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Ectodermal dysplasia 10B, hypohidrotic/hair/tooth type, autosomal recessive(HED; ECTD10B; EDA)

MedGen UID:
854356
Concept ID:
C3887494
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, autosomal recessive; Ectodermal dysplasia 10B, hypohidrotic/hair/tooth type, autosomal; Ectodermal Dysplasia, Hypohidrotic, Autosomal Recessive
 
Genes (locations): EDAR (2q13); EDARADD (1q42.3-43)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009147
OMIM®: 224900

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
J Timothy Wright  |  Dorothy K Grange  |  Mary Fete   view full author information

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Some people with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia have distinctive facial features, including a prominent forehead, thick lips, and a flattened bridge of the nose. Additional features of this condition can include thin, wrinkled, and dark-colored skin around the eyes; chronic skin problems such as eczema; and a bad-smelling discharge from the nostrils (ozena).

Intellectual ability and growth are typically normal in people with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

Affected individuals tend to have sparse scalp and body hair (hypotrichosis). The hair is often light-colored, brittle, and slow-growing. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is also characterized by several missing teeth (hypodontia) or teeth that are malformed. The teeth that are present erupt from the gums later than usual and are frequently small and pointed.

Most people with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia have a reduced ability to sweat (hypohidrosis) because they have fewer sweat glands than normal or their sweat glands do not function properly. Sweating is a major way that the body controls its temperature; as sweat evaporates from the skin, it cools the body. Reduced sweating can lead to a dangerously high body temperature (hyperthermia), particularly in hot weather. In some cases, hyperthermia can cause life-threatening health problems.

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is one of more than 100 types of ectodermal dysplasia. Starting before birth, these disorders result in the abnormal development of ectodermal tissues, particularly the skin, hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/hypohidrotic-ectodermal-dysplasia

Clinical features

From HPO
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Heat intolerance
MedGen UID:
66659
Concept ID:
C0231274
Pathologic Function
The inability to maintain a comfortable body temperature in warm or hot weather.
Partial congenital absence of teeth
MedGen UID:
43794
Concept ID:
C0020608
Congenital Abnormality
Tooth agenesis in some form is a common human anomaly that affects approximately 20% of the population. Although tooth agenesis is associated with numerous syndromes, several case reports describe nonsyndromic forms that are either sporadic or familial in nature, as reviewed by Gorlin et al. (1990). The incidence of familial tooth agenesis varies with each class of teeth. Most commonly affected are third molars (wisdom teeth), followed by either upper lateral incisors or lower second premolars; agenesis involving first and second molars is very rare. Also see 114600 and 302400. Selective tooth agenesis without associated systemic disorders has sometimes been divided into 2 types: oligodontia, defined as agenesis of 6 or more permanent teeth, and hypodontia, defined as agenesis of less than 6 teeth. The number in both cases does not include absence of third molars (wisdom teeth). Faulty use of the terms, however, have confounded their use. The term 'partial anodontia' is obsolete (Salinas, 1978). Genetic Heterogeneity of Selective Tooth Agenesis Other forms of selective tooth agenesis include STHAG2 (602639), mapped to chromosome 16q12; STHAG3 (604625), caused by mutation in the PAX9 gene (167416) on chromosome 14q12; STHAG4 (150400), caused by mutation in the WNT10A gene (606268) on chromosome 2q35; STHAG5 (610926), mapped to chromosome 10q11; STHAG7 (616724), caused by mutation in the LRP6 gene (603507) on chromosome 12p13; STHAG8 (617073), caused by mutation in the WNT10B gene (601906) on chromosome 12q13; STHAG9 (617275), caused by mutation in the GREM2 gene (608832) on chromosome 1q43; STHAG10 (620173), caused by mutation in the TSPEAR gene (612920) on chromosome 21q22; and STHAGX1 (313500), caused by mutation in the EDA gene (300451) on chromosome Xq13. A type of selective tooth agenesis that was formerly designated STHAG6 has been incorporated into the dental anomalies and short stature syndrome (DASS; 601216). Of 34 unrelated patients with nonsyndromic tooth agenesis, van den Boogaard et al. (2012) found that 56% (19 patients) had mutations in the WNT10A gene (STHAG4), whereas only 3% and 9% had mutations in the MSX1 (STHAG1) and PAX9 (STHAG3) genes, respectively. The authors concluded that WNT10A is a major gene in the etiology of isolated hypodontia. Genotype-Phenotype Correlations Yu et al. (2016) observed that the most frequently missing permanent teeth in WNT10B-associated oligodontia were the lateral incisors (83.3%), whereas premolars were missing only 51.4% of the time, which they noted was a pattern 'clearly different' from the oligodontia patterns resulting from WNT10A mutations. They also stated that the selective pattern in WNT10B mutants was different from that associated with mutations in other genes, such as MSX1, in which second premolars are missing, and PAX9, in which there is agenesis of molars.
Microdontia
MedGen UID:
66008
Concept ID:
C0240340
Congenital Abnormality
Decreased size of the teeth, which can be defined as a mesiodistal tooth diameter (width) more than 2 SD below mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased maximum width of tooth.
Conical tooth
MedGen UID:
82730
Concept ID:
C0266037
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormal conical form of the teeth, that is, a tooth whose sides converge or taper together incisally.
Anodontia
MedGen UID:
98313
Concept ID:
C0399352
Congenital Abnormality
The absence of all teeth from the normal series by a failure to develop.
Sparse eyebrow
MedGen UID:
371332
Concept ID:
C1832446
Finding
Decreased density/number of eyebrow hairs.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Thick vermilion border
MedGen UID:
332232
Concept ID:
C1836543
Finding
Increased width of the skin of vermilion border region of upper lip.
Everted lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
344003
Concept ID:
C1853246
Finding
An abnormal configuration of the lower lip such that it is turned outward i.e., everted, with the Inner aspect of the lower lip vermilion (normally opposing the teeth) being visible in a frontal view.
Everted upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
869272
Concept ID:
C4023698
Finding
Inner aspect of the upper lip vermilion (normally apposing the teeth) visible in a frontal view, i.e., the presence of an everted upper lip.
Oligodontia
MedGen UID:
904670
Concept ID:
C4082304
Congenital Abnormality
The absence of six or more teeth from the normal series by a failure to develop.
Anhidrosis
MedGen UID:
1550
Concept ID:
C0003028
Disease or Syndrome
Inability to sweat.
Hypohidrosis
MedGen UID:
43796
Concept ID:
C0020620
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally diminished capacity to sweat.
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
590621
Concept ID:
C0406701
Congenital Abnormality
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features.
Sparse eyelashes
MedGen UID:
375151
Concept ID:
C1843300
Finding
Decreased density/number of eyelashes.
Periorbital wrinkles
MedGen UID:
334988
Concept ID:
C1844605
Finding
Periorbital hyperpigmentation
MedGen UID:
337037
Concept ID:
C1844606
Finding
Increased pigmentation of the skin in the region surrounding the orbit of the eye.
Sparse hair
MedGen UID:
1790211
Concept ID:
C5551005
Finding
Reduced density of hairs.

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