvenile): variable presenting features progressing to rickets. Mild childhood: low bone mineral density for age, increased risk of fracture, and premature loss of primary teeth with intact roots. Adult: characterized by stress fractures and pseudofractures of the lower extremities in middle age, sometimes associated with early loss of adult dentition. Odontohypophosphatasia: characterized by premature exfoliation of primary teeth and/or severe dental caries without skeletal manifestations.
Chondrodysplasia punctata 2 X-linked dominant
MedGen UID:
79381
Concept ID:
C0282102
Disease or Syndrome
The findings in X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 2 (CDPX2) range from fetal demise with multiple malformations and severe growth retardation to much milder manifestations, including females with no recognizable physical abnormalities. At least 95% of live-born individuals with CDPX2 are female. Characteristic features include growth deficiency; distinctive craniofacial appearance; chondrodysplasia punctata (stippling of the epiphyses of the long bones, vertebrae, trachea, and distal ends of the ribs); often asymmetric rhizomelic shortening of limbs; scoliosis; linear or blotchy scaling ichthyosis in the newborn; later appearance of linear or whorled atrophic patches involving hair follicles (follicular atrophoderma); coarse hair with scarring alopecia; and cataracts.
Bifunctional peroxisomal enzyme deficiency
MedGen UID:
137982
Concept ID:
C0342870
Pathologic Function
D-bifunctional protein deficiency is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. See also peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency (264470), caused by mutation in the ACOX1 gene (609751) on chromosome 17q25. The clinical manifestations of these 2 deficiencies are similar to those of disorders of peroxisomal assembly, including X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD; 300100), Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (see 214100) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD; see 601539) (Watkins et al., 1995). DBP deficiency has been classified into 3 subtypes depending upon the deficient enzyme activity. Type I is a deficiency of both 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase; type II is a deficiency of hydratase activity alone; and type III is a deficiency of dehydrogenase activity alone. Virtually all patients with types I, II, and III have a severe phenotype characterized by infantile-onset of hypotonia, seizures, and abnormal facial features, and most die before age 2 years. McMillan et al. (2012) proposed a type IV deficiency on the basis of less severe features; these patients have a phenotype reminiscent of Perrault syndrome (PRLTS1; 233400). Pierce et al. (2010) noted that Perrault syndrome and DBP deficiency overlap clinically and suggested that DBP deficiency may be underdiagnosed.
Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome
MedGen UID:
95931
Concept ID:
C0392475
Disease or Syndrome
ESCO2 spectrum disorder is characterized by mild-to-severe prenatal growth restriction, limb malformations (which can include bilateral symmetric tetraphocomelia or hypomelia caused by mesomelic shortening), hand anomalies (including oligodactyly, thumb aplasia or hypoplasia, and syndactyly), elbow and knee flexion contractures (involving elbows, wrists, knees, ankles, and feet [talipes equinovarus]), and craniofacial abnormalities (which can include bilateral cleft lip and/or cleft palate, micrognathia, widely spaced eyes, exophthalmos, downslanted palpebral fissures, malar flattening, and underdeveloped ala nasi), ear malformation, and corneal opacities. Intellectual disability (ranging from mild to severe) is common. Early mortality is common among severely affected pregnancies and newborns; mildly affected individuals may survive to adulthood.
Severe X-linked myotubular myopathy
MedGen UID:
98374
Concept ID:
C0410203
Congenital Abnormality
X-linked myotubular myopathy (X-MTM), also known as myotubular myopathy (MTM), is characterized by muscle weakness that ranges from severe to mild. Approximately 80% of affected males present with severe (classic) X-MTM characterized by polyhydramnios, decreased fetal movement, and neonatal weakness, hypotonia, and respiratory failure. Motor milestones are significantly delayed and most individuals fail to achieve independent ambulation. Weakness is profound and often involves facial and extraocular muscles. Respiratory failure is nearly uniform, with most individuals requiring 24-hour ventilatory assistance. It is estimated that at least 25% of boys with severe X-MTM die in the first year of life, and those who survive rarely live into adulthood. Males with mild or moderate X-MTM (~20%) achieve motor milestones more quickly than males with the severe form; many ambulate independently, and may live into adulthood. Most require gastrostomy tubes and/or ventilator support. In all subtypes of X-MTM, the muscle disease is not obviously progressive. Female carriers of X-MTM are generally asymptomatic, although manifesting heterozygotes are increasingly being identified. In affected females, symptoms range from severe, generalized weakness presenting in childhood, with infantile onset similar to affected male patients, to mild (often asymmetric) weakness manifesting in adulthood. Affected adult females may experience progressive respiratory decline and ultimately require ventilatory support.
Schneckenbecken dysplasia
MedGen UID:
98475
Concept ID:
C0432194
Disease or Syndrome
Schneckenbecken dysplasia (SHNKND) is a perinatally lethal skeletal dysplasia. The German term 'Schneckenbecken' refers to the distinctive, snail-like appearance of the ilia that results from a medial bone projection from the inner iliac margin. Other hallmarks of the disorder include thoracic hypoplasia, severe flattening of the vertebral bodies, and short, thick long bones (summary by Hiraoka et al., 2007).
Type IV short rib polydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
96578
Concept ID:
C0432198
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). Patients with a clinical diagnosis of Beemer-Langer syndrome have been found to carry mutations in the IFT80 gene (611177); see SRTD2, 611263. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Opsismodysplasia
MedGen UID:
140927
Concept ID:
C0432219
Disease or Syndrome
Opsismodysplasia (OPSMD) is a rare skeletal dysplasia involving delayed bone maturation. Clinical signs observed at birth include short limbs, small hands and feet, relative macrocephaly with a large anterior fontanel, and characteristic craniofacial abnormalities including a prominent brow, depressed nasal bridge, a small anteverted nose, and a relatively long philtrum. Death in utero or secondary to respiratory failure during the first few years of life has been reported, but there can be long-term survival. Typical radiographic findings include shortened long bones with delayed epiphyseal ossification, severe platyspondyly, metaphyseal cupping, and characteristic abnormalities of the metacarpals and phalanges (summary by Below et al., 2013 and Fradet and Fitzgerald, 2017).
Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis
MedGen UID:
96590
Concept ID:
C0432268
Disease or Syndrome
Most females with osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) present with macrocephaly and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge, and prominent jaw). Approximately half have associated features including orofacial clefting and hearing loss, and a minority have some degree of developmental delay (usually mild). Radiographic findings of cranial sclerosis, sclerosis of long bones, and metaphyseal striations (in combination with macrocephaly) can be considered pathognomonic. Males can present with a mild or severe phenotype. Mildly affected males have clinical features similar to affected females, including macrocephaly, characteristic facial features, orofacial clefting, hearing loss, and mild-to-moderate learning delays. Mildly affected males are more likely than females to have congenital or musculoskeletal anomalies. Radiographic findings include cranial sclerosis and sclerosis of the long bones; Metaphyseal striations are more common in males who are mosaic for an AMER1 pathogenic variant. The severe phenotype manifests in males as a multiple-malformation syndrome, lethal in mid-to-late gestation, or in the neonatal period. Congenital malformations include skeletal defects (e.g., polysyndactyly, absent or hypoplastic fibulae), congenital heart disease, and brain, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Macrocephaly is not always present and longitudinal metaphyseal striations have not been observed in severely affected males, except for those who are mosaic for the AMER1 pathogenic variant.
Costello syndrome
MedGen UID:
108454
Concept ID:
C0587248
Disease or Syndrome
While the majority of individuals with Costello syndrome share characteristic findings affecting multiple organ systems, the phenotypic spectrum is wide, ranging from a milder or attenuated phenotype to a severe phenotype with early lethal complications. Costello syndrome is typically characterized by failure to thrive in infancy as a result of severe postnatal feeding difficulties; short stature; developmental delay or intellectual disability; coarse facial features (full lips, large mouth, full nasal tip); curly or sparse, fine hair; loose, soft skin with deep palmar and plantar creases; papillomata of the face and perianal region; diffuse hypotonia and joint laxity with ulnar deviation of the wrists and fingers; tight Achilles tendons; and cardiac involvement including: cardiac hypertrophy (usually typical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), congenital heart defect (usually valvar pulmonic stenosis), and arrhythmia (usually supraventricular tachycardia, especially chaotic atrial rhythm/multifocal atrial tachycardia or ectopic atrial tachycardia). Relative or absolute macrocephaly is typical, and postnatal cerebellar overgrowth can result in the development of a Chiari I malformation with associated anomalies including hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Individuals with Costello syndrome have an approximately 15% lifetime risk for malignant tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma in young children and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescents and young adults.
HEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF FETUS AND NEWBORN, RH-INDUCED
MedGen UID:
1789316
Concept ID:
C0748400
Disease or Syndrome
Rh-induced hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFNRH) occurs in pregnancies in which mothers who lack the D antigen (RhD) of the Rh blood group (111690) have been exposed to the RhD-positive red cells of the fetus. The resulting maternal autoantibodies cross the placenta and destroy fetal red cells (summary by Urbaniak and Greiss, 2000).
Peters plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
163204
Concept ID:
C0796012
Disease or Syndrome
Peters plus syndrome is characterized by anterior chamber eye anomalies, short limbs with broad distal extremities, characteristic facial features, cleft lip/palate, and variable developmental delay / intellectual disability. The most common anterior chamber defect is Peters' anomaly, consisting of central corneal clouding, thinning of the posterior cornea, and iridocorneal adhesions. Cataracts and glaucoma are common. Developmental delay is observed in about 80% of children; intellectual disability can range from mild to severe.
Perlman syndrome
MedGen UID:
162909
Concept ID:
C0796113
Disease or Syndrome
Perlman syndrome is an autosomal recessive congenital overgrowth syndrome with similarities to Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS; 130650). Affected children are large at birth, are hypotonic, and show organomegaly, characteristic facial dysmorphisms (inverted V-shaped upper lip, prominent forehead, deep-set eyes, broad and flat nasal bridge, and low-set ears), renal anomalies (nephromegaly and hydronephrosis), frequent neurodevelopmental delay, and high neonatal mortality. Perlman syndrome is associated with a high risk of Wilms tumor, with a 64% incidence in infants surviving beyond the neonatal period. The tumor is diagnosed at an earlier age in these individuals compared with sporadic cases (less than 2 years and 3-4 years of age, respectively), and there is a high frequency of bilateral tumors (55%). Histologic examination of the kidneys in children with Perlman syndrome shows frequent nephroblastomatosis, which is a precursor lesion for Wilms tumor (summary by Astuti et al., 2012).
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
162917
Concept ID:
C0796154
Disease or Syndrome
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) is characterized by pre- and postnatal macrosomia; distinctive craniofacial features (including macrocephaly, coarse facial features, macrostomia, macroglossia, and palatal abnormalities); and commonly, mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without structural brain anomalies. Other variable findings include supernumerary nipples, diastasis recti / umbilical hernia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, genitourinary defects, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Skeletal anomalies can include vertebral fusion, scoliosis, rib anomalies, and congenital hip dislocation. Hand anomalies can include large hands and postaxial polydactyly. Affected individuals are at increased risk for embryonal tumors including Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, adrenal neuroblastoma, gonadoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and medulloblastoma.
Bohring-Opitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
208678
Concept ID:
C0796232
Disease or Syndrome
Bohring-Opitz syndrome (BOS) is characterized by distinctive facial features and posture, growth failure, variable but usually severe intellectual disability, and variable anomalies. The facial features may include microcephaly or trigonocephaly / prominent (but not fused) metopic ridge, hypotonic facies with full cheeks, synophrys, glabellar and eyelid nevus flammeus (simplex), prominent globes, widely set eyes, palate anomalies, and micrognathia. The BOS posture, which is most striking in early childhood and often becomes less apparent with age, is characterized by flexion at the elbows with ulnar deviation and flexion of the wrists and metacarpophalangeal joints. Feeding difficulties in early childhood, including cyclic vomiting, have a significant impact on overall health; feeding tends to improve with age. Seizures are common and typically responsive to standard epileptic medications. Minor cardiac anomalies and transient bradycardia and apnea may be present. Affected individuals may experience recurrent infections, which also tend to improve with age. Isolated case reports suggest that individuals with BOS are at greater risk for Wilms tumor than the general population, but large-scale epidemiologic studies have not been conducted.
Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome
MedGen UID:
266149
Concept ID:
C1275081
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by cardiac abnormalities (pulmonic stenosis and other valve dysplasias, septal defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rhythm disturbances), distinctive craniofacial appearance, and cutaneous abnormalities (including xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, keratosis pilaris, ulerythema ophryogenes, eczema, pigmented moles, hemangiomas, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis). The hair is typically sparse, curly, fine or thick, woolly or brittle; eyelashes and eyebrows may be absent or sparse. Nails may be dystrophic or fast growing. Some form of neurologic and/or cognitive delay (ranging from mild to severe) is seen in all affected individuals. Neoplasia, mostly acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been reported in some individuals.
