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Immunodeficiency 36(IMD36)

MedGen UID:
863371
Concept ID:
C4014934
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: IMD36; IMMUNODEFICIENCY 36 WITH LYMPHOPROLIFERATION
 
Gene (location): PIK3R1 (5q13.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014453
OMIM®: 616005

Definition

Immunodeficiency-36 with lymphoproliferation (IMD36) is an autosomal dominant primary immunodeficiency with a highly heterogeneous clinical phenotype, characterized primarily by recurrent respiratory tract infections, lymphoproliferation, and antibody deficiency. Other features include growth retardation, mild neurodevelopmental delay, and autoimmunity. The major complication is development of B-cell lymphoma (Elkaim et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
There are two types of activated PI3K-delta syndrome, each with different genetic causes.

Some people with activated PI3K-delta syndrome develop autoimmunity, which occurs when the body attacks its own tissues and organs by mistake.

Another possible feature of activated PI3K-delta syndrome is abnormal clumping of white blood cells. These clumps can lead to enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy) or an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly). The white blood cells can also build up to form solid masses (nodular lymphoid hyperplasia), usually in the moist lining of the airways or intestines. While nodular lymphoid hyperplasia is not cancerous (benign), activated PI3K-delta syndrome increases the risk of developing forms of blood cancer called Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Most commonly, people with activated PI3K-delta syndrome develop recurrent infections that begin in childhood, particularly in the lungs, sinuses, and ears. Over time, recurrent respiratory tract infections can lead to a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages leading from the windpipe to the lungs (bronchi) and can cause breathing problems. People with activated PI3K-delta syndrome may also have chronic active viral infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, or cytomegalovirus infections.

