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Lymphopenia

MedGen UID:
7418
Concept ID:
C0024312
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Lymphocytopenia; Lymphocytopenias; Lymphopenias
SNOMED CT: Lymphocytopenia (48813009); Lymphopenia (48813009)
 
HPO: HP:0001888
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0003783

Definition

A reduced number of lymphocytes in the blood. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
439
Concept ID:
C0004135
Disease or Syndrome
Classic ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia beginning between ages one and four years, oculomotor apraxia, choreoathetosis, telangiectasias of the conjunctivae, immunodeficiency, frequent infections, and an increased risk for malignancy, particularly leukemia and lymphoma. Individuals with A-T are unusually sensitive to ionizing radiation. Non-classic forms of A-T have included adult-onset A-T and A-T with early-onset dystonia.
Cowden syndrome
MedGen UID:
5420
Concept ID:
C0018553
Neoplastic Process
Cowden syndrome-1 is a hamartomatous disorder characterized by macrocephaly, facial trichilemmomas, acral keratoses, papillomatous papules, and an increased risk for the development of breast, thyroid, and endometrial carcinoma. Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), previously thought be distinct, shared clinical characteristics with Cowden syndrome, such as hamartomatous polyps of the gastrointestinal tract, mucocutaneous lesions, and increased risk of developing neoplasms, but had the additional features of developmental delay, macrocephaly, lipomas, hemangiomas, and pigmented speckled macules of the glans penis in males. Because features of BRRS and Cowden syndrome have been found in individuals within the same family with the same PTEN mutation, Cowden syndrome-1 and BRRS are considered to be the same disorder with variable expression and age-related penetrance (summary by Marsh et al., 1999, Lachlan et al., 2007, and Blumenthal and Dennis, 2008). Approximately 80% of patients reported with Cowden syndrome and 60% with BRSS have PTEN mutations (Blumenthal and Dennis, 2008). Some patients with Cowden syndrome may have immune system defects resulting in increased susceptibility to infections (summary by Browning et al., 2015).
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
MedGen UID:
21921
Concept ID:
C0043194
Disease or Syndrome
The WAS-related disorders, which include Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT), and X-linked congenital neutropenia (XLN), are a spectrum of disorders of hematopoietic cells, with predominant defects of platelets and lymphocytes caused by pathogenic variants in WAS. WAS-related disorders usually present in infancy. Affected males have thrombocytopenia with intermittent mucosal bleeding, bloody diarrhea, and intermittent or chronic petechiae and purpura; eczema; and recurrent bacterial and viral infections, particularly of the ear. At least 40% of those who survive the early complications develop one or more autoimmune conditions including hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, immune-mediated neutropenia, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and immune-mediated damage to the kidneys and liver. Individuals with a WAS-related disorder, particularly those who have been exposed to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are at increased risk of developing lymphomas, which often occur in unusual, extranodal locations including the brain, lung, or gastrointestinal tract. Males with XLT have thrombocytopenia with small platelets; other complications of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, including eczema and immune dysfunction, are usually mild or absent. Males with XLN have congenital neutropenia, myeloid dysplasia, and lymphoid cell abnormalities.
Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, McKusick type
MedGen UID:
67398
Concept ID:
C0220748
Congenital Abnormality
The cartilage-hair hypoplasia – anauxetic dysplasia (CHH-AD) spectrum disorders are a continuum that includes the following phenotypes: Metaphyseal dysplasia without hypotrichosis (MDWH). Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH). Anauxetic dysplasia (AD). CHH-AD spectrum disorders are characterized by severe disproportionate (short-limb) short stature that is usually recognized in the newborn, and occasionally prenatally because of the short extremities. Other findings include joint hypermobility, fine silky hair, immunodeficiency, anemia, increased risk for malignancy, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and impaired spermatogenesis. The most severe phenotype, AD, has the most pronounced skeletal phenotype, may be associated with atlantoaxial subluxation in the newborn, and may include cognitive deficiency. The clinical manifestations of the CHH-AD spectrum disorders are variable, even within the same family.
CHARGE association
MedGen UID:
75567
Concept ID:
C0265354
Disease or Syndrome
CHD7 disorder encompasses the entire phenotypic spectrum of heterozygous CHD7 pathogenic variants that includes CHARGE syndrome as well as subsets of features that comprise the CHARGE syndrome phenotype. The mnemonic CHARGE syndrome, introduced in the premolecular era, stands for coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies (including deafness). Following the identification of the genetic cause of CHD7 disorder, the phenotypic spectrum expanded to include cranial nerve anomalies, vestibular defects, cleft lip and/or palate, hypothyroidism, tracheoesophageal anomalies, brain anomalies, seizures, and renal anomalies. Life expectancy highly depends on the severity of manifestations; mortality can be high in the first few years when severe birth defects (particularly complex heart defects) are present and often complicated by airway and feeding issues. In childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, decreased life expectancy is likely related to a combination of residual heart defects, infections, aspiration or choking, respiratory issues including obstructive and central apnea, and possibly seizures. Despite these complications, the life expectancy for many individuals can be normal.
Purine-nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency
MedGen UID:
75653
Concept ID:
C0268125
Disease or Syndrome
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency disorder characterized mainly by decreased T-cell function. Some patients also have neurologic impairment (review by Aust et al., 1992).
Reticular dysgenesis
MedGen UID:
124417
Concept ID:
C0272167
Disease or Syndrome
Reticular dysgenesis, the most severe form of inborn severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), is characterized by absence of granulocytes and almost complete deficiency of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, hypoplasia of the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs, and lack of innate and adaptive humoral and cellular immune functions, leading to fatal septicemia within days after birth (summary by Pannicke et al., 2009).
Sneddon syndrome
MedGen UID:
76449
Concept ID:
C0282492
Disease or Syndrome
Sneddon syndrome is a noninflammatory arteriopathy characterized by onset of livedo reticularis in the second decade and onset of cerebrovascular disease in early adulthood (summary by Bras et al., 2014). Livedo reticularis occurs also with polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, and central thrombocythemia, any one of which may be accompanied by cerebrovascular accidents (Bruyn et al., 1987).
Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia
MedGen UID:
164078
Concept ID:
C0877024
Congenital Abnormality
Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD) is characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) resulting in short stature, nephropathy, and T-cell deficiency. Radiographic manifestations of SED include ovoid and mildly flattened vertebral bodies, small ilia with shallow dysplastic acetabular fossae, and small deformed capital femoral epiphyses. Nearly all affected individuals have progressive steroid-resistant nephropathy, usually developing within five years of the diagnosis of growth failure and terminating with end-stage renal disease. The majority of tested individuals have T-cell deficiency and an associated risk for opportunistic infection, a common cause of death. SIOD involves a spectrum that ranges from an infantile or severe early-onset form with a greater risk of death during childhood to a juvenile or milder later-onset form with likely survival into adulthood if renal disease is appropriately treated.
T-B+ severe combined immunodeficiency due to JAK3 deficiency
MedGen UID:
331474
Concept ID:
C1833275
Disease or Syndrome
JAK3-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an inherited disorder of the immune system. Individuals with JAK3-deficient SCID lack the necessary immune cells to fight off certain bacteria, viruses, and fungi. They are prone to repeated and persistent infections that can be very serious or life-threatening. Often the organisms that cause infection in people with JAK3-deficient SCID are described as opportunistic because they ordinarily do not cause illness in healthy people. Affected infants typically develop chronic diarrhea, a fungal infection in the mouth called oral thrush, pneumonia, and skin rashes. Persistent illness also causes affected individuals to grow more slowly than other children. Without treatment, people with JAK3-deficient SCID usually live only into early childhood.
Spondyloenchondrodysplasia with immune dysregulation
MedGen UID:
375009
Concept ID:
C1842763
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloenchondrodysplasia with immune dysregulation (SPENCDI) is an immunoosseous dysplasia combining the typical metaphyseal and vertebral bone lesions of spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD) with immune dysfunction and neurologic involvement. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by radiolucent and irregular spondylar and metaphyseal lesions that represent islands of chondroid tissue within bone. The vertebral bodies show dorsally accentuated platyspondyly with disturbance of ossification. Clinical abnormalities such as short stature, rhizomelic micromelia, increased lumbar lordosis, barrel chest, facial anomalies, and clumsy movements may be present (Menger et al., 1989). Central nervous system involvement includes spasticity, mental retardation, and cerebral calcifications, and immune dysregulation ranges from autoimmunity to immunodeficiency. Neurologic and autoimmune manifestations have been observed in different combinations within a single family, suggesting that this disorder may be defined by specific radiographic features but has remarkably pleiotropic manifestations (Renella et al., 2006). Briggs et al. (2016) also noted variability in skeletal, neurologic, and immune phenotypes, which was sometimes marked between members of the same family. Classification of the Enchondromatoses In their classification of the enchondromatoses, Spranger et al. (1978) called Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome types I and II enchondromatosis, respectively; metachondromatosis (156250), type III; and spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD), also called spondyloenchondromatosis, type IV; enchondromatosis with irregular vertebral lesions, type V; and generalized enchondromatosis, type VI. Halal and Azouz (1991) added 3 tentative categories to the 6 in the classification of Spranger et al. (1978). Pansuriya et al. (2010) suggested a new classification of enchondromatosis (multiple enchondromas).
Macrocephaly-autism syndrome
MedGen UID:
381416
Concept ID:
C1854416
Disease or Syndrome
Macrocephaly/autism syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased head circumference, abnormal facial features, and delayed psychomotor development resulting in autistic behavior or mental retardation (Herman et al., 2007). Some patients may have a primary immunodeficiency disorder with recurrent infections associated with variably abnormal T- and B-cell function (Tsujita et al., 2016).
Lymphopenic hypergammaglobulinemia, antibody deficiency, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and glomerulonephritis
MedGen UID:
340877
Concept ID:
C1855470
Disease or Syndrome
Lymphoid system deterioration, progressive
MedGen UID:
340880
Concept ID:
C1855473
Disease or Syndrome
Vici syndrome
MedGen UID:
340962
Concept ID:
C1855772
Disease or Syndrome
With the current widespread use of multigene panels and comprehensive genomic testing, it has become apparent that the phenotypic spectrum of EPG5-related disorder represents a continuum. At the most severe end of the spectrum is classic Vici syndrome (defined as a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystem involvement characterized by the combination of agenesis of the corpus callosum, cataracts, hypopigmentation, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency, microcephaly, and failure to thrive); at the milder end of the spectrum are attenuated neurodevelopmental phenotypes with variable multisystem involvement. Median survival in classic Vici syndrome appears to be 24 months, with only 10% of children surviving longer than age five years; the most common causes of death are respiratory infections as a result of primary immunodeficiency and/or cardiac insufficiency resulting from progressive cardiac failure. No data are available on life span in individuals at the milder end of the spectrum.
Hemochromatosis type 3
MedGen UID:
388114
Concept ID:
C1858664
Disease or Syndrome
TFR2-related hereditary hemochromatosis (TFR2-HHC) is characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption resulting in iron accumulation in the liver, heart, pancreas, and endocrine organs. Age of onset is earlier than in HFE-HHC. The majority of individuals present with signs and symptoms of iron overload in the third decade (e.g., weakness, fatigue, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, arthritis, arthralgia, progressive increase in skin pigmentation). Others present as young adults with nonspecific symptoms and abnormal serum iron studies or as adults with abnormal serum iron studies and signs of organ involvement including cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, and arthropathy.
Aplasia cutis congenita-intestinal lymphangiectasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
349241
Concept ID:
C1859753
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare association syndrome, described in only two brothers to date (one of which died at 2 months of age), characterized by aplasia cutis congenita of the vertex and generalized edema (as well as hypoproteinemia and lymphopenia) due to intestinal lymphangiectasia. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1985.
Short-limb skeletal dysplasia with severe combined immunodeficiency
MedGen UID:
348040
Concept ID:
C1860168
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare type of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID) characterized by the classical signs of T-B- SCID (severe and recurrent infections, diarrhea, failure to thrive, absence of T and B lymphocytes) associated with skeletal anomalies like short stature, bowing of the long bones and metaphyseal abnormalities of variable degree of severity.