Fetal akinesia deformation sequence 1
MedGen UID:
220903
Concept ID:
C1276035
Disease or Syndrome
The fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) refers to a clinically and genetically heterogeneous constellation of features including fetal akinesia, intrauterine growth retardation, arthrogryposis, and developmental anomalies, including lung hypoplasia, cleft palate, and cryptorchidism (Vogt et al., 2009). It shows phenotypic overlap with the lethal form of multiple pterygium syndrome (see 253290). Genetic Heterogeneity of Fetal Akinesia Deformation Sequence FADS2 (618388) is caused by mutation in the RAPSN gene (601592), FADS3 (618389) is caused by mutation in the DOK7 gene (618389), and FADS4 (618393) is caused by mutation in the NUP88 gene (602552). As mutations in the MUSK, RAPSN, and DOK7 genes have been associated with congenital myasthenic syndromes (see, e.g., CMS1A, 601462), the disorders in these patients likely represent extreme phenotypes of CMS (Vogt et al., 2009).
Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase deficiency
MedGen UID:
713858
Concept ID:
C1291561
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase deficiency (PAICSD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and early neonatal death (Pelet et al., 2019).
Thanatophoric dysplasia, type 2
MedGen UID:
226975
Concept ID:
C1300257
Disease or Syndrome
Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is a short-limb skeletal dysplasia that is usually lethal in the perinatal period. TD is divided into subtypes: TD type I is characterized by micromelia with bowed femurs and, uncommonly, the presence of craniosynostosis of varying severity. TD type II is characterized by micromelia with straight femurs and uniform presence of moderate-to-severe craniosynostosis with cloverleaf skull deformity. Other features common to type I and type II include: short ribs, narrow thorax, relative macrocephaly, distinctive facial features, brachydactyly, hypotonia, and redundant skin folds along the limbs. Most affected infants die of respiratory insufficiency shortly after birth. Rare long-term survivors have been reported.
Hyperparathyroidism, transient neonatal
MedGen UID:
722059
Concept ID:
C1300287
Disease or Syndrome
Transient neonatal hyperparathyroidism is characterized by interference with placental maternal-fetal calcium transport, causing fetal calcium deficiency resulting in hyperparathyroidism and metabolic bone disease. Because 80% of calcium is transferred during the third trimester, abnormalities may not be detected on second-trimester ultrasounds. Affected infants present at birth with prenatal fractures, shortened ribs, and bowing of long bones, as well as respiratory and feeding difficulties. Postnatal recovery or improvement is observed once calcium is provided orally, with most patients showing complete resolution of skeletal abnormalities by 2 years of age (Suzuki et al., 2018).
HEC syndrome
MedGen UID:
331549
Concept ID:
C1833607
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome that is characterized by communicating hydrocephalus, endocardial fibroelastosis and congenital cataracts. It has been described in two children, both of whom died a few months after birth (the first as a result of a respiratory infection and the second due to cardiac complications). The etiology of the syndrome is unknown but a viral or genetic origin has been proposed.
Platyspondylic dysplasia, Torrance type
MedGen UID:
331974
Concept ID:
C1835437
Disease or Syndrome
The Torrance type of platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia (PLSDT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by varying platyspondyly, short ribs with anterior cupping, hypoplasia of the lower ilia with broad ischial and pubic bones, and shortening of the tubular bones with splayed and cupped metaphyses. Histology of the growth plate typically shows focal hypercellularity with slightly enlarged chondrocytes in the resting cartilage and relatively well-preserved columnar formation and ossification at the chondroosseous junction. Though generally lethal in the perinatal period, longer survival has been reported (summary by Zankl et al., 2005).
Al-Gazali syndrome
MedGen UID:
373020
Concept ID:
C1836121
Disease or Syndrome
Al-Gazali syndrome (ALGAZ) is characterized by prenatal growth retardation, skeletal anomalies including joint contractures, camptodactyly, and bilateral talipes equinovarus, small mouth, anterior segment eye anomalies, and early lethality (summary by Ben-Mahmoud et al., 2018).
Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome
MedGen UID:
324839
Concept ID:
C1837610
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) encompasses several forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis. Although most neonates with ARCI are collodion babies, the clinical presentation and severity of ARCI may vary significantly, ranging from harlequin ichthyosis, the most severe and often fatal form, to lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and (nonbullous) congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). These phenotypes are now recognized to fall on a continuum; however, the phenotypic descriptions are clinically useful for clarification of prognosis and management. Infants with harlequin ichthyosis are usually born prematurely and are encased in thick, hard, armor-like plates of cornified skin that severely restrict movement. Life-threatening complications in the immediate postnatal period include respiratory distress, feeding problems, and systemic infection. Collodion babies are born with a taut, shiny, translucent or opaque membrane that encases the entire body and lasts for days to weeks. LI and CIE are seemingly distinct phenotypes: classic, severe LI with dark brown, plate-like scale with no erythroderma and CIE with finer whiter scale and underlying generalized redness of the skin. Affected individuals with severe involvement can have ectropion, eclabium, scarring alopecia involving the scalp and eyebrows, and palmar and plantar keratoderma. Besides these major forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis, a few rare subtypes have been recognized, such as bathing suit ichthyosis, self-improving collodion ichthyosis, or ichthyosis-prematurity syndrome.
CODAS syndrome
MedGen UID:
333031
Concept ID:
C1838180
Disease or Syndrome
CODAS is an acronym for cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies. CODAS syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by a distinctive constellation of features that includes developmental delay, craniofacial anomalies, cataracts, ptosis, median nasal groove, delayed tooth eruption, hearing loss, short stature, delayed epiphyseal ossification, metaphyseal hip dysplasia, and vertebral coronal clefts (summary by Strauss et al., 2015).
X-linked lethal multiple pterygium syndrome
MedGen UID:
374225
Concept ID:
C1839440
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is a rare, genetic, developmental defect during embryogenesis characterized by the typical lethal multiple pterygium syndrome presentation (comprising of multiple pterygia, severe arthrogryposis, cleft palate, cystic hygromata and/or fetal hydrops, skeletal abnormalities and fetal death in the 2nd or 3rd trimester) with an X-linked pattern of inheritance.
Paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14
MedGen UID:
330856
Concept ID:
C1842466
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic disease with characteristics of polyhydramnios (mostly due to placentomegaly), fetal macrosomia, abdominal wall defects, skeletal abnormalities (including bell-shaped thorax, coat-hanger appearance of the ribs and decreased mid to wide thorax diameter ratio in infancy), feeding difficulties and impaired swallowing, dysmorphic features (hairy forehead, full cheeks, protruding philtrum, micrognathia), developmental delay and intellectual disability. Additional features may include kyphoscoliosis, joint contractures, diastasis recti, and muscular hypotonia. There is increased risk of hepatoblastoma. The syndrome is an imprinting disorder involving genes within the imprinted region of chromosome 14q32.
Gaucher disease perinatal lethal
MedGen UID:
374996
Concept ID:
C1842704
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease (GD) encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from a perinatal lethal disorder to an asymptomatic type. The identification of three major clinical types (1, 2, and 3) and two other subtypes (perinatal-lethal and cardiovascular) is useful in determining prognosis and management. GD type 1 is characterized by the presence of clinical or radiographic evidence of bone disease (osteopenia, focal lytic or sclerotic lesions, and osteonecrosis), hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, lung disease, and the absence of primary central nervous system disease. GD types 2 and 3 are characterized by the presence of primary neurologic disease; in the past, they were distinguished by age of onset and rate of disease progression, but these distinctions are not absolute. Disease with onset before age two years, limited psychomotor development, and a rapidly progressive course with death by age two to four years is classified as GD type 2. Individuals with GD type 3 may have onset before age two years, but often have a more slowly progressive course, with survival into the third or fourth decade. The perinatal-lethal form is associated with ichthyosiform or collodion skin abnormalities or with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The cardiovascular form is characterized by calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, mild splenomegaly, corneal opacities, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Cardiopulmonary complications have been described with all the clinical subtypes, although varying in frequency and severity.
Niemann-Pick disease, type C2
MedGen UID:
335942
Concept ID:
C1843366
Disease or Syndrome
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a slowly progressive lysosomal disorder whose principal manifestations are age dependent. The manifestations in the perinatal period and infancy are predominantly visceral, with hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, and (in some instances) pulmonary infiltrates. From late infancy onward, the presentation is dominated by neurologic manifestations. The youngest children may present with hypotonia and developmental delay, with the subsequent emergence of ataxia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and, in some individuals, epileptic seizures, dystonia, and gelastic cataplexy. Although cognitive impairment may be subtle at first, it eventually becomes apparent that affected individuals have a progressive dementia. Older teenagers and young adults may present predominantly with apparent early-onset dementia or psychiatric manifestations; however, careful examination usually identifies typical neurologic signs.
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
334413
Concept ID:
C1843478
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome-2 (LCCS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe multiple congenital contractures with muscle wasting and atrophy. Micrognathia and other craniofacial anomalies, including cleft palate, as well as cardiac defects and enlarged urinary bladder at birth have also been reported. Hydrops fetalis and multiple pterygia are absent. Most patients have died in the neonatal period, although 2 survived to early adolescence (Landau et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of LCCS, see LCCS1 (253310).
Heterotaxy, visceral, 1, X-linked
MedGen UID:
336609
Concept ID:
C1844020
Disease or Syndrome
Heterotaxy Heterotaxy ('heter' meaning 'other' and 'taxy' meaning 'arrangement'), or situs ambiguus, is a developmental condition characterized by randomization of the placement of visceral organs, including the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and stomach. The organs are oriented randomly with respect to the left-right axis and with respect to one another (Srivastava, 1997). Heterotaxy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Multiple Types of Congenital Heart Defects Congenital heart defects (CHTD) are among the most common congenital defects, occurring with an incidence of 8/1,000 live births. The etiology of CHTD is complex, with contributions from environmental exposure, chromosomal abnormalities, and gene defects. Some patients with CHTD also have cardiac arrhythmias, which may be due to the anatomic defect itself or to surgical interventions (summary by van de Meerakker et al., 2011). Reviews Obler et al. (2008) reviewed published cases of double-outlet right ventricle and discussed etiology and associations. Genetic Heterogeneity of Visceral Heterotaxy See also HTX2 (605376), caused by mutation in the CFC1 gene (605194) on chromosome 2q21; HTX3 (606325), which maps to chromosome 6q21; HTX4 (613751), caused by mutation in the ACVR2B gene (602730) on chromosome 3p22; HTX5 (270100), caused by mutation in the NODAL gene (601265) on chromosome 10q22; HTX6 (614779), caused by mutation in the CCDC11 gene (614759) on chromosome 18q21; HTX7 (616749), caused by mutation in the MMP21 gene (608416) on chromosome 10q26; HTX8 (617205), caused by mutation in the PKD1L1 gene (609721) on chromosome 7p12; HTX9 (618948), caused by mutation in the MNS1 gene (610766) on chromosome 15q21; HTX10 (619607), caused by mutation in the CFAP52 gene (609804) on chromosome 17p13; HTX11 (619608), caused by mutation in the CFAP45 gene (605152) on chromosome 1q23; and HTX12 (619702), caused by mutation in the CIROP gene (619703) on chromosome 14q11. Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Types of Congenital Heart Defects An X-linked form of CHTD, CHTD1, is caused by mutation in the ZIC3 gene on chromosome Xq26. CHTD2 (614980) is caused by mutation in the TAB2 gene (605101) on chromosome 6q25. A form of nonsyndromic congenital heart defects associated with cardiac rhythm and conduction disturbances (CHTD3; 614954) has been mapped to chromosome 9q31. CHTD4 (615779) is caused by mutation in the NR2F2 gene (107773) on chromosome 15q26. CHTD5 (617912) is caused by mutation in the GATA5 gene (611496) on chromosome 20q13. CHTD6 (613854) is caused by mutation in the GDF1 gene (602880) on chromosome 19p13. CHTD7 (618780) is caused by mutation in the FLT4 gene (136352) on chromosome 5q35.
X-linked myotubular myopathy-abnormal genitalia syndrome
MedGen UID:
335354
Concept ID:
C1846169
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked myotubular myopathy-abnormal genitalia syndrome is a rare chromosomal anomaly, partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome X, characterized by a combination of clinical manifestations of X-linked myotubular myopathy and a 46,XY disorder of sex development. Patients present with severe form of congenital myopathy and abnormal male genitalia.
