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Osteogenesis imperfecta type 13(OI13)

MedGen UID:
766801
Concept ID:
C3553887
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: BMP1-Related Osteogenesis Imperfecta; OI, TYPE XIII; Osteogenesis imperfecta, type xiii
 
Gene (location): BMP1 (8p21.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013924
OMIM®: 614856

Definition

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Due to considerable phenotypic variability, Sillence et al. (1979) developed a classification of OI subtypes based on clinical features and disease severity: OI type I, with blue sclerae (166200); perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI (166210); OI type III, a progressively deforming form with normal sclerae (259420); and OI type IV, with normal sclerae (166220). Most cases of OI are autosomal dominant with mutations in 1 of the 2 genes that code for type I collagen alpha chains, COL1A1 (120150) and COL1A2 (120160). Martinez-Glez et al. (2012) described osteogenesis imperfecta type XIII, an autosomal recessive form of the disorder characterized by normal teeth, faint blue sclerae, severe growth deficiency, borderline osteoporosis, and an average of 10 to 15 fractures a year affecting both upper and lower limbs and with severe bone deformity. [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders that mainly affect the bones. The term "osteogenesis imperfecta" means imperfect bone formation. People with this condition have bones that break (fracture) easily, often from mild trauma or with no apparent cause. Multiple fractures are common, and in severe cases, can occur even before birth. Milder cases may involve only a few fractures over a person's lifetime.

There are at least 19 recognized forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, designated type I through type XIX. Several types are distinguished by their signs and symptoms, although their characteristic features overlap. Increasingly, genetic causes are used to define rarer forms of osteogenesis imperfecta. Type I (also known as classic non-deforming osteogenesis imperfecta with blue sclerae) is the mildest form of osteogenesis imperfecta. Type II (also known as perinatally lethal osteogenesis imperfecta) is the most severe. Other types of this condition, including types III (progressively deforming osteogenesis imperfecta) and IV (common variable osteogenesis imperfecta with normal sclerae), have signs and symptoms that fall somewhere between these two extremes.

The milder forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, including type I, are characterized by bone fractures during childhood and adolescence that often result from minor trauma, such as falling while learning to walk. Fractures occur less frequently in adulthood. People with mild forms of the condition typically have a blue or grey tint to the part of the eye that is usually white (the sclera), and about half develop hearing loss in adulthood. Unlike more severely affected individuals, people with type I are usually of normal or near normal height.

Other types of osteogenesis imperfecta are more severe, causing frequent bone fractures that are present at birth and result from little or no trauma. Additional features of these types can include blue sclerae of the eyes, short stature, curvature of the spine (scoliosis), joint deformities (contractures), hearing loss, respiratory problems, and a disorder of tooth development called dentinogenesis imperfecta. Mobility can be reduced in affected individuals, and some may use a walker or wheelchair. The most severe forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, particularly type II, can include an abnormally small, fragile rib cage and underdeveloped lungs. Infants with these abnormalities may have life-threatening problems with breathing and can die shortly after birth.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/osteogenesis-imperfecta

