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Primary ciliary dyskinesia 17(CILD17)

MedGen UID:
762261
Concept ID:
C3542550
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: CILIARY DYSKINESIA, PRIMARY, 17, WITH OR WITHOUT SITUS INVERSUS; Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia17: CCDC103-Related Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
 
Gene (location): CCDC103 (17q21.31)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013854
OMIM®: 614679

Definition

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-17 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early infantile onset of respiratory distress associated with a defect in the function of ciliary outer dynein arms. Situs inversus is variable (summary by Panizzi et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.

In the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.

Some individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.

Approximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.

Rarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.

Another feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/primary-ciliary-dyskinesia

Clinical features

From HPO
Dextrocardia
MedGen UID:
4255
Concept ID:
C0011813
Congenital Abnormality
The heart is located in the right hand sided hemithorax. That is, there is a left-right reversal (or "mirror reflection") of the anatomical location of the heart in which the heart is locate on the right side instead of the left.
Situs inversus
MedGen UID:
1642262
Concept ID:
C4551493
Congenital Abnormality
A left-right reversal (or "mirror reflection") of the anatomical location of the major thoracic and abdominal organs.
Bronchiectasis
MedGen UID:
14234
Concept ID:
C0006267
Disease or Syndrome
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi owing to localized and irreversible destruction and widening of the large airways.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia
MedGen UID:
3467
Concept ID:
C0008780
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nRarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.
Cough
MedGen UID:
41325
Concept ID:
C0010200
Sign or Symptom
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation.
Recurrent respiratory infections
MedGen UID:
812812
Concept ID:
C3806482
Finding
An increased susceptibility to respiratory infections as manifested by a history of recurrent respiratory infections.
Dynein arm defect of respiratory motile cilia
MedGen UID:
868591
Concept ID:
C4022990
Finding
An anomaly of the dynein arms of motile cilia. This feature is usually appreciated by electron microscopy.
Chronic sinusitis
MedGen UID:
101751
Concept ID:
C0149516
Disease or Syndrome
A chronic form of sinusitis.
Recurrent otitis media
MedGen UID:
155436
Concept ID:
C0747085
Disease or Syndrome
Increased susceptibility to otitis media, as manifested by recurrent episodes of otitis media.
Chronic rhinitis
MedGen UID:
3086
Concept ID:
C0008711
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa.

Term Hierarchy

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

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Am J Rhinol Allergy 2021 Jan;35(1):72-76. Epub 2020 Jun 19 doi: 10.1177/1945892420933175. PMID: 32551925Free PMC Article
Wheway G, Schmidts M, Mans DA, Szymanska K, Nguyen TT, Racher H, Phelps IG, Toedt G, Kennedy J, Wunderlich KA, Sorusch N, Abdelhamed ZA, Natarajan S, Herridge W, van Reeuwijk J, Horn N, Boldt K, Parry DA, Letteboer SJF, Roosing S, Adams M, Bell SM, Bond J, Higgins J, Morrison EE, Tomlinson DC, Slaats GG, van Dam TJP, Huang L, Kessler K, Giessl A, Logan CV, Boyle EA, Shendure J, Anazi S, Aldahmesh M, Al Hazzaa S, Hegele RA, Ober C, Frosk P, Mhanni AA, Chodirker BN, Chudley AE, Lamont R, Bernier FP, Beaulieu CL, Gordon P, Pon RT, Donahue C, Barkovich AJ, Wolf L, Toomes C, Thiel CT, Boycott KM, McKibbin M, Inglehearn CF; UK10K Consortium; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Stewart F, Omran H, Huynen MA, Sergouniotis PI, Alkuraya FS, Parboosingh JS, Innes AM, Willoughby CE, Giles RH, Webster AR, Ueffing M, Blacque O, Gleeson JG, Wolfrum U, Beales PL, Gibson T, Doherty D, Mitchison HM, Roepman R, Johnson CA
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Diagnosis

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Bergmann C
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Therapy

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Prognosis

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Lee DDH, Cardinale D, Saman Y, Hirst RA, Wilson N, Corden V, Rutman A, de Haro T, Hynds RE, McHugh T, Rea P, Smith CM, Oâ Callaghan C
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Clinical prediction guides

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Pappa AK, Sullivan KM, Lopez EM, Adams KN, Zanation AM, Ebert CS Jr, Thorp BD, Senior BA, Leigh MW, Knowles MR, Kimple AJ
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Wheway G, Schmidts M, Mans DA, Szymanska K, Nguyen TT, Racher H, Phelps IG, Toedt G, Kennedy J, Wunderlich KA, Sorusch N, Abdelhamed ZA, Natarajan S, Herridge W, van Reeuwijk J, Horn N, Boldt K, Parry DA, Letteboer SJF, Roosing S, Adams M, Bell SM, Bond J, Higgins J, Morrison EE, Tomlinson DC, Slaats GG, van Dam TJP, Huang L, Kessler K, Giessl A, Logan CV, Boyle EA, Shendure J, Anazi S, Aldahmesh M, Al Hazzaa S, Hegele RA, Ober C, Frosk P, Mhanni AA, Chodirker BN, Chudley AE, Lamont R, Bernier FP, Beaulieu CL, Gordon P, Pon RT, Donahue C, Barkovich AJ, Wolf L, Toomes C, Thiel CT, Boycott KM, McKibbin M, Inglehearn CF; UK10K Consortium; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Stewart F, Omran H, Huynen MA, Sergouniotis PI, Alkuraya FS, Parboosingh JS, Innes AM, Willoughby CE, Giles RH, Webster AR, Ueffing M, Blacque O, Gleeson JG, Wolfrum U, Beales PL, Gibson T, Doherty D, Mitchison HM, Roepman R, Johnson CA
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Recent systematic reviews

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