Fetal akinesia syndrome, X-linked
MedGen UID:
341166
Concept ID:
C1848171
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2A
MedGen UID:
376379
Concept ID:
C1848526
Disease or Syndrome
TSEN54 pontocerebellar hypoplasia (TSEN54-PCH) comprises three PCH phenotypes (PCH2, 4, and 5) that share characteristic neuroradiologic and neurologic findings. The three PCH phenotypes (which differ mainly in life expectancy) were considered to be distinct entities before their molecular basis was known. PCH2. Children usually succumb before age ten years (those with PCH4 and 5 usually succumb as neonates). Children with PCH2 have generalized clonus, uncoordinated sucking and swallowing, impaired cognitive development, lack of voluntary motor development, cortical blindness, and an increased risk for rhabdomyolysis during severe infections. Epilepsy is present in approximately 50%. PCH4. Neonates often have seizures, multiple joint contractures ("arthrogryposis"), generalized clonus, and central respiratory impairment. PCH5 resembles PCH4 and has been described in one family.
Radiculoneuropathy, fatal neonatal
MedGen UID:
376592
Concept ID:
C1849471
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia
MedGen UID:
340355
Concept ID:
C1849554
Congenital Abnormality
A rare developmental disorder involving the lung and characterized by pulmonary subpleural, interlobar, perivascular, and peribronchial lymphatic dilatation.
Polysyndactyly-cardiac malformation syndrome
MedGen UID:
337895
Concept ID:
C1849719
Congenital Abnormality
Syndrome with characteristics of polysyndactyly, hexadactyly (duplication of the first toe) and complex cardiac malformation (including atrial and ventricular septal defect, single ventricle, aortic dextroposition, or dilation of the right heart). It has been described in six patients from three unrelated families. Other manifestations were present in some patients (i.e. facial dysmorphism, hepatic cysts).
Polyhydramnios, chronic idiopathic
MedGen UID:
340402
Concept ID:
C1849720
Disease or Syndrome
Gillessen-Kaesbach-Nishimura syndrome
MedGen UID:
376653
Concept ID:
C1849762
Disease or Syndrome
Gillessen-Kaesbach-Nishimura syndrome is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by skeletal dysplasia, dysmorphic facial features, and variable visceral abnormalities, including polycystic kidneys, diaphragmatic hernia, lung hypoplasia, and congenital heart defects. It may be lethal in utero or early in life. The disorder is at the severe end of the phenotypic spectrum of congenital disorders of glycosylation (summary by Tham et al., 2016).
Nemaline myopathy 2
MedGen UID:
342534
Concept ID:
C1850569
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-2 (NEM2) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder with a wide range of severity. The most common clinical presentation is early-onset (in infancy or childhood) muscle weakness predominantly affecting proximal limb muscles. Muscle biopsy shows accumulation of Z-disc and thin filament proteins into aggregates named 'nemaline bodies' or 'nemaline rods,' usually accompanied by disorganization of the muscle Z discs. The clinical and histologic spectrum of entities caused by variants in the NEB gene is a continuum, ranging in severity. The distribution of weakness can vary from generalized muscle weakness, more pronounced in proximal limb muscles, to distal-only involvement, although neck flexor weakness appears to be rather consistent. Histologic patterns range from a severe usually nondystrophic disturbance of the myofibrillar pattern to an almost normal pattern, with or without nemaline bodies, sometimes combined with cores (summary by Lehtokari et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM3 (161800). Mutations in the NEB gene are the most common cause of nemaline myopathy (Lehtokari et al., 2006).
Congenital multicore myopathy with external ophthalmoplegia
MedGen UID:
340597
Concept ID:
C1850674
Disease or Syndrome
Multiminicore disease (MMD) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder defined pathologically by the presence of multiple areas of reduced mitochondrial oxidative activity running along a limited extent of the longitudinal axis of the muscle fiber, so-called 'minicores.' These regions show sarcomere disorganization and mitochondria depletion. Typically, no dystrophic signs, such as muscle fiber necrosis or regeneration or significant endomysial fibrosis, are present. MMD is a pathologic diagnosis and shows clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Affected individuals have clinical features of a congenital myopathy, including neonatal hypotonia, delayed motor development, and generalized muscle weakness and amyotrophy, which may progress slowly or remain stable (Ferreiro and Fardeau, 2002). Patients with recessive mutations in the RYR1 gene typically show severe congenital muscular dystrophy with ophthalmoplegia, although there is phenotypic variability. Some patients may present in utero with fetal akinesia, arthrogryposis, and lung hypoplasia resulting in fetal or perinatal death (McKie et al., 2014). Skeletal muscle biopsy of patients with recessive RYR1 mutations show variable features, including central cores (Jungbluth et al., 2007), congenital fiber-type disproportion (CFTD) (Monnier et al., 2009), and centronuclear myopathy (Wilmshurst et al., 2010).
Noonan syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
339908
Concept ID:
C1853120
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Genitopatellar syndrome
MedGen UID:
381208
Concept ID:
C1853566
Disease or Syndrome
KAT6B disorders include genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson variant of Ohdo syndrome (SBBYSS) which are part of a broad phenotypic spectrum with variable expressivity; individuals presenting with a phenotype intermediate between GPS and SBBYSS have been reported. Both phenotypes are characterized by some degree of global developmental delay / intellectual disability; hypotonia; genital abnormalities; and skeletal abnormalities including patellar hypoplasia/agenesis, flexion contractures of the knees and/or hips, and anomalies of the digits, spine, and/or ribs. Congenital heart defects, small bowel malrotation, feeding difficulties, slow growth, cleft palate, hearing loss, and dental anomalies have been observed in individuals with either phenotype.
Noonan syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
344290
Concept ID:
C1854469
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome
MedGen UID:
381473
Concept ID:
C1854678
Disease or Syndrome
In people with multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type, the webbing typically affects the skin of the neck, fingers, forearms, inner thighs, and backs of the knee. People with this type may also have arthrogryposis. A side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis) is sometimes seen. Affected individuals may also have respiratory distress at birth due to underdeveloped lungs (lung hypoplasia). People with multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type usually have distinctive facial features including droopy eyelids (ptosis), outside corners of the eyes that point downward (downslanting palpebral fissures), skin folds covering the inner corner of the eyes (epicanthal folds), a small jaw, and low-set ears. Males with this condition can have undescended testes (cryptorchidism). This condition does not worsen after birth, and affected individuals typically do not have muscle weakness later in life.\n\nThe two forms of multiple pterygium syndrome are differentiated by the severity of their symptoms. Multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type (sometimes referred to as Escobar syndrome) is the milder of the two types. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is fatal before birth or very soon after birth.\n\nLethal multiple pterygium syndrome has many of the same signs and symptoms as the Escobar type. In addition, affected fetuses may develop a buildup of excess fluid in the body (hydrops fetalis) or a fluid-filled sac typically found on the back of the neck (cystic hygroma). Individuals with this type have severe arthrogryposis. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is associated with abnormalities such as underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of the heart, lung, or brain; twisting of the intestines (intestinal malrotation); kidney abnormalities; an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate); and an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Affected individuals may also develop a hole in the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest cavity (the diaphragm), a condition called a congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is typically fatal in the second or third trimester of pregnancy.\n\nMultiple pterygium syndrome is a condition that is evident before birth with webbing of the skin (pterygium) at the joints and a lack of muscle movement (akinesia) before birth. Akinesia frequently results in muscle weakness and joint deformities called contractures that restrict the movement of joints (arthrogryposis). As a result, multiple pterygium syndrome can lead to further problems with movement such as arms and legs that cannot fully extend.
Lethal Kniest-like dysplasia
MedGen UID:
383721
Concept ID:
C1855605
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, lethal, congenital, chondrodysplasia disorder characterized by dumbbell-shaped long bones with markedly shortened diaphyses and metaphyseal irregularities associated with a 'Swiss cheese' appearance of the cartilage matrix, as well as distinctive changes in the growth plate and resting cartilage, resulting in death in the neonatal period. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1983.
Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome
MedGen UID:
343420
Concept ID:
C1855794
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare syndrome of congenital hypothyroidism with characteristics of thyroid dysgenesis, cleft palate and spiky hair, with or without choanal atresia, and bifid epiglottis. Facial dysmorphism and porencephaly have been reported in isolated cases. Only 8 patients from 6 families have been reported to date. Newborns present at birth with thyroid dysgenesis (in most cases athyreosis) leading to congenital hypothyroidism that manifests with lethargy, poor feeding, macroglossia, cold or mottled skin, persistent jaundice and umbilical hernia. All newborns have a cleft palate and spiky hair. The syndrome is due to homozygous loss-of-function missense mutations located within the forkhead domain of the FOXE1 gene (9q22), encoding thyroid transcription factor 2 (TTF-2). TTF-2 is expressed in the thyroid gland (as well as elsewhere like the tongue, epiglottis and palate) and is thought to play a crucial role in thyroid morphogenesis. The disease is inherited autosomal recessively.
Bartter disease type 2
MedGen UID:
343428
Concept ID:
C1855849
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Hydrolethalus syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
343455
Concept ID:
C1856016
Disease or Syndrome
Any hydrolethalus syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the HYLS1 gene.
Mullerian derivatives-lymphangiectasia-polydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
343489
Concept ID:
C1856159
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic disease characterized by the presence of Müllerian duct derivatives (rudimentary uterus, fallopian tubes, and atretic vagina) and other genital anomalies (cryptorchidism, micropenis) in male newborns, intestinal and pulmonary lymphangiectasia, protein-losing enteropathy, hepatomegaly, and renal anomalies. Postaxial polydactyly, facial dysmorphism (including broad nasal bridge, bulbous nasal tip, long and prominent upper lip with smooth philtrum, hypertrophic alveolar ridges, and mild retrognathia, among other features), and short limbs have also been described. The syndrome is fatal in infancy.
Fowler syndrome
MedGen UID:
384026
Concept ID:
C1856972
Disease or Syndrome
The proliferative vasculopathy and hydranencephaly-hydrocephaly syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive, usually prenatally lethal disorder characterized by hydranencephaly, a distinctive glomerular vasculopathy in the central nervous system and retina, and diffuse ischemic lesions of the brain stem, basal ganglia, and spinal cord with calcifications. It is usually diagnosed by ultrasound between 26 and 33 weeks' gestation (summary by Meyer et al., 2010). Rarely, affected individuals may survive, but are severely impaired with almost no neurologic development (Kvarnung et al., 2016).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 4
MedGen UID:
384027
Concept ID:
C1856974
Congenital Abnormality
TSEN54 pontocerebellar hypoplasia (TSEN54-PCH) comprises three PCH phenotypes (PCH2, 4, and 5) that share characteristic neuroradiologic and neurologic findings. The three PCH phenotypes (which differ mainly in life expectancy) were considered to be distinct entities before their molecular basis was known. PCH2. Children usually succumb before age ten years (those with PCH4 and 5 usually succumb as neonates). Children with PCH2 have generalized clonus, uncoordinated sucking and swallowing, impaired cognitive development, lack of voluntary motor development, cortical blindness, and an increased risk for rhabdomyolysis during severe infections. Epilepsy is present in approximately 50%. PCH4. Neonates often have seizures, multiple joint contractures ("arthrogryposis"), generalized clonus, and central respiratory impairment. PCH5 resembles PCH4 and has been described in one family.
Ventriculomegaly-cystic kidney disease
MedGen UID:
346584
Concept ID:
C1857423
Disease or Syndrome
Ventriculomegaly with cystic kidney disease is a severe autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by onset in utero of dilated cerebral ventricles and microscopic renal tubular cysts. The pregnancies of affected individuals are associated with increased alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Most affected pregnancies have been terminated (summary by Slavotinek et al., 2015). See also 602200 for a disorder characterized by ventriculomegaly and defects of the radius and kidney.
Yunis-Varon syndrome
MedGen UID:
341818
Concept ID:
C1857663
Disease or Syndrome
Yunis-Varon syndrome is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal defects, including cleidocranial dysplasia and digital anomalies, and severe neurologic involvement with neuronal loss. Enlarged cytoplasmic vacuoles are found in neurons, muscle, and cartilage. The disorder is usually lethal in infancy (summary by Campeau et al., 2013).
Circumvallate placenta syndrome
MedGen UID:
347062
Concept ID:
C1859089
Disease or Syndrome
Chondrodysplasia Blomstrand type
MedGen UID:
395189
Concept ID:
C1859148
Disease or Syndrome
Blomstrand chondrodysplasia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short limbs, polyhydramnios, hydrops fetalis, facial anomalies, increased bone density, and advanced skeletal maturation (summary by Loshkajian et al., 1997).