Severe combined immunodeficiency, autosomal recessive, T cell-negative, B cell-negative, NK cell-negative, due to adenosine deaminase deficiency
MedGen UID:
354935
Concept ID:
C1863236
Disease or Syndrome
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a systemic purine metabolic disorder that primarily affects lymphocyte development, viability, and function. The clinical phenotypic spectrum includes: Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID), often diagnosed by age six months and usually by age 12 months; Less severe "delayed" onset combined immune deficiency (CID), usually diagnosed between age one and ten years; "Late/adult onset" CID, diagnosed in the second to fourth decades; Benign "partial ADA deficiency" (very low or absent ADA activity in erythrocytes but greater ADA activity in nucleated cells), which is compatible with normal immune function. Infants with typical early-onset ADA-deficient SCID have failure to thrive and opportunistic infections associated with marked depletion of T, B, and NK lymphocytes, and an absence of both humoral and cellular immune function. If immune function is not restored, children with ADA-deficient SCID rarely survive beyond age one to two years. Infections in delayed- and late-onset types (commonly, recurrent otitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory) may initially be less severe than those in individuals with ADA-deficient SCID; however, by the time of diagnosis these individuals often have chronic pulmonary insufficiency and may have autoimmune phenomena (cytopenias, anti-thyroid antibodies), allergies, and elevated serum concentration of IgE. The longer the disorder goes unrecognized, the more immune function deteriorates and the more likely are chronic sequelae of recurrent infection.
Severe combined immunodeficiency due to DCLRE1C deficiency
MedGen UID:
355454
Concept ID:
C1865370
Disease or Syndrome
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) due to DCLRE1C deficiency is a type of SCID (see this term) characterized by severe and recurrent infections, diarrhea, failure to thrive, and cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation.
Autosomal recessive severe congenital neutropenia due to G6PC3 deficiency
MedGen UID:
414066
Concept ID:
C2751630
Disease or Syndrome
G6PC3 deficiency is characterized by severe congenital neutropenia which occurs in a phenotypic continuum that includes the following: Isolated severe congenital neutropenia (nonsyndromic). Classic G6PC3 deficiency (severe congenital neutropenia plus cardiovascular and/or urogenital abnormalities). Severe G6PC3 deficiency (classic G6PC3 deficiency plus involvement of non-myeloid hematopoietic cell lines, additional extra-hematologic features, and pulmonary hypertension; known as Dursun syndrome). Neutropenia usually presents with recurrent bacterial infections in the first few months of life. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), failure to thrive (FTT), and poor postnatal growth are common. Other findings in classic and severe G6PC3 deficiency can include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) resembling Crohn's disease, and endocrine disorders (growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and delayed puberty).
T-lymphocyte deficiency
MedGen UID:
416700
Concept ID:
C2752083
Disease or Syndrome
T-cell immunodeficiency with thymic aplasia (TIDTA) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is often detected at birth through newborn SCID screening with the finding of decreased T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). Affected individuals have selective hypo- or aplasia of the thymus, which results in T-cell immunodeficiency due to impaired T-cell development and increased susceptibility to viral infections. The phenotype is similar to T-/B+/NK+ SCID. Some patients may die in childhood; thymus transplantation may be curative (summary by Du et al., 2019).
Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia
MedGen UID:
444009
Concept ID:
C2931241
Disease or Syndrome
A rare intestinal disease characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals which cause lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen. Clinical manifestations include edema related to hypoalbuminemia (protein-losing gastro-enteropathy), asthenia, moderate diarrhea, lymphedema, serous effusion and failure to thrive in children.
Autoimmune enteropathy and endocrinopathy - susceptibility to chronic infections syndrome
MedGen UID:
481620
Concept ID:
C3279990
Disease or Syndrome
IMD31C is a disorder of immunologic dysregulation with highly variable manifestations resulting from autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in STAT1 (600555). Most patients present in infancy or early childhood with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Other highly variable features include recurrent bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycoplasmal infections, disseminated dimorphic fungal infections, enteropathy with villous atrophy, and autoimmune disorders, such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus. A subset of patients show apparently nonimmunologic features, including osteopenia, delayed puberty, and intracranial aneurysms. Laboratory studies show increased activation of gamma-interferon (IFNG; 147570)-mediated inflammation (summary by Uzel et al., 2013 and Sampaio et al., 2013).
Monocytopenia with susceptibility to infections
MedGen UID:
481660
Concept ID:
C3280030
Disease or Syndrome
This primary immunodeficiency, designated IMD21, DCML, or MONOMAC, is characterized by profoundly decreased or absent monocytes, B lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) lymphocytes, and circulating and tissue dendritic cells (DCs), with little or no effect on T-cell numbers. Clinical features of IMD21 are variable and include susceptibility to disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, papillomavirus infections, opportunistic fungal infections, and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Bone marrow hypocellularity and dysplasia of myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocytic lineages are present in most patients, as are karyotypic abnormalities, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8. In the absence of cytogenetic abnormalities or overt dysplasia, hypoplastic bone marrow may initially be diagnosed as aplastic anemia. Bone marrow transplantation is the only cure. Some patients may have an increased risk of miscarriage. Both autosomal dominant transmission and sporadic cases occur. Less common manifestations of GATA2 deficiency include lymphedema and sensorineural hearing loss, a phenotype usually termed 'Emberger syndrome' (614038) (summary by Bigley et al. (2011), Hsu et al. (2011), and Spinner et al. (2014)).
Combined immunodeficiency due to STK4 deficiency
MedGen UID:
766857
Concept ID:
C3553943
Disease or Syndrome
STK4 deficiency results in a primary T-cell immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by progressive loss of naive T cells, recurrent bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, warts, and abscesses, autoimmune manifestations, and cardiac malformations, including atrial septal defect (Abdollahpour et al., 2012; Nehme et al., 2012).
Severe combined immunodeficiency due to CORO1A deficiency
MedGen UID:
815713
Concept ID:
C3809383
Disease or Syndrome
A rare monogenic primary immunodeficiency disorder with characteristics of lack of functional peripheral T lymphocytes resulting in early-onset severe respiratory infections and failure to thrive. Caused by caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the CORO1A gene on chromosome 16p11.
Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia
MedGen UID:
816098
Concept ID:
C3809768
Disease or Syndrome
Idiopathic CD4 lymphopenia (ICL) is a rare and heterogeneous syndrome defined by a reproducible reduction in the CD4 T-lymphocyte count (less than 300 cells per microliter or less than 20% of total T cells) in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. ICL predisposes to infections and malignancy (summary by Gorska and Alam, 2012).
Immunodeficiency 18
MedGen UID:
816457
Concept ID:
C3810127
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-18 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by onset in infancy or early childhood of recurrent infections. The severity is variable, encompassing both a mild immunodeficiency and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), resulting in early death without bone marrow transplantation in some patients. Immunologic work-up of the IMD18 SCID patients shows a T cell-negative, B cell-positive, natural killer (NK) cell-positive phenotype, whereas T-cell development is not impaired in the mild form of IMD18 (summary by de Saint Basile et al., 2004).