Clinical features

From HPO
Nocturnal enuresis
MedGen UID:
124355
Concept ID:
C0270327
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Nocturnal enuresis, or nightly bedwetting in children more than 7 years of age, affects about 10% of 7-year-old children, with a wide range of frequencies between populations. The affliction is often linked to major social maladjustments and occupies considerable time in general medical practice. From the age of 7, there is a spontaneous cure rate of 15% per year, such that few remain affected after the age of 16 years. There are 2 types of nocturnal enuresis: type I, the primary form (PNE), with at least 3 nightly episodes in children older than 7 years, where the child has always had the disorder, and type II, or secondary type, where the child has been dry for at least 6 months but enuresis has recurred (summary by Eiberg et al., 1995). Genetic Heterogeneity of Nocturnal Enuresis ENUR1 has been mapped to chromosome 13q, and ENUR2 has been mapped to chromosome 12q.
Arachnodactyly
MedGen UID:
2047
Concept ID:
C0003706
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally long and slender fingers ("spider fingers").
Dislocated radial head
MedGen UID:
488814
Concept ID:
C0265563
Congenital Abnormality
A dislocation of the head of the radius from its socket in the elbow joint.
Wide distal femoral metaphysis
MedGen UID:
376560
Concept ID:
C1849309
Finding
Increased width of the distal part of the shaft (metaphysis) of the femur.
Limitation of knee mobility
MedGen UID:
866903
Concept ID:
C4021259
Finding
An abnormal limitation of knee joint mobility.
Angulated humerus
MedGen UID:
871081
Concept ID:
C4025546
Finding
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Decreased body weight
MedGen UID:
1806755
Concept ID:
C5574742
Finding
Abnormally low body weight.
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Protruding ear
MedGen UID:
343309
Concept ID:
C1855285
Finding
Angle formed by the plane of the ear and the mastoid bone greater than the 97th centile for age (objective); or, outer edge of the helix more than 2 cm from the mastoid at the point of maximum distance (objective).
Delayed gross motor development
MedGen UID:
332508
Concept ID:
C1837658
Finding
A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the large muscles of the body for walking, running, sitting, and crawling.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Dentinogenesis imperfecta
MedGen UID:
8313
Concept ID:
C0011436
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental dysplasia of dentin.
Recurrent fractures
MedGen UID:
42094
Concept ID:
C0016655
Injury or Poisoning
The repeated occurrence of bone fractures (implying an abnormally increased tendency for fracture).
Umbilical hernia
MedGen UID:
9232
Concept ID:
C0019322
Anatomical Abnormality
Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the abdominal wall musculature around the umbilicus. Skin and subcutaneous tissue overlie the defect.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Osteoporosis
MedGen UID:
14535
Concept ID:
C0029456
Disease or Syndrome
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a consequent increase in bone fragility. According to the WHO criteria, osteoporosis is defined as a BMD that lies 2.5 standard deviations or more below the average value for young healthy adults (a T-score below -2.5 SD).
Increased bone mineral density
MedGen UID:
10502
Concept ID:
C0029464
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormal increase of bone mineral density, that is, of the amount of matter per cubic centimeter of bones which is often referred to as osteosclerosis. Osteosclerosis can be detected on radiological examination as an increased whiteness (density) of affected bones.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Pectus carinatum
MedGen UID:
57643
Concept ID:
C0158731
Finding
A deformity of the chest caused by overgrowth of the ribs and characterized by protrusion of the sternum.
Muscular atrophy
MedGen UID:
892680
Concept ID:
C0541794
Pathologic Function
The presence of skeletal muscular atrophy (which is also known as amyotrophy).
Kyphoscoliosis
MedGen UID:
154361
Concept ID:
C0575158
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal curvature of the spine in both a coronal (lateral) and sagittal (back-to-front) plane.
Platyspondyly
MedGen UID:
335010
Concept ID:
C1844704
Finding
A flattened vertebral body shape with reduced distance between the vertebral endplates.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Wide pubic symphysis
MedGen UID:
387763
Concept ID:
C1857190
Finding
Abnormally increased width of the pubic symphysis is the midline cartilaginous joint uniting the superior rami of the left and right pubic bones.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Femoral bowing
MedGen UID:
347888
Concept ID:
C1859461
Finding
Bowing (abnormal curvature) of the femur.
Reduced bone mineral density
MedGen UID:
393152
Concept ID:
C2674432
Finding
A reduction of bone mineral density, that is, of the amount of matter per cubic centimeter of bones.
Wormian bones
MedGen UID:
766814
Concept ID:
C3553900
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of extra bones within a cranial suture. Wormian bones are irregular isolated bones which appear in addition to the usual centers of ossification of the cranium.
Enlarged thorax
MedGen UID:
866616
Concept ID:
C4020962
Finding
Thin vermilion border
MedGen UID:
108294
Concept ID:
C0578038
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the medial part of the lip more than 2 SD below the mean, or apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the lip in the frontal view. The vermilion is the red part of the lips (and confusingly, the vermilion itself is also often referred to as being equivalent the lips).
Triangular face
MedGen UID:
324383
Concept ID:
C1835884
Finding
Facial contour, as viewed from the front, triangular in shape, with breadth at the temples and tapering to a narrow chin.
Broad forehead
MedGen UID:
338610
Concept ID:
C1849089
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently increased distance between the two sides of the forehead.
Long palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
340300
Concept ID:
C1849340
Finding
Distance between medial and lateral canthi is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, apparently increased length of the palpebral fissures.
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Generalized hirsutism
MedGen UID:
336538
Concept ID:
C1849211
Finding
Abnormally increased hair growth over much of the entire body.
Long eyelashes
MedGen UID:
342955
Concept ID:
C1853738
Finding
Mid upper eyelash length >10 mm or increased length of the eyelashes (subjective).
Blue sclerae
MedGen UID:
154236
Concept ID:
C0542514
Finding
An abnormal bluish coloration of the sclera.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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Orphanet J Rare Dis 2019 Sep 18;14(1):219. doi: 10.1186/s13023-019-1197-z. PMID: 31533771Free PMC Article
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Curr Osteoporos Rep 2016 Feb;14(1):1-9. doi: 10.1007/s11914-016-0299-y. PMID: 26861807

