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Delayed closure of the anterior fontanelle

MedGen UID:
825928
Concept ID:
C3840083
Finding
Synonyms: Delayed anterior fontanelle closure; Delayed closure anterior fontanel; Delayed closure of anterior fontanel; Delayed closure of anterior fontanelle; Delayed closure of the anterior fontanel; Late closure of large anterior fontanel
SNOMED CT: Late closure of anterior fontanel (295091000119100)
 
HPO: HP:0001476

Definition

A delay in closure (ossification) of the anterior fontanelle, which generally undergoes closure around the 18th month of life. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Spongy degeneration of central nervous system
MedGen UID:
61565
Concept ID:
C0206307
Disease or Syndrome
Most individuals with Canavan disease have the neonatal/infantile form. Although such infants appear normal early in life, by age three to five months, hypotonia, head lag, macrocephaly, and developmental delays become apparent. With age, children with neonatal/infantile-onset Canavan disease often become irritable and experience sleep disturbance, seizures, and feeding difficulties. Swallowing deteriorates, and some children require nasogastric feeding or permanent feeding gastrostomies. Joint stiffness increases, so that these children resemble individuals with cerebral palsy. Children with mild/juvenile Canavan disease may have normal or mildly delayed speech or motor development early in life without regression. In spite of developmental delay most of these children can be educated in typical classroom settings and may benefit from speech therapy or tutoring as needed. Most children with mild forms of Canavan disease have normal head size, although macrocephaly, retinitis pigmentosa, and seizures have been reported in a few individuals.
Oto-palato-digital syndrome, type I
MedGen UID:
78542
Concept ID:
C0265251
Disease or Syndrome
The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
Coffin-Lowry syndrome
MedGen UID:
75556
Concept ID:
C0265252
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is usually characterized by severe-to-profound intellectual disability in males; less severely impaired individuals have been reported. Neuropsychiatric concerns can include behavioral problems, loss of strength, progressive spasticity or paraplegia, sleep apnea, or stroke. Stimulus-induced drop attacks (SIDAs) in which unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli or excitement triggers a brief collapse but no loss of consciousness are present in approximately 20% of affected individuals. Typically SIDAs begin between mid-childhood and the teens. Characteristic facial features may be more apparent with age. Upper-extremity differences may be subtle and include short, soft, fleshy hands with tapered fingers as well as fleshy forearms. Progressive kyphoscoliosis is one of the most difficult aspects of long-term care. Affected females tend to have intellectual disability in the mild-to-moderate range and may also have the typical facial, hand, and skeletal findings noted in males.
Neonatal pseudo-hydrocephalic progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
140806
Concept ID:
C0406586
Disease or Syndrome
Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WDRTS) is a rare autosomal recessive neonatal progeroid disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, failure to thrive, short stature, a progeroid appearance, hypotonia, and variable mental impairment (summary by Toriello, 1990). Average survival in WDRTS is 7 months, although survival into the third decade of life has been reported (Akawi et al., 2013).
Wrinkly skin syndrome
MedGen UID:
98030
Concept ID:
C0406587
Disease or Syndrome
ATP6V0A2-related cutis laxa is characterized by generalized cutis laxa, findings associated with generalized connective tissue disorder, developmental delays, and a variety of neurologic findings including abnormality on brain MRI. At birth, hypotonia, overfolded skin, and distinctive facial features are present and enlarged fontanelles are often observed. During childhood, the characteristic facial features and thick or coarse hair may become quite pronounced. The skin findings decrease with age, although easy bruising and Ehlers-Danlos-like scars have been described in some. In most (not all) affected individuals, cortical and cerebellar malformations are observed on brain MRI. Nearly all affected individuals have developmental delays, seizures, and neurologic regression.
GAPO syndrome
MedGen UID:
98034
Concept ID:
C0406723
Disease or Syndrome
GAPO syndrome is the acronymic designation for a complex of growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia (failure of tooth eruption), and progressive optic atrophy (Tipton and Gorlin, 1984). Ilker et al. (1999) and Bayram et al. (2014) noted that optic atrophy is not a consistent feature of the disorder.
Dysosteosclerosis
MedGen UID:
98150
Concept ID:
C0432262
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic primary bone dysplasia disease characterized by progressive osteosclerosis and platyspondyly.
Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis
MedGen UID:
96590
Concept ID:
C0432268
Disease or Syndrome
Most females with osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) present with macrocephaly and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge, and prominent jaw). Approximately half have associated features including orofacial clefting and hearing loss, and a minority have some degree of developmental delay (usually mild). Radiographic findings of cranial sclerosis, sclerosis of long bones, and metaphyseal striations (in combination with macrocephaly) can be considered pathognomonic. Males can present with a mild or severe phenotype. Mildly affected males have clinical features similar to affected females, including macrocephaly, characteristic facial features, orofacial clefting, hearing loss, and mild-to-moderate learning delays. Mildly affected males are more likely than females to have congenital or musculoskeletal anomalies. Radiographic findings include cranial sclerosis and sclerosis of the long bones; Metaphyseal striations are more common in males who are mosaic for an AMER1 pathogenic variant. The severe phenotype manifests in males as a multiple-malformation syndrome, lethal in mid-to-late gestation, or in the neonatal period. Congenital malformations include skeletal defects (e.g., polysyndactyly, absent or hypoplastic fibulae), congenital heart disease, and brain, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Macrocephaly is not always present and longitudinal metaphyseal striations have not been observed in severely affected males, except for those who are mosaic for the AMER1 pathogenic variant.
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features.
Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia
MedGen UID:
334671
Concept ID:
C1843042
Disease or Syndrome
Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia is characterized by facial dysmorphism, late-closing fontanels, cataract, and skeletal defects (summary by Boyadjiev et al., 2011).
Oto-palato-digital syndrome, type II
MedGen UID:
337064
Concept ID:
C1844696
Disease or Syndrome
The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis arthropathy spectrum
MedGen UID:
342428
Concept ID:
C1850155
Disease or Syndrome
Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy (MONA) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by progressive osteolysis (particularly of the carpal and tarsal bones), osteoporosis, subcutaneous nodules on the palms and soles, and progressive arthropathy (joint contractures, pain, swelling, and stiffness). Other manifestations include coarse facies, pigmented skin lesions, cardiac defects, and corneal opacities. Onset is usually between ages six months and six years (range: birth to 11 years).
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
339902
Concept ID:
C1853099
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Mesomelic dysplasia, Savarirayan type
MedGen UID:
343129
Concept ID:
C1854470
Disease or Syndrome
Severely hypoplastic and triangular-shaped tibiae and absence of the fibulae.Two sporadic cases have been described. Moderate mesomelia of the upper limbs, proximal widening of the ulnas, pelvic anomalies and marked bilateral glenoid hypoplasia also reported.
Autosomal recessive Kenny-Caffey syndrome
MedGen UID:
340923
Concept ID:
C1855648
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, primary bone dysplasia characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, short stature, cortical thickening and medullary stenosis of the long bones, absent diploic space in the skull bones, hypocalcemia due to the hypoparathyroidism, small hands and feet, delayed mental and motor development, intellectual disability, dental anomalies, and dysmorphic features, including prominent forehead, small deep-set eyes, beaked nose, and micrognathia.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, dermatosparaxis type
MedGen UID:
397792
Concept ID:
C2700425
Disease or Syndrome
Dermatosparaxis (meaning 'tearing of skin') is an autosomal recessive disorder of connective tissue resulting from deficiency of procollagen peptidase, an enzyme that aids in the processing of type I procollagen. The disorder and the responsible biochemical defect was first observed in cattle (Lapiere et al., 1971). Lapiere and Nusgens (1993) reviewed the discovery of dermatosparaxis in cattle, the elucidation of the disorder, its occurrence in other animals, and the delayed recognition of the disorder in the human.
Nestor-Guillermo progeria syndrome
MedGen UID:
462796
Concept ID:
C3151446
Disease or Syndrome
Nestor-Guillermo progeria syndrome (NGPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by lipoatrophy, osteoporosis, and very severe osteolysis. Patients have no cardiovascular impairment, diabetes mellitus, or hypertriglyceridemia, but suffer profound skeletal abnormalities that affect their quality of life. Onset is after 2 years of age, and lifespan is relatively long (summary by Cabanillas et al., 2011).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 12A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