Immunodeficiency 19
MedGen UID:
816477
Concept ID:
C3810147
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-19 (IMD19) is an autosomal recessive form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) characterized by onset in early infancy of recurrent bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Patients usually have chronic diarrhea, recurrent respiratory infections, and failure to thrive. Immunologic work-up shows a T cell-negative, B cell-positive, natural killer (NK) cell-positive phenotype. The disorder is lethal in early childhood without bone marrow transplantation (summary by Yu et al., 2011).
Vasculitis due to ADA2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
854497
Concept ID:
C3887654
Disease or Syndrome
Adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency (DADA2) is a complex systemic autoinflammatory disorder in which vasculopathy/vasculitis, dysregulated immune function, and/or hematologic abnormalities may predominate. Inflammatory features include intermittent fevers, rash (often livedo racemosa/reticularis), and musculoskeletal involvement (myalgia/arthralgia, arthritis, myositis). Vasculitis, which usually begins before age ten years, may manifest as early-onset ischemic (lacunar) and/or hemorrhagic strokes, or as cutaneous or systemic polyarteritis nodosa. Hypertension and hepatosplenomegaly are often found. More severe involvement may lead to progressive central neurologic deficits (dysarthria, ataxia, cranial nerve palsies, cognitive impairment) or to ischemic injury to the kidney, intestine, and/or digits. Dysregulation of immune function can lead to immunodeficiency or autoimmunity of varying severity; lymphadenopathy may be present and some affected individuals have had lymphoproliferative disease. Hematologic disorders may begin early in life or in late adulthood, and can include lymphopenia, neutropenia, pure red cell aplasia, thrombocytopenia, or pancytopenia. Of note, both interfamilial and intrafamilial phenotypic variability (e.g., in age of onset, frequency and severity of manifestations) can be observed; also, individuals with biallelic ADA2 pathogenic variants may remain asymptomatic until adulthood or may never develop clinical manifestations of DADA2.
Immunodeficiency 23
MedGen UID:
862808
Concept ID:
C4014371
Disease or Syndrome
IMD23 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by onset of recurrent infections, usually respiratory or cutaneous, in early childhood. Immune workup usually shows neutropenia, lymphopenia, eosinophilia, and increased serum IgE or IgA. Neutrophil chemotactic defects have also been reported. Infectious agents include bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Many patients develop atopic dermatitis, eczema, and other signs of autoinflammation. Affected individuals may also show developmental delay or cognitive impairment of varying severity (summary by Bjorksten and Lundmark, 1976 and Zhang et al., 2014).
Severe combined immunodeficiency due to CTPS1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
863054
Concept ID:
C4014617
Disease or Syndrome
IMD24 is an autosomal recessive immunodeficiency characterized by the impaired capacity of activated T and B cells to proliferate in response to antigen receptor-mediated activation. Patients have early onset of severe chronic viral infections, mostly caused by herpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV); they also suffer from recurrent encapsulated bacterial infections, a spectrum typical of a combined deficiency of adaptive immunity (CID) (summary by Martin et al., 2014).
STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy
MedGen UID:
863159
Concept ID:
C4014722
Disease or Syndrome
STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy is an autoinflammatory vasculopathy causing severe skin lesions, particularly affecting the face, ears, nose, and digits, and resulting in ulceration, eschar formation, necrosis, and, in some cases, amputation. Many patients have interstitial lung disease. Tissue biopsy and laboratory findings show a hyperinflammatory state, with evidence of increased beta-interferon (IFNB1; 147640) signaling (summary by Liu et al., 2014).
Immunodeficiency 36
MedGen UID:
863371
Concept ID:
C4014934
Disease or Syndrome
IMD36 is a primary immunodeficiency with a highly heterogeneous clinical phenotype, characterized primarily by recurrent respiratory tract infections, lymphoproliferation, and antibody deficiency. Other features include growth retardation, mild neurodevelopmental delay, and autoimmunity. The major complication is development of B-cell lymphoma (Elkaim et al., 2016).
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome due to CTLA4 haploinsuffiency
MedGen UID:
863651
Concept ID:
C4015214
Disease or Syndrome
Immune dysregulation with autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, and lymphoproliferation (IDAIL) is an autosomal dominant complex immune disorder with highly variable presentation and clinical manifestations. Prominent features include recurrent infections often associated with hypogammaglobulinemia, autoimmune features such as autoimmune cytopenias, and abnormal lymphocytic infiltration of nonlymphoid organs, including the lungs, brain, and gastrointestinal tract, resulting in enteropathy. Laboratory studies often show lymphopenia and abnormal T and B cell subsets. The variable features are a result of impaired function of Treg cells, which play a role in immune homeostasis (summary by Kuehn et al., 2014; Schwab et al., 2018, and Lopez-Nevado et al., 2021). The disorder shows overlapping features with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS); for a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ALPS, see 601859.
Trichothiodystrophy 3, photosensitive
MedGen UID:
865608
Concept ID:
C4017171
Disease or Syndrome
Trichothiodystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which patients have brittle, sulfur-deficient hair that displays a diagnostic alternating light and dark banding pattern, called 'tiger tail banding,' under polarizing microscopy. TTD patients display a wide variety of clinical features, including cutaneous, neurologic, and growth abnormalities. Common additional clinical features are ichthyosis, intellectual/developmental disabilities, decreased fertility, abnormal characteristics at birth, ocular abnormalities, short stature, and infections. There are both photosensitive and nonphotosensitive forms of the disorder. Patients with TTD have not been reported to have a predisposition to cancer (summary by Faghri et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of TTD, see 601675.
Primary immunodeficiency with post-measles-mumps-rubella vaccine viral infection
MedGen UID:
904009
Concept ID:
C4225260
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-44 (IMD44) is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by increased susceptibility to viral infections and adverse multisystemic reaction to vaccination in some patients. Affected individuals appear to have defects in mitochondrial fission and fusion (summary by Shahni et al., 2015).