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

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Rev Med Chil 2020 Dec;148(12):1781-1786. doi: 10.4067/S0034-98872020001201781. PMID: 33844744
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Folkestad L
Dan Med J 2018 Apr;65(4) PMID: 29619932

Diagnosis

Su T, Zhu Y, Wang X, Zhu Q, Duan X
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BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 Jan 3;21(1):6. doi: 10.1186/s12891-019-3000-7. PMID: 31900144Free PMC Article
Folkestad L
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Therapy

Tauer JT, Boraschi-Diaz I, Al Rifai O, Rauch F, Ferron M, Komarova SV
Mol Genet Metab 2021 Jun;133(2):211-221. Epub 2021 Mar 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2021.03.014. PMID: 33814269
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Trejo P, Palomo T, Montpetit K, Fassier F, Sato A, Glorieux FH, Rauch F
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Prognosis

Storoni S, Treurniet S, Maugeri A, Pals G, van den Aardweg JG, van der Pas SL, Elting MW, Kloen P, Micha D, Eekhoff EMW
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LoMauro A, Landoni CV, Fraschini P, Molteni F, Aliverti A, Bertoli S, De Amicis R
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Oct 18;16(1):435. doi: 10.1186/s13023-021-02058-y. PMID: 34663416Free PMC Article
Harsevoort AGJ, Gooijer K, van Dijk FS, van der Grijn DAFM, Franken AAM, Dommisse AMV, Janus GJM
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Clinical prediction guides

Yang L, Liu B, Dong X, Wu J, Sun C, Xi L, Cheng R, Wu B, Wang H, Tong S, Wang D, Luo F
Osteoporos Int 2022 Jun;33(6):1373-1384. Epub 2022 Jan 19 doi: 10.1007/s00198-021-06263-0. PMID: 35044492Free PMC Article
LoMauro A, Landoni CV, Fraschini P, Molteni F, Aliverti A, Bertoli S, De Amicis R
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Oct 18;16(1):435. doi: 10.1186/s13023-021-02058-y. PMID: 34663416Free PMC Article
Waissbluth S, Lira K, Aracena K, Oyarzun J, Willson M, Seiltgens C
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Folkestad L
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Liu Y, Wang J, Ma D, Lv F, Xu X, Xia W, Jiang Y, Wang O, Xing X, Zhou P, Wang J, Yu W; ASAN, Li M
Clin Chim Acta 2016 Nov 1;462:201-209. Epub 2016 Sep 25 doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2016.09.019. PMID: 27678411

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