766916
Concept ID:
C3554002
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome resulting from disordered peroxisome biogenesis. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 14 (CG14, equivalent to CGJ) have mutations in the PEX19 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 13A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
766918
Concept ID:
C3554004
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome resulting from disordered peroxisome biogenesis. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group K (CGK) have mutations in the PEX14 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Autosomal dominant Kenny-Caffey syndrome
MedGen UID:
1373312
Concept ID:
C4316787
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, primary bone dysplasia characterized by severe growth retardation, short stature, cortical thickening and medullary stenosis of long bones, delayed closure of the anterior fontanelle, absent diploic space in the skull bones, prominent forehead, macrocephaly, dental anomalies, eye problems (hypermetropia and pseudopapilledema), and hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism, sometimes resulting in convulsions. Intelligence is normal.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, arthrochalasia type
MedGen UID:
1645042
Concept ID:
C4551623
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrochalasia-type EDS is distinguished from other types of EDS by the frequency of congenital hip dislocation and extreme joint laxity with recurrent joint subluxations and minimal skin involvement (Byers et al., 1997; Giunta et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Arthrochalasia-type Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome See EDSARTH2 (617821), caused by mutation in the COL1A2 gene (120160).
Khan-Khan-Katsanis syndrome
MedGen UID:
1682553
Concept ID:
C5193110
Disease or Syndrome
Khan-Khan-Katsanis syndrome (3KS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder with variable involvement of the ocular, renal, skeletal, and sometimes cardiac systems. Affected individuals present at birth with multiple congenital anomalies, defects in urogenital and limb morphogenesis, poor overall growth with microcephaly, and global developmental delay (summary by Khan et al., 2019).
Structural brain anomalies with impaired intellectual development and craniosynostosis
MedGen UID:
1684861
Concept ID:
C5231485
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with BAIDCS have small head circumference with abnormalities in brain anatomy including variable deficiency of the corpus callosum (including agenesis), abnormal conformation of the ventricles and posterior fossa, hypoplasia of both cerebellar hemispheres, colpocephaly, and partial rhombencephalosynapsis (absence of the cerebellar vermis with fusion of the cerebellar hemispheres). Intellectual development is moderately to severely impaired. Bicoronal synostosis, scoliosis, and tethered cord may be present (Twigg et al., 2015; Vandervore et al., 2018). Craniosynostosis-6 (CRS6; 616602) is an allelic disorder.
Silver-russell syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1714148
Concept ID:
C5394446
Disease or Syndrome
Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS) is typically characterized by asymmetric gestational growth restriction resulting in affected individuals being born small for gestational age, with relative macrocephaly at birth (head circumference =1.5 SD above birth weight and/or length), prominent forehead usually with frontal bossing, and frequently body asymmetry. This is followed by postnatal growth failure, and in some cases progressive limb length discrepancy and feeding difficulties. Additional clinical features include triangular facies, fifth-finger clinodactyly, and micrognathia with narrow chin. Except for the limb length asymmetry, the growth failure is proportionate and head growth normal. The average adult height in untreated individuals is ~3.1±1.4 SD below the mean. The Netchine-Harbison Clinical Scoring System (NH-CSS) is a sensitive diagnostic scoring system. Clinical diagnosis can be established in an individual who meets at least four of the NH-CSS clinical criteria – prominent forehead/frontal bossing and relative macrocephaly at birth plus two additional findings – and in whom other disorders have been ruled out.
FG syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1768809
Concept ID:
C5399762
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with central hypotonia and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1807420
Concept ID:
C5676944
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with central hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDCHF) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, seizures, distinctive facial features, scoliosis, delayed closure of the anterior fontanel, and nonspecific brain abnormalities (Wakeling et al., 2021).