Short stature, microcephaly, and endocrine dysfunction
MedGen UID:
895448
Concept ID:
C4225288
Disease or Syndrome
In patients with SSMED, short stature and microcephaly are apparent at birth, and there is progressive postnatal growth failure. Endocrine dysfunction, including hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, multinodular goiter, and diabetes mellitus, is present in affected adults. Progressive ataxia has been reported in some patients, with onset ranging from the second to fifth decade of life. In addition, a few patients have developed tumors, suggesting that there may be a predisposition to tumorigenesis. In contrast to syndromes involving defects in other components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) complex (see, e.g., 606593), no clinically overt immunodeficiency has been observed in SSMED, although laboratory analysis has revealed lymphopenia or borderline leukopenia in some patients (Murray et al., 2015; Bee et al., 2015; de Bruin et al., 2015; Guo et al., 2015).
MIRAGE syndrome
MedGen UID:
924576
Concept ID:
C4284088
Disease or Syndrome
MIRAGE syndrome is an acronym for the major findings of myelodysplasia, infection, restriction of growth, adrenal hypoplasia, genital phenotypes, and enteropathy. Cytopenias are typically seen soon after birth; thrombocytopenia is the most common followed by anemia and pancytopenia. Recurrent infections from early infancy include pneumonia, urinary tract infection, gastroenteritis, meningitis, otitis media, dermatitis, subcutaneous abscess, and sepsis. Reported genital phenotypes in those with 46,XY karyotype included hypospadias, microphallus, bifid shawl scrotum, ambiguous genitalia, or complete female genitalia. Hypoplastic or dysgenetic ovaries have been reported in females. Gastrointestinal complications include chronic diarrhea and esophageal dysfunction. Moderate-to-severe developmental delay is reported in most affected individuals. Autonomic dysfunction and renal dysfunction are also reported.
Immunodeficiency 49
MedGen UID:
934623
Concept ID:
C4310656
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary immunodeficiency disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BCL11B gene.
Immunoskeletal dysplasia with neurodevelopmental abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1381460
Concept ID:
C4479452
Disease or Syndrome
Severe combined immunodeficiency due to LAT deficiency
MedGen UID:
1384124
Concept ID:
C4479588
Disease or Syndrome
IMD52 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency with variable manifestations, including severe combined immunodeficiency, hematologic autoimmune disorders, progressive lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia, and lymphoproliferation with splenomegaly. Patients develop severe recurrent infections from infancy, and most die without bone marrow transplantation. The variable clinical features result from a defect in T-cell receptor signaling (summary by Keller et al., 2016 and Bacchelli et al., 2017).
Combined immunodeficiency and megaloblastic anemia with or without hyperhomocysteinemia
MedGen UID:
1615364
Concept ID:
C4540434
Disease or Syndrome
Combined immunodeficiency and megaloblastic anemia with or without hyperhomocysteinemia is an inborn error of folate metabolism due to deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-1. Manifestations may include hemolytic uremic syndrome, macrocytosis, epilepsy, hearing loss, retinopathy, mild mental retardation, lymphopenia involving all subsets, and low T-cell receptor excision circles. Folinic acid supplementation is an effective treatment (summary by Ramakrishnan et al., 2016).
Nephrotic syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1617660
Concept ID:
C4540559
Disease or Syndrome
Sphingosine phosphate lyase insufficiency syndrome (SPLIS) is characterized by varying combinations of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (ranging from nonimmune fetal hydrops to adolescent onset), primary adrenal insufficiency (with or without mineralocorticoid deficiency), testicular insufficiency, hypothyroidism, ichthyosis, lymphopenia/immunodeficiency, and neurologic abnormalities that can include developmental delay, regression / progressive neurologic involvement, cranial nerve deficits, and peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy.
Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
1645250
Concept ID:
C4551974
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1648456
Concept ID:
C4747850
Disease or Syndrome
Proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome-3 is an autosomal recessive syndrome with onset in early infancy. Affected individuals present with nodular dermatitis, recurrent fever, myositis, panniculitis-induced lipodystrophy, lymphadenopathy, and dysregulation of the immune response, particularly associated with abnormal type I interferon-induced gene expression patterns. Additional features are highly variable, but may include joint contractures, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, recurrent infections, autoantibodies, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Some patients may have intracranial calcifications (summary by Brehm et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PRAAS, see PRAAS1 (256040).
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis, susceptibility to, 5
MedGen UID:
1648489
Concept ID:
C4749043
Finding
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis-5 is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by onset of warts and verrucous or plaque-like skin lesions associated with HPV infection. Immunologic workup shows T-cell lymphopenia, particularly affecting CD4+ T cells. There is an increased risk of skin malignancy, and some patients may have other symptoms of immune dysfunction (summary by Horev et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to epidermodysplasia verruciformis, see EV1 (226400).
Noonan syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
1684730
Concept ID:
C5231432
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Bone marrow failure syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
1717739
Concept ID:
C5394274
Disease or Syndrome
Granulomatous disease, chronic, autosomal recessive, 5
MedGen UID:
1710326
Concept ID:
C5394542
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder of phagocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils) resulting from impaired killing of bacteria and fungi. CGD is characterized by severe recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and dysregulated inflammatory responses resulting in granuloma formation and other inflammatory disorders such as colitis. Infections typically involve the lung (pneumonia), lymph nodes (lymphadenitis), liver (abscess), bone (osteomyelitis), and skin (abscesses or cellulitis). Granulomas typically involve the genitourinary system (bladder) and gastrointestinal tract (often the pylorus initially, and later the esophagus, jejunum, ileum, cecum, rectum, and perirectal area). Some males with X-linked CGD have McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome as the result of a contiguous gene deletion. While CGD may present anytime from infancy to late adulthood, the vast majority of affected individuals are diagnosed before age five years. Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis and therapy has greatly improved overall survival.
Immunodeficiency 73b with defective neutrophil chemotaxis and lymphopenia
MedGen UID:
1740566
Concept ID:
C5436549
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-73B with defective neutrophil chemotaxis (IMD73B) is an autosomal dominant immunologic disorder characterized by onset of recurrent infections in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals develop respiratory infections, cellulitis, and severe invasive infections or sepsis; organisms include bacteria such as Staphylococcus, as well as viruses, fungi, and mycobacterial species. Laboratory studies show variable abnormalities, including B- and T-cell lymphopenia, decreased immunoglobulin subsets, decreased TRECs and dysfunctional T cells, decreased NK cells, neutropenia, and impaired neutrophil chemotaxis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative (summary by Hsu et al., 2019; review by Lougaris et al., 2020). In a review of autosomal forms of chronic granulomatous disease (see 306400 for genetic heterogeneity of CGD), Roos et al. (2021) noted that patients with RAC2 mutations may manifest CGD-like symptoms due to defects in neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity.