Noonan syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
349931
Concept ID:
C1860991
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Camptomelic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
354620
Concept ID:
C1861922
Disease or Syndrome
Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by distinctive facies, Pierre Robin sequence with cleft palate, shortening and bowing of long bones, and clubfeet. Other findings include laryngotracheomalacia with respiratory compromise and ambiguous genitalia or normal female external genitalia in most individuals with a 46,XY karyotype. Many affected infants die in the neonatal period; additional findings identified in long-term survivors include short stature, cervical spine instability with cord compression, progressive scoliosis, and hearing impairment.
Skeletal dysplasia and progressive central nervous system degeneration, lethal
MedGen UID:
400685
Concept ID:
C1865117
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter disease type 4a
MedGen UID:
355430
Concept ID:
C1865270
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal (or neonatal) forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Bartter disease type 1
MedGen UID:
355727
Concept ID:
C1866495
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Thanatophoric dysplasia type 1
MedGen UID:
358383
Concept ID:
C1868678
Disease or Syndrome
Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is a short-limb skeletal dysplasia that is usually lethal in the perinatal period. TD is divided into subtypes: TD type I is characterized by micromelia with bowed femurs and, uncommonly, the presence of craniosynostosis of varying severity. TD type II is characterized by micromelia with straight femurs and uniform presence of moderate-to-severe craniosynostosis with cloverleaf skull deformity. Other features common to type I and type II include: short ribs, narrow thorax, relative macrocephaly, distinctive facial features, brachydactyly, hypotonia, and redundant skin folds along the limbs. Most affected infants die of respiratory insufficiency shortly after birth. Rare long-term survivors have been reported.
Noonan syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
370589
Concept ID:
C1969057
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, and symptomatic epilepsy
MedGen UID:
370203
Concept ID:
C1970203
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic neurological disorder with characteristics of pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios, severe intractable epilepsy presenting in infancy, severe hypotonia, decreased muscle mass, global developmental delay, craniofacial dysmorphism (long face, large forehead, peaked eyebrows, broad nasal bridge, hypertelorism, large mouth with thick lips), and macrocephaly due to megalencephaly and hydrocephalus in most patients. Additional features that have been reported include cardiac anomalies like atrial septal defects, diabetes insipidus and nephrocalcinosis among others.
Endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
390740
Concept ID:
C2675227
Disease or Syndrome
Endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome is characterized by various anomalies of the endocrine, cerebral, and skeletal systems resulting in neonatal mortality.
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 7
MedGen UID:
436451
Concept ID:
C2675512
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma.
Compton-North congenital myopathy
MedGen UID:
393406
Concept ID:
C2675527
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital lethal myopathy, Compton-North type is a rare, genetic, lethal, non-dystrophic congenital myopathy disorder characterized, antenatally, by fetal akinesia, intrauterine growth restriction and polyhydramnios, and, following birth, by severe neonatal hypotonia, severe generalized skeletal, bulbar and respiratory muscle weakness, multiple flexion contractures, and normal creatine kinase serum levels. Ultrastructurally, loss of integrin alpha7, beta2-syntrophin and alpha-dystrobrevin from the muscle sarcolemma and disruption of sarcomeres with disorganization of the Z band are observed.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2B
MedGen UID:
393505
Concept ID:
C2676466
Disease or Syndrome
TSEN54 pontocerebellar hypoplasia (TSEN54-PCH) comprises three PCH phenotypes (PCH2, 4, and 5) that share characteristic neuroradiologic and neurologic findings. The three PCH phenotypes (which differ mainly in life expectancy) were considered to be distinct entities before their molecular basis was known. PCH2. Children usually succumb before age ten years (those with PCH4 and 5 usually succumb as neonates). Children with PCH2 have generalized clonus, uncoordinated sucking and swallowing, impaired cognitive development, lack of voluntary motor development, cortical blindness, and an increased risk for rhabdomyolysis during severe infections. Epilepsy is present in approximately 50%. PCH4. Neonates often have seizures, multiple joint contractures ("arthrogryposis"), generalized clonus, and central respiratory impairment. PCH5 resembles PCH4 and has been described in one family.
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 5C, with pyloric atresia
MedGen UID:
436922
Concept ID:
C2677349
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 5C with pyloric atresia (EBS5C) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by severe skin blistering at birth and congenital pyloric atresia. Death usually occurs in infancy. In reports of 2 consensus meetings for EB, Fine et al. (2000, 2008) considered EBSPA to be a 'basal' form of simplex EB because the electron microscopy shows that skin cleavage occurs in the lower basal level of the keratinocyte, just above the hemidesmosome. There is often decreased integration of keratin filaments with hemidesmosomes. See also forms of junctional EB with pyloric atresia, JEB5B (226730) and JEB6 (619817), caused by mutation in the ITGB4 (147557) and ITGA6 (147556) genes, respectively. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the subtypes of EBS, see EBS1A (131760).
Myopathy, congenital, with fiber-type disproportion, X-linked
MedGen UID:
440714
Concept ID:
C2749128
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
413028
Concept ID:
C2750732
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 39
MedGen UID:
414492
Concept ID:
C2751855
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-39 with leukodystrophy (DEE39) is an autosomal recessive neurologic syndrome characterized clinically by global developmental delay apparent in early infancy, early-onset seizures, hypotonia with poor motor function, and hypomyelination on brain imaging. Other features include absent speech and inability to walk; spasticity and hyperreflexia has also been reported. Although there is significant hypomyelination on brain imaging, the disorder was not classified as a primary leukodystrophy. The myelination defect was thought to stem from primary neuronal dysfunction due to impaired mitochondrial transport activity (summary by Wibom et al., 2009 and Falk et al., 2014). However, serial brain imaging in a patient with DEE39 by Kavanaugh et al. (2019) suggested that the mechanism of disease is consistent with a leukoaxonopathy type of leukodystrophy. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
ALG12-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443954
Concept ID:
C2931001
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes (CDGSs), are a group of hereditary multisystem disorders first recognized by Jaeken et al. (1980). The characteristic biochemical abnormality of CDGs is the hypoglycosylation of glycoproteins, which is routinely determined by isoelectric focusing (IEF) of serum transferrin. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there is a defect in the assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides or their transfer onto nascent glycoproteins, whereas type II CDG comprises defects of trimming, elongation, and processing of protein-bound glycans. CDG1G is a multisystem disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development, dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, male genital hypoplasia, coagulation abnormalities, and immune deficiency. More variable features include skeletal dysplasia, cardiac anomalies, ocular abnormalities, and sensorineural hearing loss. Some patients die in the early neonatal or infantile period, whereas others are mildly affected and live to adulthood (summary by Tahata et al., 2019). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Greenberg dysplasia
MedGen UID:
418969
Concept ID:
C2931048
Disease or Syndrome
Greenberg dysplasia (GRBGD), also known as hydrops-ectopic calcification-moth-eaten (HEM) skeletal dysplasia, is a rare autosomal recessive osteochondrodysplasia characterized by gross fetal hydrops, severe shortening of all long bones with a moth-eaten radiographic appearance, platyspondyly, disorganization of chondroosseous calcification, and ectopic ossification centers. It is lethal in utero. Patient fibroblasts show increased levels of cholesta-8,14-dien-3-beta-ol, suggesting a defect of sterol metabolism (summary by Konstantinidou et al., 2008). Herman (2003) reviewed the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and 6 disorders involving enzyme defects in postsqualene cholesterol biosynthesis: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS; 270400), desmosterolosis (602398), X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2; 302960), CHILD syndrome (308050), lathosterolosis (607330), and HEM skeletal dysplasia.
VACTERL association, X-linked, with or without hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
419019
Concept ID:
C2931228
Disease or Syndrome
VACTERL is an acronym for vertebral anomalies (similar to those of spondylocostal dysplasia), anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal anomalies (urethral atresia with hydronephrosis), and limb anomalies (hexadactyly, humeral hypoplasia, radial aplasia, and proximally placed thumb; see 192350). Some patients may have hydrocephalus, which is referred to as VACTERL-H (Briard et al., 1984).
Alveolar capillary dysplasia with pulmonary venous misalignment
MedGen UID:
755478
Concept ID:
C2960310
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is characterized histologically by failure of formation and ingrowth of alveolar capillaries that then do not make contact with alveolar epithelium, medial muscular thickening of small pulmonary arterioles with muscularization of the intraacinar arterioles, thickened alveolar walls, and anomalously situated pulmonary veins running alongside pulmonary arterioles and sharing the same adventitial sheath. Less common features include a reduced number of alveoli and a patchy distribution of the histopathologic changes. The disorder is associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and shows varying degrees of lability and severity (Boggs et al., 1994). Affected infants present with respiratory distress resulting from pulmonary hypertension in the early postnatal period, and the disease is uniformly fatal within the newborn period (Vassal et al., 1998). Additional features of ACDMPV include multiple congenital anomalies affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems, as well as disruption of the normal right-left asymmetry of intrathoracic or intraabdominal organs (Sen et al., 2004).
CBL-related disorder
MedGen UID:
462153
Concept ID:
C3150803
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder is a developmental disorder resembling Noonan syndrome (NS1; 163950) and characterized by facial dysmorphism, a wide spectrum of cardiac disease, reduced growth, variable cognitive deficits, and ectodermal and musculoskeletal anomalies. There is extensive phenotypic heterogeneity and variable expressivity (summary by Martinelli et al., 2010). Patients with heterozygous germline CBL mutations have an increased risk for certain malignancies, particularly juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML; 607785), as also seen in patients with Noonan syndrome (summary by Niemeyer et al., 2010).
Chromosome 4Q32.1-q32.2 triplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
462207
Concept ID:
C3150857
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
462224
Concept ID:
C3150874
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Vesicoureteral reflux 3
MedGen UID:
462277
Concept ID:
C3150927
Disease or Syndrome
Any vesicoureteral reflux in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SOX17 gene.
Steinert myotonic dystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
886881
Concept ID:
C3250443
Disease or Syndrome
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystem disorder that affects skeletal and smooth muscle as well as the eye, heart, endocrine system, and central nervous system. The clinical findings, which span a continuum from mild to severe, have been categorized into three somewhat overlapping phenotypes: mild, classic, and congenital. Mild DM1 is characterized by cataract and mild myotonia (sustained muscle contraction); life span is normal. Classic DM1 is characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, myotonia, cataract, and often cardiac conduction abnormalities; adults may become physically disabled and may have a shortened life span. Congenital DM1 is characterized by hypotonia and severe generalized weakness at birth, often with respiratory insufficiency and early death; intellectual disability is common.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477139
Concept ID:
C3275508
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-2 is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, neonatal hypotonia, early-onset myoclonic seizures, and variable congenital anomalies involving the central nervous, cardiac, and urinary systems. Some affected individuals die in infancy (summary by Johnston et al., 2012). The phenotype shows clinical variability with regard to severity and extraneurologic features. However, most patients present in infancy with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with developmental arrest and subsequent severe neurologic disability; these features are consistent with a form of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (summary by Belet et al., 2014, Kato et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of nomenclature and genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
481405
Concept ID:
C3279775
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, lack of psychomotor development, seizures, dysmorphic features, and variable congenital anomalies involving the cardiac, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems. Most affected individuals die before 3 years of age (summary by Maydan et al., 2011). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis; see GPIBD1 (610293). Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome MCAHS2 (300868) is caused by mutation in the PIGA gene (311770) on chromosome Xp22, MCAHS3 (615398) is caused by mutation in the PIGT gene (610272) on chromosome 20q13, and MCAHS4 (618548) is caused by mutation in the PIGQ gene (605754) on chromosome 16p13. Knaus et al. (2018) provided a review of the main clinical features of the different types of MCAHS, noting that patients with mutations in the PIGN, PIGA, and PIGT genes have distinct patterns of facial anomalies that can be detected by computer-assisted comparison. Some individuals with MCAHS may have variable increases in alkaline phosphatase (AP) as well as variable decreases in GPI-linked proteins that can be detected by flow cytometry. However, there was no clear correlation between AP levels or GPI-linked protein abnormalities and degree of neurologic involvement, mutation class, or gene involved. Knaus et al. (2018) concluded that a distinction between MCAHS and HPMRS1 (239300), which is also caused by mutation in genes involved in GPI biosynthesis, may be artificial and even inaccurate, and that all these disorders should be considered and classified together under the more encompassing term of 'GPI biosynthesis defects' (GPIBD).