Activated PI3K-delta syndrome (also known as APDS) is a disorder that impairs the immune system. Individuals with this condition often have low numbers of white blood cells (lymphopenia), particularly B cells and T cells. Normally, these cells recognize and attack foreign invaders, such as viruses and bacteria, to prevent infection. The severity of activated PI3K-delta syndrome varies widely. Some people may have multiple, severe infections while others show mild symptoms to none at all.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/activated-pi3k-delta-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia
MedGen UID:
44120
Concept ID:
C0023434
Neoplastic Process
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common neoplasia of B lymphocytes in which these cells progressively accumulate in the bone marrow, blood, and lymphoid tissues. The clinical evolution of the disorder is heterogeneous, with some patients having indolent disease and others having aggressive disease and short survival (summary by Quesada et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Susceptibility loci have been mapped to chromosomes 11p11 (CLLS1; 609630) and 13q14 (CLLS2; 109543) by genomewide linkage analysis and translocation studies, respectively. Susceptibility mapping to chromosome 9q34 (CLLS3; 612557) is associated with downregulation of the DAPK1 gene (600831). Genomewide association studies have identified susceptibility loci on chromosomes 6p25.3 (CLLS4; 612558) and 11q24.1 (CLLS5; 612559).
B-cell lymphoma
MedGen UID:
86953
Concept ID:
C0079731
Neoplastic Process
A type of lymphoma that originates in B-cells.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
99124
Concept ID:
C0456070
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
Chronic diarrhea
MedGen UID:
96036
Concept ID:
C0401151
Finding
The presence of chronic diarrhea, which is usually taken to mean diarrhea that has persisted for over 4 weeks.
Neurodevelopmental delay
MedGen UID:
868344
Concept ID:
C4022738
Finding
Neurodevelopmental delay (NDD) refers to delays in the maturation of the brain and central nervous system; infants and young children with NDD may experience delays in the development of one or more skills including gross motor abilities, fine-motor coordination, language abilities and ability to solve increasingly complex problems.
Bronchiectasis
MedGen UID:
14234
Concept ID:
C0006267
Disease or Syndrome
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi owing to localized and irreversible destruction and widening of the large airways.
Recurrent upper respiratory tract infections
MedGen UID:
154380
Concept ID:
C0581381
Disease or Syndrome
An increased susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections as manifested by a history of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (running ears - otitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis).
Recurrent lower respiratory tract infections
MedGen UID:
756211
Concept ID:
C3163798
Disease or Syndrome
An increased susceptibility to lower respiratory tract infections as manifested by a history of recurrent lower respiratory tract infections.
Autoimmunity
MedGen UID:
2136
Concept ID:
C0004368
Pathologic Function
The occurrence of an immune reaction against the organism's own cells or tissues.
Immunodeficiency
MedGen UID:
7034
Concept ID:
C0021051
Disease or Syndrome
Failure of the immune system to protect the body adequately from infection, due to the absence or insufficiency of some component process or substance.
Lymphopenia
MedGen UID:
7418
Concept ID:
C0024312
Disease or Syndrome
A reduced number of lymphocytes in the blood.
Splenomegaly
MedGen UID:
52469
Concept ID:
C0038002
Finding
Abnormal increased size of the spleen.
Decreased circulating IgA level
MedGen UID:
57934
Concept ID:
C0162538
Disease or Syndrome
Decreased levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA).
Enlarged tonsils
MedGen UID:
78800
Concept ID:
C0272386
Disease or Syndrome
Increase in size of the tonsils, small collections of lymphoid tissue facing into the aerodigestive tract on either side of the back part of the throat.
Increased circulating IgM level
MedGen UID:
333454
Concept ID:
C1839972
Finding
An abnormally increased level of immunoglobulin M in blood.
Recurrent bacterial infections
MedGen UID:
334943
Concept ID:
C1844383
Finding
Increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, as manifested by recurrent episodes of bacterial infection.
B lymphocytopenia
MedGen UID:
340780
Concept ID:
C1855067
Finding
An abnormal decrease from the normal count of B cells.
Persistent EBV viremia
MedGen UID:
767466
Concept ID:
C3554552
Finding
Persistent presence of Epstein-Barr virus in the blood.
Increased proportion of transitional B cells
MedGen UID:
892766
Concept ID:
C4072920
Finding
An elevation in the normal proportion of transitional B cells (CD19+/CD38high/IgMhigh) in circulation relative to the total number of B cells. B cells originate from precursors in the bone marrow, and the first cells which migrate to the peripheral blood have been classified as transitional B cells.
Persistent CMV viremia
MedGen UID:
1696514
Concept ID:
C5139221
Finding
Lasting (uncontrolled) presence of cytomegalovirus in the blood circulation.
Decreased proportion of naive CD8 T cells
MedGen UID:
1694295
Concept ID:
C5139538
Finding
An abnormally reduced proportion of naive CD8 T cells relative to the total number of T cells.
Decreased proportion of naive CD4 T cells
MedGen UID:
1705154
Concept ID:
C5139539
Finding
An abnormally reduced proportion of naive CD4 T cells relative to the total number of T cells.
Decreased circulating IgG level
MedGen UID:
1720114
Concept ID:
C5234937
Finding
An abnormally decreased level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in blood.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Thakar MS, Logan BR, Puck JM, Dunn EA, Buckley RH, Cowan MJ, O'Reilly RJ, Kapoor N, Satter LF, Pai SY, Heimall J, Chandra S, Ebens CL, Chellapandian D, Williams O, Burroughs LM, Saldana BD, Rayes A, Madden LM, Chandrakasan S, Bednarski JJ 2nd, DeSantes KB, Cuvelier GDE, Teira P, Gillio AP, Eissa H, Knutsen AP, Goldman FD, Aquino VM, Shereck EB, Moore TB, Caywood EH, Lugt MTV, Rozmus J, Broglie L, Yu LC, Shah AJ, Andolina JR, Liu X, Parrott RE, Dara J, Prockop S, Martinez CA, Kapadia M, Jyonouchi SC, Sullivan KE, Bleesing JJ, Chaudhury S, Petrovic A, Keller MD, Quigg TC, Parikh S, Shenoy S, Seroogy C, Rubin T, Decaluwe H, Routes JM, Torgerson TR, Leiding JW, Pulsipher MA, Kohn DB, Griffith LM, Haddad E, Dvorak CC, Notarangelo LD
Lancet 2023 Jul 8;402(10396):129-140. Epub 2023 Jun 20 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)00731-6. PMID: 37352885Free PMC Article
Chen W, Xia C, Zheng R, Zhou M, Lin C, Zeng H, Zhang S, Wang L, Yang Z, Sun K, Li H, Brown MD, Islami F, Bray F, Jemal A, He J
Lancet Glob Health 2019 Feb;7(2):e257-e269. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30488-1. PMID: 30683243
Luck SE, Wieringa JW, Blázquez-Gamero D, Henneke P, Schuster K, Butler K, Capretti MG, Cilleruelo MJ, Curtis N, Garofoli F, Heath P, Iosifidis E, Klein N, Lombardi G, Lyall H, Nieminen T, Pajkrt D, Papaevangelou V, Posfay-Barbe K, Puhakka L, Roilides E, Rojo P, Saavedra-Lozano J, Shah T, Sharland M, Saxen H, Vossen ACTM; ESPID Congenital CMV Group Meeting, Leipzig 2015
Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Dec;36(12):1205-1213. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001763. PMID: 29140947