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, autosomal dominant form
MedGen UID:
1783558
Concept ID:
C5542398
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency 76
MedGen UID:
1781281
Concept ID:
C5543004
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-76 (IMD76) is an autosomal recessive primary immunologic disorder characterized by onset of recurrent bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in early childhood. Laboratory studies show T-cell lymphopenia and may show variable B-cell or immunoglobulin abnormalities. More variable features found in some patients include lymphoma and neurologic features. Although bone marrow transplantation may be curative, many patients die in childhood (summary by Lyszkiewicz et al., 2020).
Immunodeficiency 85 and autoimmunity
MedGen UID:
1794186
Concept ID:
C5561976
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-85 and autoimmunity (IMD85) is an autosomal dominant immunologic disorder characterized by onset of atopic eczema and recurrent respiratory infections in the first decade of life. Affected individuals also develop autoimmune enteropathy with vomiting, diarrhea, and poor overall growth. More variable features may include autoimmune oligoarthritis, interstitial pneumonitis, and EBV viremia. Laboratory studies show hypogammaglobulinemia and abnormal T-cell function, consistent with a combined immunodeficiency (Keskitalo et al., 2019).
Immunodeficiency 87 and autoimmunity
MedGen UID:
1794280
Concept ID:
C5562070
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-87 and autoimmunity (IMD87) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder with wide phenotypic variation and severity. Affected individuals usually present in infancy or early childhood with increased susceptibility to infections, often Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as well as with lymphadenopathy or autoimmune manifestations, predominantly hemolytic anemia. Laboratory studies may show low or normal lymphocyte numbers, often with skewed T-cell subset ratios. The disorder results primarily from defects in T-cell function, which causes both immunodeficiency and overall immune dysregulation (summary by Serwas et al., 2019 and Fournier et al., 2021).
Combined immunodeficiency due to moesin deficiency
MedGen UID:
1799546
Concept ID:
C5568123
Disease or Syndrome
IMD50 is an X-linked recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by the onset of recurrent bacterial or varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections in early childhood. Laboratory studies show profound lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, poor immune response to vaccine antigens, and fluctuating neutropenia. The disorder does not affect overall patient survival (summary by Lagresle-Peyrou et al., 2016).
Combined immunodeficiency due to GINS1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
1799555
Concept ID:
C5568132
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-55 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, natural killer (NK) cell deficiency, and chronic neutropenia. Most patients also have postnatal growth retardation. Other clinical manifestations include mild facial dysmorphism, dry or eczematous skin, and recurrent infections with both viruses and bacteria. The disorder appears to result from a defect in DNA replication causing blockade of immune cell differentiation in the bone marrow, particularly affecting NK cells (summary by Cottineau et al., 2017).
Systemic lupus erythematosus 17
MedGen UID:
1804329
Concept ID:
C5676884
Disease or Syndrome
Systemic lupus erythematosus-17 (SLE17) is an X-linked dominant autoimmune disorder characterized by onset of systemic autoinflammatory symptoms in the first decades of life. Only affected females have been reported. Features may include classic features of SLE, such as malar rash and arthralgias, or can include less common entities such as hemiplegia and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Laboratory studies show the presence of autoantibodies and enhanced NFKB (164011) signaling, the latter being consistent with a gain-of-function effect (Brown et al., 2022). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), see 152700.
Gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1811526
Concept ID:
C5676901
Disease or Syndrome
PI4KA-related disorder is a clinically variable disorder characterized primarily by neurologic dysfunction (limb spasticity, developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, ataxia, nystagmus), gastrointestinal manifestations (multiple intestinal atresia, inflammatory bowel disease), and combined immunodeficiency (leukopenia, variable immunoglobulin defects). Age of onset is typically antenatal or in early childhood; individuals can present with any combination of these features. Rare individuals present with later-onset hereditary spastic paraplegia. Brain MRI findings can include hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, cerebellar hypoplasia/atrophy, thin or dysplastic corpus callosum, and/or perisylvian polymicrogyria.
Noonan syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1807988
Concept ID:
C5676916
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-14 (NS14) is a recessive developmental disorder within the RASopathy clinical spectrum. Patients exhibit developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and short stature, as well as distinctive dysmorphic features including bitemporal narrowing, hypertelorism, low-set posteriorly rotated ears, prominent nasal bridge, low posterior hairline with a short webbed neck, and pectus excavatum (Motta et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Noonan syndrome, see NS1 (163950).
Hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome 4A, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1809613
Concept ID:
C5676920
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome-4A (HIES4A) is an immunologic disorder characterized by recurrent mainly sinopulmonary infections associated with increased serum IgE. The phenotype is variable, even within families. Some patients have onset of symptoms in early childhood and develop complications, including bronchiectasis or hemoptysis, whereas others have later onset of less severe infections. Immunologic workup usually shows normal leukocyte levels, although some patients may demonstrate alterations in lymphocyte subsets, including T cells. Affected individuals also have variable skeletal abnormalities, including high-arched palate, hyperextensible joints, scoliosis, and bone fractures. The IL6ST mutations are loss-of-function, although the truncated mutant proteins are expressed and interfere with the wildtype protein in a dominant-negative manner by disrupting IL6 (147620) and IL11 (147681) signaling (summary by Beziat et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome, see HIES1 (147060).
Pulmonary fibrosis and/or bone marrow failure, telomere-related, 6
MedGen UID:
1805650
Concept ID:
C5676927
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Immunodeficiency 95
MedGen UID:
1802205
Concept ID:
C5676929
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-95 (IMD95) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized predominantly by the onset of recurrent and severe viral respiratory infections in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals often require hospitalization or respiratory support for these infections, which include human rhinovirus (HRV) and RSV. Immunologic workup is usually normal, although some mild abnormalities may be observed. The disorder results from a loss of ability of the innate immune system to sense viral genetic information, which causes a lack of interferon (IFN) production, poor response to viral and immunologic stimulation, and failure to control viral replication (summary by Lamborn et al., 2017, Asgari et al., 2017, Cananzi et al., 2021).