Cognitive impairment with or without cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
482045
Concept ID:
C3280415
Disease or Syndrome
SCN8A-related epilepsy with encephalopathy is characterized by developmental delay, seizure onset in the first 18 months of life (mean 4 months), and intractable epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types (generalized tonic-clonic seizures, infantile spasms, and absence and focal seizures). Epilepsy syndromes can include Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, West syndrome, and epileptic encephalopathies (e.g., Dravet syndrome). Hypotonia and movement disorders including dystonia, ataxia, and choreoathetosis are common. Psychomotor development varies from normal prior to seizure onset (with subsequent slowing or regression after seizure onset) to abnormal from birth. Intellectual disability, present in all, ranges from mild to severe (in ~50% of affected individuals). Autistic features are noted in some. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) of unknown cause has been reported in approximately 10% of published cases. To date SCN8A-related epilepsy with encephalopathy has been reported in the literature in about 50 individuals.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliotic and deafness type
MedGen UID:
482790
Concept ID:
C3281160
Disease or Syndrome
FKBP14 kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (FKBP14-kEDS) is characterized by congenital muscle hypotonia and weakness (typically improving during childhood), progressive scoliosis, joint hypermobility, hyperelastic skin, gross motor developmental delay, myopathy, and hearing impairment. Most affected children achieve independent walking between ages two and four years. A decline of motor function in adulthood may be seen, but affected individuals are likely to be able to participate in activities of daily living in adulthood and maintain independent walking. Occasional features underlying systemic connective tissue involvement include aortic rupture and arterial dissection, subdural hygroma, insufficiency of cardiac valves, bluish sclerae, bladder diverticula, inguinal or umbilical herniae, and premature rupture of membranes during pregnancy. Rarer findings may include bifid uvula with submucous or frank cleft palate, speech/language delay without true cognitive impairment, and rectal prolapse.
Fanconi anemia complementation group F
MedGen UID:
854016
Concept ID:
C3469526
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Dysmorphism-conductive hearing loss-heart defect syndrome
MedGen UID:
767688
Concept ID:
C3554774
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital anomalies syndrome with characteristics of distinctive facial appearance (low frontal hairline, bilateral ptosis, prominent eyes, flat midface, broad, ?at nares, Cupid''s bow upper lip vermilion and small, low-set, posteriorly rotated ears), cleft palate, conductive hearing loss, heart defects (atrial or ventricular septal defect) and mild developmental delay/intellectual disability.
Actin accumulation myopathy
MedGen UID:
777997
Concept ID:
C3711389
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy is a form of congenital myopathy characterized by abnormal thread- or rod-like structures in muscle fibers on histologic examination ('nema' is Greek for 'thread'). The clinical phenotype is highly variable, with differing age at onset and severity. Muscle weakness typically involves proximal muscles, with involvement of the facial, bulbar, and respiratory muscles (Ilkovski et al., 2001). Attempts at classification of nemaline myopathies into clinical subtypes have been complicated by the overlap of clinical features and a continuous phenotypic spectrum of disease (North et al., 1997; Wallgren-Pettersson et al., 1999; Ryan et al., 2001; Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001). In general, 2 clinical groups can be readily distinguished: 'typical' and 'severe.' Typical nemaline myopathy is the most common form, presenting as infantile hypotonia and muscle weakness. It is slowly progressive or nonprogressive, and most adults achieve ambulation. The severe form of the disorder is characterized by absence of spontaneous movement or respiration at birth, arthrogryposis, and death in the first months of life. Much less commonly, late-childhood or even adult-onset can occur. However, adult-onset nemaline myopathy is usually not familial and may represent a different disease (Wallgren-Pettersson et al., 1999; Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001). Myopathy caused by mutations in the ACTA1 gene can show a range of clinical and pathologic phenotypes. Some patients have classic rods, whereas others may also show intranuclear rods, clumped filaments, cores, or fiber-type disproportion (see 255310), all of which are nonspecific pathologic findings and not pathognomonic of a specific congenital myopathy. The spectrum of clinical phenotypes caused by mutations in ACTA1 may result from different mutations, modifying factors affecting the severity of the disorder, variability in clinical care, or a combination of these factors (Nowak et al., 1999; Kaindl et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Nemaline Myopathy See also NEM1 (609284), caused by mutation in the tropomyosin-3 gene (TPM3; 191030) on chromosome 1q22; NEM2 (256030), caused by mutation in the nebulin gene (NEB; 161650) on chromosome 2q23; NEM4 (609285), caused by mutation in the beta-tropomyosin gene (TPM2; 190990) on chromosome 9p13; NEM5 (605355), also known as Amish nemaline myopathy, caused by mutation in the troponin T1 gene (TNNT1; 191041) on chromosome 19q13; NEM6 (609273), caused by mutation in the KBTBD13 gene (613727) on chromosome 15q22; NEM7 (610687), caused by mutation in the cofilin-2 gene (CFL2; 601443) on chromosome 14q13; NEM8 (615348), caused by mutation in the KLHL40 gene (615340), on chromosome 3p22; NEM9 (615731), caused by mutation in the KLHL41 gene (607701) on chromosome 2q31; NEM10 (616165), caused by mutation in the LMOD3 gene (616112) on chromosome 3p14; and NEM11 (617336), caused by mutation in the MYPN gene (608517) on chromosome 10q21. Several of the genes encode components of skeletal muscle sarcomeric thin filaments (Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001). Mutations in the NEB gene are the most common cause of nemaline myopathy (Lehtokari et al., 2006).
Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
815337
Concept ID:
C3809007
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by cardiac abnormalities (pulmonic stenosis and other valve dysplasias, septal defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rhythm disturbances), distinctive craniofacial appearance, and cutaneous abnormalities (including xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, keratosis pilaris, ulerythema ophryogenes, eczema, pigmented moles, hemangiomas, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis). The hair is typically sparse, curly, fine or thick, woolly or brittle; eyelashes and eyebrows may be absent or sparse. Nails may be dystrophic or fast growing. Some form of neurologic and/or cognitive delay (ranging from mild to severe) is seen in all affected individuals. Neoplasia, mostly acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been reported in some individuals.
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
815495
Concept ID:
C3809165
Disease or Syndrome
MMDS3 is an autosomal recessive severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of previously acquired developmental milestones in the first months or years of life. Some affected patients have normal development in early infancy before the onset of symptoms, whereas others show delays from birth. Features included loss of motor function, spasticity, pyramidal signs, loss of speech, and cognitive impairment. The disease course is highly variable: some patients die of respiratory failure early in childhood, whereas some survive but may be bedridden with a feeding tube. Less commonly, some patients may survive and have a stable course with motor deficits and mild or even absent cognitive impairment, although there may be fluctuating symptoms, often in response to infection. Other variable features include visual problems and seizures. Brain imaging shows diffuse leukodystrophy in the subcortical region, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Laboratory studies tend to show increased lactate and CSF glycine, and decreased activity of mitochondrial complexes I and II, although these findings are also variable. There may be additional biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Liu et al., 2018). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome, see MMDS1 (605711).
Nemaline myopathy 8
MedGen UID:
815539
Concept ID:
C3809209
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-8 is a severe autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by fetal akinesia or hypokinesia, followed by contractures, fractures, respiratory failure, and swallowing difficulties apparent at birth. Most patients die in infancy. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows numerous small nemaline bodies, often with no normal myofibrils (summary by Ravenscroft et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM3 (161800).
Noonan syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
815563
Concept ID:
C3809233
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 8 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
816021
Concept ID:
C3809691
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 11 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
816530
Concept ID:
C3810200
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Neu-Laxova syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
863456
Concept ID:
C4015019
Disease or Syndrome
Neu-Laxova syndrome-2 is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of severe congenital malformations leading to prenatal or early postnatal lethality. Affected patients have abnormal craniofacial features, microcephaly, intrauterine growth retardation, ichthyosis, flexion deformities, limb malformations, and edema of the hands and feet. Some patients have malformations of the central nervous system, such as abnormal gyration (summary by Acuna-Hidalgo et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Neu-Laxova syndrome, see NLS1 (256520).
Nemaline myopathy 10
MedGen UID:
863797
Concept ID:
C4015360
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-10 (NEM10) is an autosomal recessive severe congenital myopathy characterized by early-onset generalized muscle weakness and hypotonia with respiratory insufficiency and feeding difficulties. Many patients present antenatally with decreased fetal movements, and most die of respiratory failure in early infancy (summary by Yuen et al., 2014). Patients with a stable and much milder disease course have been described (Schatz et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM3 (161800).
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
864123
Concept ID:
C4015686
Disease or Syndrome
Any lethal congenital contracture syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ZBTB42 gene.
Complex lethal osteochondrodysplasia
MedGen UID:
900688
Concept ID:
C4225162
Disease or Syndrome
Complex lethal osteochondrodysplasia of the Symoens-Barnes-Gistelinck type is characterized by severe skeletal osteopenia, microcephaly, multiple fractures, and congenital anomalies including ascites, pleural effusion, and intracranial ventriculomegaly (Symoens et al., 2015).
Pancytopenia due to IKZF1 mutations
MedGen UID:
905078
Concept ID:
C4225173
Disease or Syndrome
Common variable immunodeficiency-13 (CVID13) is an autosomal dominant primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, mainly affecting the respiratory tract, and associated with hypogammaglobulinemia and decreased numbers of B cells. The age at onset of clinical features can range from infancy to adulthood, and some patients may have a mild disorder or even remain clinically asymptomatic (summary by Kuehn et al., 2016). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594).
Spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures 2
MedGen UID:
907910
Concept ID:
C4225176
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures is an autosomal recessive severe neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of severe hypotonia with fetal hypokinesia in utero. This results in congenital contractures, consistent with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, and increased incidence of prenatal fracture of the long bones. Affected infants have difficulty breathing and feeding and often die in the first days or months of life (summary by Knierim et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures, see SMABF1 (616866).
Lymphatic malformation 6
MedGen UID:
908120
Concept ID:
C4225184
Disease or Syndrome
Lymphatic malformation-6 is a form of generalized lymphatic dysplasia (GLD), which is characterized by a uniform, widespread lymphedema affecting all segments of the body, with systemic involvement such as intestinal and/or pulmonary lymphangiectasia, pleural effusions, chylothoraces and/or pericardial effusions. In LMPHM6, there is a high incidence of nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) with either death or complete resolution of the neonatal edema, but childhood onset of lymphedema with or without systemic involvement also occurs. Mild facial edema is often present. Patients have normal intelligence and no seizures (summary by Fotiou et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lymphatic malformation, see 153100.
Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
906509
Concept ID:
C4225201
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome-6 (HPMRS6) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by global developmental delay, dysmorphic features, seizures, and congenital cataracts. Severity is variable, and the disorder may show a range of phenotypic and biochemical abnormalities, including increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels (summary by Ilkovski et al., 2015). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HPMRS, see HPMRS1 (239300). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Seckel syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
907155
Concept ID:
C4225212
Disease or Syndrome
Any Seckel syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TRAIP gene.
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 14 with polydactyly
MedGen UID:
901479
Concept ID:
C4225286
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, see SRTD1 (208500).
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
903881
Concept ID:
C4225303
Disease or Syndrome
Any lethal congenital contracture syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ADGRG6 gene.
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
894160
Concept ID:
C4225386
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome-7, an axoglial form of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC), is characterized by congenital distal joint contractures, polyhydramnios, reduced fetal movements, and severe motor paralysis leading to death early in the neonatal period (Laquerriere et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lethal congenital contracture syndrome, see LCCS1 (253310).
Spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity;
MedGen UID:
924883
Concept ID:
C4284592
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity (SINO) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by rapid growth in infancy, global developmental delay, spastic paraplegia, variable ophthalmologic defects, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Josifova et al., 2016).
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 11
MedGen UID:
934637
Concept ID:
C4310670
Disease or Syndrome
Any lethal congenital contracture syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GLDN gene.
Chitayat syndrome
MedGen UID:
934646
Concept ID:
C4310679
Disease or Syndrome
Chitayat syndrome (CHYTS) is a rare condition characterized by respiratory distress presenting at birth, bilateral accessory phalanx resulting in shortened index fingers with ulnar deviation, hallux valgus, and characteristic facial features including prominent eyes, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge, full lips, and upturned nose (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2017).
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 15 with polydactyly
MedGen UID:
934691
Concept ID:
C4310724
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). SRTD15 is characterized by narrow thorax, oral and cardiovascular anomalies, short long bones, and postaxial polydactyly, in addition to other congenital anomalies. Considerable variability in features and in severity has been reported, with some affected individuals succumbing shortly after birth and others living to adulthood, even within the same family. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, see SRTD1 (208500).
Heart and brain malformation syndrome
MedGen UID:
934760
Concept ID:
C4310793
Disease or Syndrome
Heart and brain malformation syndrome (HBMS) is a severe autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by profoundly delayed psychomotor development, dysmorphic facial features, microphthalmia, cardiac malformations, mainly septal defects, and brain malformations, including Dandy-Walker malformation (summary by Shaheen et al., 2016). Homozygous mutation in the SMG9 gene can also cause neurodevelopmental disorder with intention tremor, pyramidal signs, dyspraxia, and ocular anomalies (NEDITPDO; 619995), a less severe neurodevelopmental disorder.
SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation
MedGen UID:
934771
Concept ID:
C4310804
Disease or Syndrome
Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021).
Bartter disease type 4B
MedGen UID:
934772
Concept ID:
C4310805
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal (or neonatal) forms of Bartter syndrome (e.g., BARTS1, 601678) typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Midface hypoplasia, hearing impairment, elliptocytosis, and nephrocalcinosis
MedGen UID:
934777
Concept ID:
C4310810
Disease or Syndrome
Midface hypoplasia, hearing impairment, elliptocytosis, and nephrocalcinosis is an X-linked recessive disorder with onset of features in early childhood. Anemia is sometimes present. Some patients may show mild early motor or speech delay, but cognition is normal (summary by Andreoletti et al., 2017).
Bartter disease type 5
MedGen UID:
934787
Concept ID:
C4310820
Disease or Syndrome
Antenatal Bartter syndrome is a potentially life-threatening disease characterized by fetal polyuria, polyhydramnios, prematurity, and postnatal polyuria with persistent renal salt wasting. In transient antenatal Bartter syndrome-5, the onset of polyhydramnios and labor occur several weeks earlier than in other forms of Bartter syndrome. Polyuria lasts from a few days to 6 weeks, ending around 30 to 33 weeks of gestational age. Other features in the neonatal period include hypercalciuria, causing nephrocalcinosis in some cases, as well as hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and elevated renin and aldosterone; these subsequently resolve or normalize, although nephrocalcinosis may persist (Laghmani et al., 2016).
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic, 35
MedGen UID:
1392054
Concept ID:
C4478383
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 1
MedGen UID:
1379805
Concept ID:
C4478716
Disease or Syndrome
An inherited condition caused by autosomal dominant mutation(s) in the SHOC2 gene, encoding leucine-rich repeat protein SHOC-2. The condition is characterized by facial features similar to those seen in Noonan syndrome but may also include short stature, cognitive deficits, relative macrocephaly, small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation, hypernasal voice, cardiac defects, and ectodermal abnormalities, which typically presents as slow-growing, sparse, and/or unruly hair.
Congenital heart defects, dysmorphic facial features, and intellectual developmental disorder
MedGen UID:
1385307
Concept ID:
C4479246
Disease or Syndrome
CDK13-related disorder, reported in 43 individuals to date, is characterized in all individuals by developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID); nearly all individuals older than age one year display impaired verbal language skills (either absent or restricted speech). Other common findings are recognizable facial features in some individuals, behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder or autistic traits/stereotypies, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), feeding difficulties in infancy, structural cardiac defects, and seizures.
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2
MedGen UID:
1376945
Concept ID:
C4479577
Disease or Syndrome
An inherited condition caused by autosomal dominant mutation(s) in the PPP1CB gene, encoding serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-beta catalytic subunit. The condition is characterized by facial features similar to those seen in Noonan syndrome but may also include short stature, cognitive deficits, relative macrocephaly, small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation, hypernasal voice, cardiac defects, and ectodermal abnormalities, which typically presents as slow-growing, sparse, and/or unruly hair.
Geleophysic dysplasia 3
MedGen UID:
1615724
Concept ID:
C4540511
Congenital Abnormality
Geleophysic dysplasia, a progressive condition resembling a lysosomal storage disorder, is characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, progressive joint limitation and contractures, distinctive facial features, progressive cardiac valvular disease, and thickened skin. Intellect is normal. Major findings are likely to be present in the first year of life. Cardiac, respiratory, and lung involvement result in death before age five years in approximately 33% of individuals with ADAMTSL2-related geleophysic dysplasia.
Neu-Laxova syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1633287
Concept ID:
C4551478
Disease or Syndrome
Any Neu-Laxova syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PHGDH gene.
Feingold syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
1637716
Concept ID:
C4551774
Disease or Syndrome
Feingold syndrome 1 (referred to as FS1 in this GeneReview) is characterized by digital anomalies (shortening of the 2nd and 5th middle phalanx of the hand, clinodactyly of the 5th finger, syndactyly of toes 2-3 and/or 4-5, thumb hypoplasia), microcephaly, facial dysmorphism (short palpebral fissures and micrognathia), gastrointestinal atresias (primarily esophageal and/or duodenal), and mild-to-moderate learning disability.
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to CREBBP mutations
MedGen UID:
1639327
Concept ID:
C4551859
Disease or Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation.
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1644087
Concept ID:
C4551982
Disease or Syndrome
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES), generally considered to be a neonatal enteropathy, is characterized by intractable diarrhea (seen in almost all affected children), woolly hair (seen in all), intrauterine growth restriction, facial dysmorphism, and short stature. Additional findings include poorly characterized immunodeficiency, recurrent infections, skin abnormalities, and liver disease. Mild intellectual disability (ID) is seen in about 50% of affected individuals. Less common findings include congenital heart defects and platelet anomalies. To date 52 affected individuals have been reported.
Congenital disorder of glycosylation with defective fucosylation
MedGen UID:
1647704
Concept ID:
C4693905
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation with defective fucosylation is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder apparent from birth. Affected infants have poor growth, failure to thrive, hypotonia, skeletal anomalies, and delayed psychomotor development with intellectual disability. Additional highly variable congenital defects may be observed (summary by Ng et al., 2018). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation with Defective Fucosylation See also CDGF2 (618323), caused by mutation in the FCSK gene (608675) on chromosome 16q22. For an overview of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066).
Fetal akinesia-cerebral and retinal hemorrhage syndrome
MedGen UID:
1631944
Concept ID:
C4706410
Disease or Syndrome
A rare lethal congenital myopathy syndrome characterized by decreased fetal movements and polyhydramnios in utero and the presence of akinesia, severe hypotonia with respiratory insufficiency, absent reflexes, joint contractures, skeletal abnormalities with thin ribs and bones, intracranial and retinal hemorrhages and decreased birth weight in the neonate.
Hydrocephalus, congenital, 3, with brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1648319
Concept ID:
C4747885
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
1648281
Concept ID:
C4747954
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment.
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1648368
Concept ID:
C4748408
Disease or Syndrome
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome-3 (HKKLLS3) is characterized by widespread congenital edema that is more severe in more dependent areas of the body. Associated features include facial dysmorphism and protein-losing enteropathy of variable severity (Brouillard et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome, see HKLLS1 (235510).
Diarrhea 10, protein-losing enteropathy type
MedGen UID:
1648311
Concept ID:
C4748579
Disease or Syndrome
Diarrhea-10 (DIAR10) is a protein-losing enteropathy characterized by intractable secretory diarrhea and massive protein loss due to leaky fenestrated capillaries. Features include early-onset anasarca, severe hypoalbuminemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as electrolyte abnormalities. Some patients exhibit facial dysmorphism and cardiac and renal anomalies. Intrafamilial variability has been observed, and the disease can be severe, with death occurring in infancy in some patients (Broekaert et al., 2018; Kurolap et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of diarrhea, see DIAR1 (214700).
Neuropathy, congenital hypomyelinating, 3
MedGen UID:
1648417
Concept ID:
C4748608
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy-3 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of neurogenic muscle impairment in utero. Affected individuals present at birth with severe hypotonia, often causing respiratory insufficiency or failure and inability to swallow or feed properly. They have profoundly impaired psychomotor development and may die in infancy or early childhood. Those that survive are unable to sit or walk. Sural nerve biopsy shows hypomyelination of the nerve fibers, and brain imaging often shows impaired myelination and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Nerve conduction velocities are severely decreased (about 10 m/s) or absent due to improper myelination (summary by Vallat et al., 2016 and Low et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CHN, see CHN1 (605253).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 70
MedGen UID:
1648407
Concept ID:
C4749023
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-70 (DEE70) is neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of epileptic spasms or seizures in the first months of life. EEG may show hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals show severely delayed psychomotor development with impaired or absent walking and language skills; intellectual impairment ranges from moderate to severe (summary by Hamada et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Severe feeding difficulties-failure to thrive-microcephaly due to ASXL3 deficiency syndrome
MedGen UID:
1656239
Concept ID:
C4750837
Disease or Syndrome
ASXL3-related disorder is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability, typically in the moderate to severe range, with speech and language delay and/or absent speech. Affected individuals may also display autistic features. There may be issues with feeding. While dysmorphic facial features have been described, they are typically nonspecific. Affected individuals may also have hypotonia that can transition to spasticity resulting in unusual posture with flexion contractions of the elbows, wrists, and fingers. Other findings may include poor postnatal growth, strabismus, seizures, sleep disturbance, and dental anomalies.
Fetal akinesia deformation sequence 4
MedGen UID:
1675450
Concept ID:
C4760578
Disease or Syndrome
Fetal akinesia deformation sequence-4 (FADS4) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by decreased fetal movements due to impaired neuromuscular function, resulting in significant congenital contractures and death in utero or soon after birth (summary by Bonnin et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FADS, see 208150.
Turnpenny-fry syndrome
MedGen UID:
1683283
Concept ID:
C5193060
Disease or Syndrome
Turnpenny-Fry syndrome (TPFS) is characterized by developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, impaired growth, and recognizable facial features that include frontal bossing, sparse hair, malar hypoplasia, small palpebral fissures and oral stoma, and dysplastic 'satyr' ears. Other common findings include feeding problems, constipation, and a range of brain, cardiac, vascular, and skeletal malformations (Turnpenny et al., 2018).
Congenital myopathy with reduced type 2 muscle fibers
MedGen UID:
1672638
Concept ID:
C5193081
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy with fast-twitch (type II) fiber atrophy (MYOFTA) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by onset of severe muscle weakness apparent at birth and sometimes in utero. Affected infants have difficulty breathing independently and usually require mechanical ventilation for variable lengths of time. Other features include delayed motor development with delayed walking, hypo- or areflexia, and high-arched palate. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows variation in fiber size with specific atrophy of the fast-twitch type II fibers. Cardiac muscle is not affected (summary by Ravenscroft et al., 2018).
Hydrops fetalis, nonimmune, with gracile bones and dysmorphic features
MedGen UID:
1677588
Concept ID:
C5193233
Disease or Syndrome
Hypopigmentation, organomegaly, and delayed myelination and development
MedGen UID:
1684826
Concept ID:
C5203300
Disease or Syndrome
Hypopigmentation, organomegaly, and delayed myelination and development (HOD) is characterized by hypopigmented skin and hair with normally pigmented irides; organomegaly including enlargement of liver, kidney, and spleen; and delayed myelination on brain MRI accompanied by developmental delay in both gross and fine motor skills. Biopsy findings from skin and other organs are consistent with a lysosomal storage disorder (Nicoli et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 77
MedGen UID:
1684735
Concept ID:
C5231405
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-4 (MCAHS4) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first months of life. Patients have severe global developmental delay, and may have additional variable features, including dysmorphic or coarse facial features, visual defects, and mild skeletal or renal anomalies. At the cellular level, the disorder is caused by a defect in the synthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), and thus affects the expression of GPI-anchored proteins at the cell surface (summary by Starr et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Spastic tetraplegia and axial hypotonia, progressive
MedGen UID:
1684731
Concept ID:
C5231422
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive spastic tetraplegia and axial hypotonia (STAHP) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of severe and progressive motor dysfunction in the first year of life. Affected individuals have severe axial hypotonia combined with spastic tetraplegia, hyperekplexia, hypertonia, and myokymia, reflecting upper motor neuron involvement. Cognitive development may be affected, but only 2 unrelated patients have been reported (Andersen et al., 2019; Park et al., 2019).
Noonan syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
1684730
Concept ID:
C5231432
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 4, neurogenic, with agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1684706
Concept ID:
C5231494
Disease or Syndrome
Neurogenic arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-4 with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AMC4) is a severe neurologic disorder with onset in utero. Affected individuals show little or no fetal movements and are born with significant contractures affecting the upper and lower limbs, as well as dysmorphic facial features. Other abnormalities include globally impaired development, optic atrophy, agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures, and peripheral neuropathy. Many patients die in early childhood (summary by Seidahmed et al., 2020).
Lymphatic malformation 8
MedGen UID:
1684767
Concept ID:
C5231496
Disease or Syndrome
Lymphatic malformation-8 (LMPHM8) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which affected fetuses die in utero due to nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF). The fetus and placenta are edematous with interstitial accumulation of fluid and abnormally shaped vessels. The disorder results from impaired lymphangiogenesis. Carrier females have reduced fertility and recurrent miscarriages likely due to NIHF (summary by Mackie et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lymphatic malformation, see LMPHM1 (153100).