Professional guidelines

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Chen X, Zou C
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2024 Apr;12(4):e2433. doi: 10.1002/mgg3.2433. PMID: 38591167Free PMC Article
Baglam T, Binnetoglu A, Fatih Topuz M, Baş Ikizoglu N, Ersu R, Turan S, Sarı M
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Apr;95:91-96. Epub 2017 Feb 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.02.009. PMID: 28576543
Low K, Ashraf T, Canham N, Clayton-Smith J, Deshpande C, Donaldson A, Fisher R, Flinter F, Foulds N, Fryer A, Gibson K, Hayes I, Hills A, Holder S, Irving M, Joss S, Kivuva E, Lachlan K, Magee A, McConnell V, McEntagart M, Metcalfe K, Montgomery T, Newbury-Ecob R, Stewart F, Turnpenny P, Vogt J, Fitzpatrick D, Williams M; DDD Study, Smithson S
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Nov;170(11):2835-2846. Epub 2016 Sep 26 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37842. PMID: 27667800Free PMC Article
Pindrik J, Ye X, Ji BG, Pendleton C, Ahn ES
Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2014 Oct;53(12):1149-57. Epub 2014 Jun 11 doi: 10.1177/0009922814538492. PMID: 24920348
Isojima T, Doi K, Mitsui J, Oda Y, Tokuhiro E, Yasoda A, Yorifuji T, Horikawa R, Yoshimura J, Ishiura H, Morishita S, Tsuji S, Kitanaka S
J Bone Miner Res 2014 Apr;29(4):992-8. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2091. PMID: 23996431

Diagnosis

Chen X, Zou C
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2024 Apr;12(4):e2433. doi: 10.1002/mgg3.2433. PMID: 38591167Free PMC Article
Kağızmanlı GA, Kırbıyık Ö, Abacı A, Böber E, Yiş U, Demir K
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2024 Mar;100(3):304-311. Epub 2023 Dec 26 doi: 10.1111/cen.15007. PMID: 38148509
Cheng SSW, Chan PKJ, Luk HM, Mok MT, Lo IFM
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Feb;185(2):636-646. Epub 2020 Dec 1 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61991. PMID: 33263187
Baglam T, Binnetoglu A, Fatih Topuz M, Baş Ikizoglu N, Ersu R, Turan S, Sarı M
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Apr;95:91-96. Epub 2017 Feb 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.02.009. PMID: 28576543
Low K, Ashraf T, Canham N, Clayton-Smith J, Deshpande C, Donaldson A, Fisher R, Flinter F, Foulds N, Fryer A, Gibson K, Hayes I, Hills A, Holder S, Irving M, Joss S, Kivuva E, Lachlan K, Magee A, McConnell V, McEntagart M, Metcalfe K, Montgomery T, Newbury-Ecob R, Stewart F, Turnpenny P, Vogt J, Fitzpatrick D, Williams M; DDD Study, Smithson S
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Nov;170(11):2835-2846. Epub 2016 Sep 26 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37842. PMID: 27667800Free PMC Article

Therapy

Baglam T, Binnetoglu A, Fatih Topuz M, Baş Ikizoglu N, Ersu R, Turan S, Sarı M
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Apr;95:91-96. Epub 2017 Feb 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.02.009. PMID: 28576543
Kang N, Kim SZ, Jung SN
J Craniofac Surg 2009 Mar;20(2):564-6. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e31819ba361. PMID: 19305258

Prognosis

Falk D, Zollikofer CP, Morimoto N, Ponce de León MS
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 May 29;109(22):8467-70. Epub 2012 May 7 doi: 10.1073/pnas.1119752109. PMID: 22566620Free PMC Article
Kang N, Kim SZ, Jung SN
J Craniofac Surg 2009 Mar;20(2):564-6. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e31819ba361. PMID: 19305258

Clinical prediction guides

Kağızmanlı GA, Kırbıyık Ö, Abacı A, Böber E, Yiş U, Demir K
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2024 Mar;100(3):304-311. Epub 2023 Dec 26 doi: 10.1111/cen.15007. PMID: 38148509
Baglam T, Binnetoglu A, Fatih Topuz M, Baş Ikizoglu N, Ersu R, Turan S, Sarı M
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Apr;95:91-96. Epub 2017 Feb 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.02.009. PMID: 28576543
Kang N, Kim SZ, Jung SN
J Craniofac Surg 2009 Mar;20(2):564-6. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e31819ba361. PMID: 19305258
Jotterand V, Boisjoly HM, Harnois C, Bigonesse P, Laframboise R, Gagné R, St-Pierre A
Br J Ophthalmol 1990 Sep;74(9):568-70. doi: 10.1136/bjo.74.9.568. PMID: 2168204Free PMC Article

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