Immunodeficiency 97 with autoinflammation
MedGen UID:
1802936
Concept ID:
C5676946
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-97 with autoinflammation (IMD97) is an autosomal recessive complex immunologic disorder with variable features. Affected individuals present in the first decade of life with inflammatory interstitial lung disease or colitis due to abnormal tissue infiltration by activated T cells. Patients develop autoimmune cytopenias and may have lymphadenopathy; 1 reported patient had features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH; see FHL1, 267700). Some patients may have recurrent infections associated with mild lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and NK cell dysfunction. Immunologic workup indicates signs of significant immune dysregulation with elevation of inflammatory serum markers, variable immune cell defects involving neutrophils, NK cells, and myeloid cells, and disrupted levels of T regulatory cells (Tregs). Two unrelated patients have been reported (summary by Takeda et al., 2019 and Thian et al., 2020).
Immunodeficiency 99 with hypogammaglobulinemia and autoimmune cytopenias
MedGen UID:
1801342
Concept ID:
C5676971
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-99 with hypogammaglobulinemia and autoimmune cytopenias (IMD99) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by the onset of recurrent sinopulmonary infections in early childhood. Laboratory studies reveal hypogammaglobulinemia with decreased memory B cells that show impaired class-switch recombination (CSR) and decreased somatic hypermutation (SHM). Due to abnormal antibody production and impaired self-tolerance, patients may develop autoimmune cytopenias, such as thrombocytopenia, or autoimmune features, such as vitiligo. There are also defects in the T-cell compartment (Kuhny et al., 2020).
Immunodeficiency 105
MedGen UID:
1809425
Concept ID:
C5677005
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-105 (IMD105) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of recurrent infections in early infancy. Manifestations may include pneumonia, dermatitis, and lymphadenopathy. B-cell lymphoma was reported in 1 patient. Laboratory studies show decreased or absent numbers of nonfunctional T cells, normal or increased levels of B cells, hypogammaglobulinemia, and normal or low NK cells. The disorder is caused by a deficiency of transmembrane protein CD45 (PTPRC) on leukocytes, which plays an important role in T- and B-cell development (Cale et al., 1997; Kung et al., 2000). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SCID, see 601457.
Gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
988754
Concept ID:
CN306406
Disease or Syndrome
Gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome-1 (GIDID1) is characterized by multiple intestinal atresia, in which atresia occurs at various levels throughout the small and large intestines. Surgical outcomes are poor, and the condition is usually fatal within the first month of life. Some patients exhibit inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with or without intestinal atresia, and in some cases, the intestinal features are associated with either mild or severe combined immunodeficiency (Samuels et al., 2013; Avitzur et al., 2014; Lemoine et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of GIDID See also GIDID2 (619708), caused by mutation in the PI4KA gene (600286) on chromosome 22q11.
Autoinflammatory syndrome, familial, Behcet-like 1
MedGen UID:
994395
Concept ID:
CN315810
Disease or Syndrome
Familial Behcet-like autoinflammatory syndrome-1 (AIFBL1) is an autosomal dominant monogenic autoinflammatory disease characterized predominantly by painful and recurrent mucosal ulceration affecting the oral mucosa, gastrointestinal tract, and genital areas. The onset of symptoms is usually in the first decade, although later onset has been reported. Additional more variable features include skin rash, uveitis, and polyarthritis, consistent with a systemic hyperinflammatory state. Many patients have evidence of autoimmune disease. Rare patients may also have concurrent features of immunodeficiency, including recurrent infections with low numbers of certain white blood cells or impaired function of immune cells. The disorder results from a failure of mutant TNFAIP3 to suppress the activation of inflammatory cytokines in the NFKB (see 164011) signaling pathway; treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNFA; 191160) inhibitors may be beneficial. Although some of the clinical features of AIFBL1 resemble those of Behcet disease (109650), the more common form of Behcet disease is believed to be polygenic, typically shows later onset in early adulthood, and has symptoms usually restricted to the mucosa (summary by Zhou et al., 2016; Aeschlimann et al., 2018, and Kadowaki et al., 2018). Genetic Heterogeneity of AIFBL See also AIFBL2 (301074), caused by mutation in the ELF4 gene (300775) on chromosome Xq26.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Venkatesulu B, Giridhar P, Pujari L, Chou B, Lee JH, Block AM, Upadhyay R, Welsh JS, Harkenrider MM, Krishnan S, Verma V, En Hsieh C, Pradhan S, Small W Jr, Solanki AA
Radiother Oncol 2022 Dec;177:81-94. Epub 2022 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2022.10.019. PMID: 36334694
Ravn J, Jensen HB, Kant M, Andersen PB, Góra MK, Sejbaek T
Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022 Nov;67:104081. Epub 2022 Jul 29 doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2022.104081. PMID: 35944466
Yu H, Chen F, Lam KO, Yang L, Wang Y, Jin JY, Ei Helali A, Kong FS
Front Immunol 2022;13:768811. Epub 2022 Jun 21 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.768811. PMID: 35799797Free PMC Article
Borrelli S, Mathias A, Goff GL, Pasquier RD, Théaudin M, Pot C
Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022 Jul;63:103887. Epub 2022 May 15 doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2022.103887. PMID: 35636269
Chen F, Ma L, Wang Q, Zhou M, Nong Y, Jing H, Han Y, Liu Y, Hu Y, Yu H, Fu P, Kong FS
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2022 Jul;5(7):e1525. Epub 2021 Aug 14 doi: 10.1002/cnr2.1525. PMID: 34390318Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Yu H, Chen F, Lam KO, Yang L, Wang Y, Jin JY, Ei Helali A, Kong FS