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome, female-restricted
MedGen UID:
1715791
Concept ID:
C5393303
Disease or Syndrome
Female-restricted Wieacker-Wolff syndrome (WRWFFR) is an X-linked dominant syndromic form of neurogenic arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) with central and peripheral nervous system involvement. Affected individuals have decreased fetal movements causing the development of contractures in utero and resulting in AMC and diffuse contractures involving the large and small joints apparent at birth. There is global developmental delay with difficulty walking or inability to walk, hypotonia that often evolves to spasticity, and variably impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language. Dysmorphic facial features, including hypotonic facies, ptosis, microretrognathia, and small mouth, are seen in most patients. Seizures are uncommon; some patients have evidence of a peripheral motor neuropathy with distal muscle weakness. The level of X inactivation in lymphocytes and fibroblasts is often skewed, but may not predict the severity of the phenotype. Most cases occur sporadically; rare X-linked dominant inheritance has been reported in families (summary by Frints et al., 2019).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, hypotonia, and respiratory insufficiency syndrome, neonatal lethal
MedGen UID:
1716458
Concept ID:
C5394137
Disease or Syndrome
Neonatal lethal pontocerebellar hypoplasia, hypotonia, and respiratory insufficiency syndrome (PHRINL) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with onset in utero and death in the neonatal period. Rare patients may survive a few months. Affected infants show respiratory insufficiency and almost no spontaneous movement at birth, usually requiring mechanical ventilation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Additional features include corneal clouding, seizures, dysmorphic facies, contractures, and progressive pontocerebellar hypoplasia with simplified gyral pattern and white matter abnormalities. Some patients may have cardiac anomalies or cardiac hypertrophy. Laboratory studies show evidence consistent with mitochondrial defects and/or abnormal cholesterol or lipid metabolism. Depending on the type of mutation or deletion, some patients may have a less severe disorder (see GENOTYPE/PHENOTYPE CORRELATIONS) (summary by Desai et al., 2017).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with relative macrocephaly and with or without cardiac or endocrine anomalies
MedGen UID:
1714169
Concept ID:
C5394221
Disease or Syndrome
Nabais Sa-de Vries syndrome type 2 (NSDVS2) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from birth and distinctive dysmorphic facial features. Most patients have additional anomalies, including congenital heart defects, sleep disturbances, hypotonia, and variable endocrine abnormalities, such as hypothyroidism (summary by Nabais Sa et al., 2020).
Diets-Jongmans syndrome
MedGen UID:
1714920
Concept ID:
C5394263
Disease or Syndrome
Diets-Jongmans syndrome (DIJOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mild to moderately impaired intellectual development with a recognizable facial gestalt (summary by Diets et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, microcephaly, and seizures
MedGen UID:
1710110
Concept ID:
C5394312
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, microcephaly, and seizures (NEDHYMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with axial hypotonia, inability to sit or walk, and severely impaired intellectual development with absent language. Most patients develop early-onset intractable seizures that prevent normal development. Additional features include feeding difficulties with poor overall growth and microcephaly. Some patients may have spastic quadriplegia, poor eye contact due to cortical blindness, variable dysmorphic features, and nonspecific abnormalities on brain imaging (summary by Tan et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, hypotonia, and brain imaging abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1708579
Concept ID:
C5394517
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, hypotonia, and brain imaging abnormalities (NEDSHBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, severe to profound intellectual impairment, early-onset refractory seizures, hypotonia, failure to thrive, and progressive microcephaly. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and myelination defects. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Marafi et al., 2020).
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5
MedGen UID:
1731112
Concept ID:
C5436453
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-5 (AMC5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe joint contractures apparent at birth. Affected individuals usually have hypertonia and abnormal movements suggestive of dystonia, as well as feeding and/or breathing difficulties. More variable features may include poor overall growth, strabismus, dysmorphic facies, and global developmental delay with impaired speech (summary by Kariminejad et al., 2017).
Myopathy, congenital, with diaphragmatic defects, respiratory insufficiency, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1764743
Concept ID:
C5436530
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy with diaphragmatic defects, respiratory insufficiency, and dysmorphic facies (MYODRIF) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder. Affected individuals present at birth with hypotonia and respiratory insufficiency associated with high diaphragmatic dome on imaging. Other features include poor overall growth, pectus excavatum, dysmorphic facies, and renal anomalies in some. The severity of the disorder is highly variable: some patients may have delayed motor development with mildly decreased endurance, whereas others have more severe hypotonia associated with distal arthrogryposis and lung hypoplasia, resulting in early death (summary by Watson et al., 2016 and Lopes et al., 2018).
Deeah syndrome
MedGen UID:
1756624
Concept ID:
C5436579
Disease or Syndrome
DEEAH syndrome is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with onset in early infancy. Affected individuals usually present in the perinatal period with respiratory insufficiency, apneic episodes, and generalized hypotonia. The patients have failure to thrive and severely impaired global development with poor acquisition of motor, cognitive, and language skills. Other common features include endocrine, pancreatic exocrine, and autonomic dysfunction, as well as hematologic disturbances, mainly low hemoglobin. Patients also have dysmorphic and myopathic facial features. Additional more variable features include seizures, undescended testes, and distal skeletal anomalies. Death in early childhood may occur (summary by Schneeberger et al., 2020).
Myopathy, epilepsy, and progressive cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
1759100
Concept ID:
C5436652
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, epilepsy, and progressive cerebral atrophy (MEPCA) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder with onset in utero or at birth. Affected individuals have hypotonia with respiratory or feeding difficulties apparent from birth and often associated with contractures of the large joints. There is little spontaneous movement: skeletal muscle biopsy and electrophysiologic studies are consistent with a myopathy or myasthenic disorder. Patients also develop refractory seizures with burst-suppression pattern or hypsarrhythmia on EEG. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebral atrophy and myelination defects. All patients reported to date died within the first year of life (summary by Schorling et al., 2017).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with alopecia and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1775930
Concept ID:
C5436741
Disease or Syndrome
Bachmann-Bupp syndrome (BABS) is characterized by a distinctive type of alopecia, global developmental delay in the moderate to severe range, hypotonia, nonspecific dysmorphic features, behavioral abnormalities (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and feeding difficulties. Hair is typically present at birth but may be sparse and of an unexpected color with subsequent loss of hair in large clumps within the first few weeks of life. Rare findings may include seizures with onset in later childhood and conductive hearing loss.
Congenital secretory sodium diarrhea 3
MedGen UID:
1778108
Concept ID:
C5441927
Disease or Syndrome
Any secretory diarrhea in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SPINT2 gene.
Congenital secretory sodium diarrhea 8
MedGen UID:
1783137
Concept ID:
C5441928
Disease or Syndrome
Any secretory diarrhea in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SLC9A3 gene.
Visceral myopathy
MedGen UID:
1785391
Concept ID:
C5542197
Disease or Syndrome
ACTG2 visceral myopathy is a disorder of smooth muscle dysfunction of the bladder and gastrointestinal system with phenotypic spectrum that ranges from mild to severe. Bladder involvement can range from neonatal megacystis and megaureter (with its most extreme form of prune belly syndrome) at the more severe end, to recurrent urinary tract infections and bladder dysfunction at the milder end. Intestinal involvement can range from malrotation, neonatal manifestations of microcolon, megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome, and chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO) in neonates at the more severe end to intermittent abdominal distention and functional intestinal obstruction at the milder end. Affected infants (with or without evidence of intestinal malrotation) often present with feeding intolerance and findings of non-mechanical bowel obstruction that persist after successful surgical correction of malrotation. Individuals who develop manifestations of CIPO in later childhood or adulthood often experience episodic waxing and waning of bowel motility. They may undergo frequent abdominal surgeries (perhaps related to malrotation or adhesions causing mechanical obstruction) resulting in resection of dilated segments of bowel, often becoming dependent on total parenteral nutrition (TPN).
Multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome, x-linked
MedGen UID:
1788942
Concept ID:
C5542341
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome (MCAND) is an X-linked recessive congenital multisystemic disorder characterized by poor growth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, and variable abnormalities of the cardiac, skeletal, and genitourinary systems. Most affected individuals also have hypotonia and dysmorphic craniofacial features. Brain imaging typically shows enlarged ventricles and thin corpus callosum; some have microcephaly, whereas others have hydrocephalus. The severity of the disorder is highly variable, ranging from death in early infancy to survival into the second or third decade. Pathogenetically, the disorder results from disrupted gene expression and signaling during embryogenesis, thus affecting multiple systems (summary by Tripolszki et al., 2021 and Beck et al., 2021). Beck et al. (2021) referred to the disorder as LINKED syndrome (LINKage-specific deubiquitylation deficiency-induced Embryonic Defects).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1E
MedGen UID:
1788285
Concept ID:
C5543328
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1E (PCH1E) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by severe hypotonia and respiratory insufficiency apparent soon after birth. Virtually all patients die in the first days or weeks of life. Postmortem examination and brain imaging show pontocerebellar atrophy and loss of anterior motor neurons in the spinal cord. Additional more variable features may include optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, dysmorphic features, congenital contracture or foot deformities, and seizures (summary by Braunisch et al., 2018). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 6
MedGen UID:
1786758
Concept ID:
C5543431
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-6 (AMC6) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder of skeletal muscle with onset of symptoms in utero. The pregnancies are usually complicated by polyhydramnios and reduced fetal movements. Affected individuals have congenital joint contractures, dysmorphic facial features, distal skeletal anomalies with clenched hands and clubfeet, and edema with fetal hydrops. Fetal demise or termination of pregnancy often occurs after ultrasound detection of abnormalities. Those that survive to birth have significant hypotonia with absent spontaneous movements, respiratory insufficiency, arthrogryposis, and multiple pterygia. Skeletal muscle is hypoplastic, immature, and underdeveloped, with nemaline rods, poorly developed sarcomeres, and poor cross-striation. Death in infancy usually occurs (summary by Ahmed et al., 2018, Rocha et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of AMC, see AMC1 (617468).
Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1780019
Concept ID:
C5543513
Disease or Syndrome
Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare congenital defect of visceral smooth muscle, primarily affecting females who present at birth with functional obstruction of the intestine, microcolon, dilation of the bladder, and secondary hydronephrosis. Total parenteral nutrition, adequate intermittent catheterization of bladder, and surgical corrections for intestinal malrotation are frequent modes of treatment for this disease without which rapid death ensues. In some instances, multivisceral organ transplantation has been undertaken with some success. Despite these clinical interventions, MMIHS often leads to premature death due to complications of therapy (summary by Halim et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MMIHS, see 249210.
VISS SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
1794165
Concept ID:
C5561955
Disease or Syndrome
VISS syndrome is a generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by early-onset thoracic aortic aneurysm and other connective tissue findings, such as aneurysm and tortuosity of other arteries, joint hypermobility, skin laxity, and hernias, as well as craniofacial dysmorphic features, structural cardiac defects, skeletal anomalies, and motor developmental delay (Van Gucht et al., 2021). Immune dysregulation has been observed in some patients (Ziegler et al., 2021).
DEGCAGS SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
1794177
Concept ID:
C5561967
Disease or Syndrome
DEGCAGS syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, coarse and dysmorphic facial features, and poor growth and feeding apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have variable systemic manifestations often with significant structural defects of the cardiovascular, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and/or skeletal systems. Additional features may include sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, anemia or pancytopenia, and immunodeficiency with recurrent infections. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Bertoli-Avella et al., 2021).
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794200
Concept ID:
C5561990
Disease or Syndrome
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome (BRENS) is an autosomal recessive complex ciliopathy with multisystemic manifestations. The most common presentation is severe neonatal cholestasis that progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Most patients have additional clinical features suggestive of a ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly, hydrocephalus, retinal abnormalities, and situs inversus. Additional features of the syndrome may include congenital cardiac defects, echogenic kidneys with renal failure, ocular abnormalities, joint hyperextensibility, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients have global developmental delay. Brain imaging typically shows dilated ventricles, hypomyelination, and white matter abnormalities, although some patients have been described with abnormal pituitary development (summary by Shaheen et al., 2020 and David et al., 2020).