Front Immunol 2022;13:768811. Epub 2022 Jun 21 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.768811. PMID: 35799797Free PMC Article
Eberst G, Vernerey D, Laheurte C, Meurisse A, Kaulek V, Cuche L, Jacoulet P, Almotlak H, Lahourcade J, Gainet-Brun M, Fabre E, Le Pimpec-Barthes F, Adotevi O, Westeel V
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Baïsse A, Daix T, Hernandez Padilla AC, Jeannet R, Barraud O, Dalmay F, François B, Vignon P, Lafon T
BMC Infect Dis 2022 Mar 26;22(1):295. doi: 10.1186/s12879-022-07295-5. PMID: 35346082Free PMC Article
Chen F, Ma L, Wang Q, Zhou M, Nong Y, Jing H, Han Y, Liu Y, Hu Y, Yu H, Fu P, Kong FS
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2022 Jul;5(7):e1525. Epub 2021 Aug 14 doi: 10.1002/cnr2.1525. PMID: 34390318Free PMC Article
García-García I, Guerra-García P, Ferreras C, Borobia AM, Carcas AJ, Queiruga-Parada J, Vicario JL, Mirones I, Solano C, Eguizabal C, Soria B, Pérez-Martínez A
Trials 2021 Oct 2;22(1):674. doi: 10.1186/s13063-021-05625-7. PMID: 34600562Free PMC Article

Therapy

Ravn J, Jensen HB, Kant M, Andersen PB, Góra MK, Sejbaek T
Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022 Nov;67:104081. Epub 2022 Jul 29 doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2022.104081. PMID: 35944466
Borrelli S, Mathias A, Goff GL, Pasquier RD, Théaudin M, Pot C
Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022 Jul;63:103887. Epub 2022 May 15 doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2022.103887. PMID: 35636269
Eberst G, Vernerey D, Laheurte C, Meurisse A, Kaulek V, Cuche L, Jacoulet P, Almotlak H, Lahourcade J, Gainet-Brun M, Fabre E, Le Pimpec-Barthes F, Adotevi O, Westeel V
BMC Cancer 2022 May 11;22(1):529. doi: 10.1186/s12885-022-09628-8. PMID: 35546670Free PMC Article
Baïsse A, Daix T, Hernandez Padilla AC, Jeannet R, Barraud O, Dalmay F, François B, Vignon P, Lafon T
BMC Infect Dis 2022 Mar 26;22(1):295. doi: 10.1186/s12879-022-07295-5. PMID: 35346082Free PMC Article
Chen F, Ma L, Wang Q, Zhou M, Nong Y, Jing H, Han Y, Liu Y, Hu Y, Yu H, Fu P, Kong FS
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2022 Jul;5(7):e1525. Epub 2021 Aug 14 doi: 10.1002/cnr2.1525. PMID: 34390318Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Venkatesulu B, Giridhar P, Pujari L, Chou B, Lee JH, Block AM, Upadhyay R, Welsh JS, Harkenrider MM, Krishnan S, Verma V, En Hsieh C, Pradhan S, Small W Jr, Solanki AA
Radiother Oncol 2022 Dec;177:81-94. Epub 2022 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2022.10.019. PMID: 36334694
Yu H, Chen F, Lam KO, Yang L, Wang Y, Jin JY, Ei Helali A, Kong FS
Front Immunol 2022;13:768811. Epub 2022 Jun 21 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.768811. PMID: 35799797Free PMC Article
Eberst G, Vernerey D, Laheurte C, Meurisse A, Kaulek V, Cuche L, Jacoulet P, Almotlak H, Lahourcade J, Gainet-Brun M, Fabre E, Le Pimpec-Barthes F, Adotevi O, Westeel V
BMC Cancer 2022 May 11;22(1):529. doi: 10.1186/s12885-022-09628-8. PMID: 35546670Free PMC Article
Ma Y, Yang X, Villalba N, Chatterjee V, Reynolds A, Spence S, Wu MH, Yuan SY
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Chen F, Ma L, Wang Q, Zhou M, Nong Y, Jing H, Han Y, Liu Y, Hu Y, Yu H, Fu P, Kong FS
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2022 Jul;5(7):e1525. Epub 2021 Aug 14 doi: 10.1002/cnr2.1525. PMID: 34390318Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Venkatesulu B, Giridhar P, Pujari L, Chou B, Lee JH, Block AM, Upadhyay R, Welsh JS, Harkenrider MM, Krishnan S, Verma V, En Hsieh C, Pradhan S, Small W Jr, Solanki AA
Radiother Oncol 2022 Dec;177:81-94. Epub 2022 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2022.10.019. PMID: 36334694
Ravn J, Jensen HB, Kant M, Andersen PB, Góra MK, Sejbaek T
Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022 Nov;67:104081. Epub 2022 Jul 29 doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2022.104081. PMID: 35944466
Yu H, Chen F, Lam KO, Yang L, Wang Y, Jin JY, Ei Helali A, Kong FS
Front Immunol 2022;13:768811. Epub 2022 Jun 21 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.768811. PMID: 35799797Free PMC Article
Sainz de la Maza S, Sabin Muñoz J, Pilo de la Fuente B, Thuissard I, Andreu-Vázquez C, Galán Sánchez-Seco V, Salgado-Cámara P, Costa-Frossard L, Monreal E, Ayuso-Peralta L, García-Vasco L, García-Domínguez JM, Martínez-Ginés ML, Muñoz Fernández C, Díaz-Díaz J, Oreja-Guevara C, Gómez-Moreno M, Martín H, Rubio-Flores L, Blasco MR, Villar-Guimerans LM, Aladro Y; Dimethyl Fumarate Study Group.
Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022 Mar;59:103669. Epub 2022 Feb 4 doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2022.103669. PMID: 35150979
Chen F, Ma L, Wang Q, Zhou M, Nong Y, Jing H, Han Y, Liu Y, Hu Y, Yu H, Fu P, Kong FS
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2022 Jul;5(7):e1525. Epub 2021 Aug 14 doi: 10.1002/cnr2.1525. PMID: 34390318Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Venkatesulu B, Giridhar P, Pujari L, Chou B, Lee JH, Block AM, Upadhyay R, Welsh JS, Harkenrider MM, Krishnan S, Verma V, En Hsieh C, Pradhan S, Small W Jr, Solanki AA
Radiother Oncol 2022 Dec;177:81-94. Epub 2022 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2022.10.019. PMID: 36334694
Danckaert W, Spaas M, Vandecasteele K, De Wagter C, Ost P
Radiother Oncol 2022 May;170:64-69. Epub 2022 Mar 4 doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2022.02.030. PMID: 35257847
Venkatesulu BP, Chan DP, Giridhar P, Upadhyay R, Sharma A, Elghazawy H, Elumalai T, V P, Mallick S, Hsieh CE
Future Oncol 2022 May;18(15):1885-1895. Epub 2022 Feb 8 doi: 10.2217/fon-2021-0483. PMID: 35132868
Elumalai T, Periasamy K, Rajendran I, Yedala A, Giridhar P, Upadhya R, Kim BK, Sharma A, Elghazawy H, Dhanireddy B, Mallick S, Hsieh CE, Johnny C, Venkatesulu B
Cancer Invest 2021 Oct;39(9):769-776. Epub 2021 Aug 17 doi: 10.1080/07357907.2021.1960992. PMID: 34313522
Upadhyay R, Venkatesulu BP, Giridhar P, Kim BK, Sharma A, Elghazawy H, Dhanireddy B, Elumalai T, Mallick S, Harkenrider M
Radiother Oncol 2021 Apr;157:225-233. Epub 2021 Feb 10 doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2021.01.034. PMID: 33577865

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