FETAL AKINESIA, RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY, MICROCEPHALY, POLYMICROGYRIA, AND DYSMORPHIC FACIES
MedGen UID:
1794225
Concept ID:
C5562015
Disease or Syndrome
Fetal akinesia, respiratory insufficiency, microcephaly, polymicrogyria, and dysmorphic facies (FARIMPD) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by hypotonia in utero resulting in fetal akinesia with generalized joint contractures and arthrogryposis at birth. Affected newborns have severe respiratory insufficiency at birth requiring ventilation and significant dysmorphic facial features; seizures may also occur. Brain imaging shows variable malformations of cortical development, most commonly polymicrogyria or other gyral anomalies. Death in infancy usually occurs (summary by Monteiro et al., 2020).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 28
MedGen UID:
1800504
Concept ID:
C5569081
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-28 (COXPD28) is a complex autosomal recessive multisystem disorder associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The phenotype is variable, but includes episodic metabolic decompensation beginning in infancy that can result in mild muscle weakness, cardiorespiratory insufficiency, developmental delay, or even death. Biochemical studies of patient tissues show variable mitochondrial defects, including decreased activities of respiratory chain enzymes (summary by Kishita et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia
MedGen UID:
1810975
Concept ID:
C5676875
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia (EB-PA) is characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes, manifested by blistering with little or no trauma; congenital pyloric atresia; and ureteral and renal anomalies (dysplastic/multicystic kidney, hydronephrosis/hydroureter, ureterocele, duplicated renal collecting system, absent bladder). The course of EB-PA is usually severe and often lethal in the neonatal period. Most affected children succumb as neonates; those who survive may have severe blistering with formation of granulation tissue on the skin around the mouth, nose, fingers, and toes, and internally around the trachea. However, some affected individuals have little or no blistering later in life. Additional features shared by EB-PA and the other major forms of EB include congenital localized absence of skin (aplasia cutis congenita) affecting the extremities and/or head, milia, nail dystrophy, scarring alopecia, hypotrichosis, contractures, and dilated cardiomyopathy.
Lethal tight skin contracture syndrome
MedGen UID:
1812447
Concept ID:
C5676878
Disease or Syndrome
Restrictive dermopathy is a rare, lethal genodermatosis with characteristic manifestations that are easily recognizable at birth: thin, tightly adherent translucent skin with erosions at flexure sites, superficial vessels, typical facial dysmorphism, and generalized joint ankylosis. Prenatal signs can include intrauterine growth retardation, reduced fetal movements, polyhydramnios, and premature rupture of the membranes. Most infants die within the first week of life (summary by Smigiel et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Restrictive Dermopathy See also RSMD2 (619793), caused by mutation in the LMNA gene (150330) on chromosome 1q22.
3-methylglutaconic aciduria with cataracts, neurologic involvement and neutropenia
MedGen UID:
1810214
Concept ID:
C5676893
Disease or Syndrome
CLPB (caseinolytic peptidase B) deficiency is characterized by neurologic involvement and neutropenia, which can range from severe to mild. In severe CLPB deficiency, death usually occurs at a few months of age due to significant neonatal neurologic involvement (hyperekplexia or absence of voluntary movements, hypotonia or hypertonia, swallowing problems, respiratory insufficiency, and epilepsy) and severe neutropenia associated with life-threatening infections. Individuals with moderate CLPB deficiency present with neurologic abnormalities in infancy including hypotonia and feeding problems, and develop spasticity, a progressive movement disorder (ataxia, dystonia, and/or dyskinesia), epilepsy, and intellectual disability. Neutropenia is variable, but not life threatening. In those with mild CLPB deficiency there is no neurologic involvement, intellect is normal, neutropenia is mild and intermittent, and life expectancy is normal.
Noonan syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1807988
Concept ID:
C5676916
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-14 (NS14) is a recessive developmental disorder within the RASopathy clinical spectrum. Patients exhibit developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and short stature, as well as distinctive dysmorphic features including bitemporal narrowing, hypertelorism, low-set posteriorly rotated ears, prominent nasal bridge, low posterior hairline with a short webbed neck, and pectus excavatum (Motta et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Noonan syndrome, see NS1 (163950).
Cerebellar dysfunction, impaired intellectual development, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
1808634
Concept ID:
C5676924
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar dysfunction, impaired intellectual development, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CDIDHH) is characterized by delayed motor development, ataxia, severe progressive scoliosis, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and delayed sexual development. Cerebellar hypoplasia has been observed in some patients (Whittaker et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1803456
Concept ID:
C5676965
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities (NEDNMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. The severity of the disorder is highly variable. Affected individuals show impaired intellectual development and motor delay associated with either severe hypotonia or hypertonia and spasticity. Most affected individuals have skeletal defects and dysmorphic facial features. Some may have ocular or auditory problems, peripheral neuropathy, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific findings on brain imaging (Kurolap et al., 2022).
Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with progressive microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1801540
Concept ID:
C5676972
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with progressive microcephaly (CONPM) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: the most severely affected individuals have severe and progressive microcephaly, early-onset seizures, lack of visual tracking, and almost no developmental milestones, resulting in early death. Less severely affected individuals have a small head circumference and severely impaired intellectual development with poor speech and motor delay. Additional features may include poor overall growth, axial hypotonia, limb hypertonia with spasticity, undescended testes, and cerebral atrophy with neuronal loss (Lam et al., 2019 and Vanoevelen et al., 2022).
Cerebrofaciothoracic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
1808104
Concept ID:
C5677021
Disease or Syndrome
Craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, and impaired intellectual development syndrome-1 (CFSMR1) is characterized by cranial involvement with macrocrania at birth, brachycephaly, anomalies of middle fossa structures including hypoplasia of corpus callosum, enlargement of septum pellucidum, and dilated lateral ventricles, as well as cortical atrophy and hypodensity of the gray matter. Facial dysmorphisms include flat face, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, synophrys, broad nasal bridge, cleft lip and cleft palate, and low-set posteriorly rotated ears. Patients also exhibit short neck and multiple costal and vertebral anomalies. The face is rather characteristic, and various authors have consistently reported affable/friendly personality, despite intellectual delay (summary by Alanay et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Craniofacial Dysmorphism, Skeletal Anomalies, and Mental Retardation Syndrome CFSMR2 (616994) is caused by mutation in the RAB5IF gene (619960) on chromosome 20q11.
Chilton-Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1803276
Concept ID:
C5677022
Disease or Syndrome
Chilton-Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome (CHOCNS) is characterized mainly by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development and occasional speech delay. Most patients have behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, and aggression. About half of patients have dysmorphic facial features, and about half have nonspecific brain abnormalities, including thin corpus callosum. Rare involvement of other organ systems may be present. At least 1 child with normal development at age 2.5 years has been reported (Chilton et al., 2020).
Gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
988754
Concept ID:
CN306406
Disease or Syndrome
Gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome-1 (GIDID1) is characterized by multiple intestinal atresia, in which atresia occurs at various levels throughout the small and large intestines. Surgical outcomes are poor, and the condition is usually fatal within the first month of life. Some patients exhibit inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with or without intestinal atresia, and in some cases, the intestinal features are associated with either mild or severe combined immunodeficiency (Samuels et al., 2013; Avitzur et al., 2014; Lemoine et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of GIDID See also GIDID2 (619708), caused by mutation in the PI4KA gene (600286) on chromosome 22q11.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Vanda R, Bazrafkan M, Rouhani M, Bazarganipour F
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2022 May 11;22(1):399. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04625-y. PMID: 35546395Free PMC Article
Wax JR, Cartin A, Craig WY, Pinette MG
J Ultrasound Med 2022 Nov;41(11):2859-2866. Epub 2022 Mar 21 doi: 10.1002/jum.15974. PMID: 35312096
Qureshey EJ, Bicocca MJ, Chauhan SP, Nowlen C, Soto EE, Sibai BM, Stafford I
J Ultrasound Med 2022 Nov;41(11):2827-2834. Epub 2022 Feb 28 doi: 10.1002/jum.15970. PMID: 35225371
Guibourdenche J, Bonnet-Serrano F, Younes Chaouch L, Sapin V, Tsatsaris V, Combarel D, Laguillier C, Grange G
Reprod Sci 2021 Oct;28(10):2929-2938. Epub 2021 Jul 12 doi: 10.1007/s43032-021-00677-1. PMID: 34254277
Yefet E, Ben Shmuel Y, Nachum Z
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Nov;34(22):3716-3722. Epub 2019 Nov 20 doi: 10.1080/14767058.2019.1691164. PMID: 31698981

Diagnosis

Vanda R, Bazrafkan M, Rouhani M, Bazarganipour F
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2022 May 11;22(1):399. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04625-y. PMID: 35546395Free PMC Article
Qureshey EJ, Bicocca MJ, Chauhan SP, Nowlen C, Soto EE, Sibai BM, Stafford I
J Ultrasound Med 2022 Nov;41(11):2827-2834. Epub 2022 Feb 28 doi: 10.1002/jum.15970. PMID: 35225371
Hutson J, Siu VM, Rupar CA
J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2022 Jul;44(7):798-802. Epub 2022 Feb 4 doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2022.01.011. PMID: 35131504
Guibourdenche J, Bonnet-Serrano F, Younes Chaouch L, Sapin V, Tsatsaris V, Combarel D, Laguillier C, Grange G
Reprod Sci 2021 Oct;28(10):2929-2938. Epub 2021 Jul 12 doi: 10.1007/s43032-021-00677-1. PMID: 34254277
Sagi-Dain L, Singer A, Falik-Zaccai T, Peleg A, Bar-Shira A, Feingold-Zadok M, Ben Shachar S, Maya I
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Sep;304(3):649-656. Epub 2021 Feb 16 doi: 10.1007/s00404-021-05995-y. PMID: 33591382

Therapy

Qureshey EJ, Bicocca MJ, Chauhan SP, Nowlen C, Soto EE, Sibai BM, Stafford I
J Ultrasound Med 2022 Nov;41(11):2827-2834. Epub 2022 Feb 28 doi: 10.1002/jum.15970. PMID: 35225371
Khazaei S, Jenabi E
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Sep;33(17):3035-3040. Epub 2019 Jan 24 doi: 10.1080/14767058.2019.1566898. PMID: 30624999
Akkaya H, Büke B, Destegül E
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Mar;33(6):924-930. Epub 2018 Oct 30 doi: 10.1080/14767058.2018.1509310. PMID: 30081701
Bauserman M, Nathan R, Lokangaka A, McClure EM, Moore J, Ishoso D, Tshefu A, Figueroa L, Garces A, Harrison MS, Wallace D, Saleem S, Mirza W, Krebs N, Hambidge M, Carlo W, Chomba E, Miodovnik M, Koso-Thomas M, Liechty EA, Esamai F, Swanson J, Swanson D, Goldenberg RL, Bose C
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019 Jul 22;19(1):258. doi: 10.1186/s12884-019-2412-6. PMID: 31331296Free PMC Article
Suleiman A, Salim R
J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 May;37(4):454-458. Epub 2016 Dec 26 doi: 10.1080/01443615.2016.1253669. PMID: 28019126

Prognosis

Ke X, Cai H, Wang W, Lai Q
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2023 Jan 13;23(1):25. doi: 10.1186/s12884-023-05373-3. PMID: 36639621Free PMC Article
Walter A, Calite E, Berg C, Gembruch U, Müller A, Geipel A
Sci Rep 2022 Jan 10;12(1):415. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-04371-9. PMID: 35013541Free PMC Article
Bart Y, Mohr-Sasson A, Mazaki-Tovi S, Kalter A, Shapira M, Sivan E, Hendler I
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2020 Oct;253:187-190. Epub 2020 Aug 27 doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.08.017. PMID: 32890818
Bauserman M, Nathan R, Lokangaka A, McClure EM, Moore J, Ishoso D, Tshefu A, Figueroa L, Garces A, Harrison MS, Wallace D, Saleem S, Mirza W, Krebs N, Hambidge M, Carlo W, Chomba E, Miodovnik M, Koso-Thomas M, Liechty EA, Esamai F, Swanson J, Swanson D, Goldenberg RL, Bose C
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019 Jul 22;19(1):258. doi: 10.1186/s12884-019-2412-6. PMID: 31331296Free PMC Article
Fishel-Bartal M, Watad H, Hoffmann C, Achiron R, Barzilay E, Katorza E
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2019 Dec;32(23):3986-3992. Epub 2018 Jul 10 doi: 10.1080/14767058.2018.1480605. PMID: 29865922

Clinical prediction guides

Wu X, Li Y, Lin N, Su L, Xie X, Liang B, Shen Q, Cai M, Guo D, Huang H, Xu L
BMC Med Genomics 2022 Mar 30;15(1):73. doi: 10.1186/s12920-022-01224-w. PMID: 35354480Free PMC Article
Wax JR, Cartin A, Craig WY, Pinette MG
J Ultrasound Med 2022 Nov;41(11):2859-2866. Epub 2022 Mar 21 doi: 10.1002/jum.15974. PMID: 35312096
Guibourdenche J, Bonnet-Serrano F, Younes Chaouch L, Sapin V, Tsatsaris V, Combarel D, Laguillier C, Grange G
Reprod Sci 2021 Oct;28(10):2929-2938. Epub 2021 Jul 12 doi: 10.1007/s43032-021-00677-1. PMID: 34254277
Bart Y, Mohr-Sasson A, Mazaki-Tovi S, Kalter A, Shapira M, Sivan E, Hendler I
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2020 Oct;253:187-190. Epub 2020 Aug 27 doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.08.017. PMID: 32890818
Akkaya H, Büke B, Destegül E
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