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Thakar MS, Logan BR, Puck JM, Dunn EA, Buckley RH, Cowan MJ, O'Reilly RJ, Kapoor N, Satter LF, Pai SY, Heimall J, Chandra S, Ebens CL, Chellapandian D, Williams O, Burroughs LM, Saldana BD, Rayes A, Madden LM, Chandrakasan S, Bednarski JJ 2nd, DeSantes KB, Cuvelier GDE, Teira P, Gillio AP, Eissa H, Knutsen AP, Goldman FD, Aquino VM, Shereck EB, Moore TB, Caywood EH, Lugt MTV, Rozmus J, Broglie L, Yu LC, Shah AJ, Andolina JR, Liu X, Parrott RE, Dara J, Prockop S, Martinez CA, Kapadia M, Jyonouchi SC, Sullivan KE, Bleesing JJ, Chaudhury S, Petrovic A, Keller MD, Quigg TC, Parikh S, Shenoy S, Seroogy C, Rubin T, Decaluwe H, Routes JM, Torgerson TR, Leiding JW, Pulsipher MA, Kohn DB, Griffith LM, Haddad E, Dvorak CC, Notarangelo LD
Lancet 2023 Jul 8;402(10396):129-140. Epub 2023 Jun 20 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)00731-6. PMID: 37352885Free PMC Article
Oertel FC, Sotirchos ES, Zimmermann HG, Motamedi S, Specovius S, Asseyer ES, Chien C, Cook L, Vasileiou E, Filippatou A, Calabresi PA, Saidha S, Pandit L, D'Cunha A, Outteryck O, Zéphir H, Pittock S, Flanagan EP, Bhatti MT, Rommer PS, Bsteh G, Zrzavy T, Kuempfel T, Aktas O, Ringelstein M, Albrecht P, Ayzenberg I, Pakeerathan T, Knier B, Aly L, Asgari N, Soelberg K, Marignier R, Tilikete CF, Cobo Calvo A, Villoslada P, Sanchez-Dalmau B, Martinez-Lapiscina EH, Llufriu S, Green AJ, Yeaman MR, Smith TJ, Brandt AU, Chen J, Paul F, Havla J; with the GJCF International Clinical Consortium for NMOSD and the CROCTINO study group
Ann Neurol 2022 Sep;92(3):476-485. Epub 2022 Jul 16 doi: 10.1002/ana.26440. PMID: 35703428
Capriotti T
Home Healthc Now 2018 Nov/Dec;36(6):348-355. doi: 10.1097/NHH.0000000000000706. PMID: 30383593
van Os NJH, Jansen AFM, van Deuren M, Haraldsson A, van Driel NTM, Etzioni A, van der Flier M, Haaxma CA, Morio T, Rawat A, Schoenaker MHD, Soresina A, Taylor AMR, van de Warrenburg BPC, Weemaes CMR, Roeleveld N, Willemsen MAAP
Clin Immunol 2017 May;178:45-55. Epub 2017 Jan 24 doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2017.01.009. PMID: 28126470
Cossu F
Ital J Pediatr 2010 Nov 15;36:76. doi: 10.1186/1824-7288-36-76. PMID: 21078154Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Levy A, Guidez S, Debiais C, Princet I, Bouyer S, Dindinaud E, Delwail V, Systchenko T, Moya N, Gruchet C, Sabirou F, Bobin A, Gardeney H, Nsiala L, Cailly L, Olivier G, Motard C, Fleck E, Corby A, Roul C, Denis G, Dieval C, Leleu X, Tomowiak C
Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Nov;62(11):2665-2670. Epub 2021 Jun 4 doi: 10.1080/10428194.2021.1907379. PMID: 34085595
Sutherland EJ, Brew BJ
Neurol Clin 2018 Nov;36(4):751-765. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2018.07.002. PMID: 30366553
van Os NJH, Jansen AFM, van Deuren M, Haraldsson A, van Driel NTM, Etzioni A, van der Flier M, Haaxma CA, Morio T, Rawat A, Schoenaker MHD, Soresina A, Taylor AMR, van de Warrenburg BPC, Weemaes CMR, Roeleveld N, Willemsen MAAP
Clin Immunol 2017 May;178:45-55. Epub 2017 Jan 24 doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2017.01.009. PMID: 28126470
Allenspach E, Torgerson TR
J Clin Immunol 2016 May;36 Suppl 1:57-67. Epub 2016 May 23 doi: 10.1007/s10875-016-0294-1. PMID: 27210535
Dosanjh A
Pediatr Rev 2015 Nov;36(11):489-94; quiz 495. doi: 10.1542/pir.36-11-489. PMID: 26527628

Therapy

Baum P, Visvanathan S, Garcet S, Roy J, Schmid R, Bossert S, Lang B, Bachelez H, Bissonnette R, Thoma C, Krueger JG
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2022 Apr;149(4):1402-1412. Epub 2021 Oct 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2021.09.035. PMID: 34678325
Capriotti T
Home Healthc Now 2018 Nov/Dec;36(6):348-355. doi: 10.1097/NHH.0000000000000706. PMID: 30383593
Kiessling AA
J Assist Reprod Genet 2018 Nov;35(11):1969-1972. Epub 2018 Jul 13 doi: 10.1007/s10815-018-1253-y. PMID: 30006789Free PMC Article
Wong E, Trustman N, Yalong A
JAAPA 2016 Feb;29(2):36-40. doi: 10.1097/01.JAA.0000475465.07971.19. PMID: 26818644
Corbett AH, Lim ML, Kashuba AD
Ann Pharmacother 2002 Jul-Aug;36(7-8):1193-203. doi: 10.1345/aph.1A363. PMID: 12086554

Prognosis

Levy A, Guidez S, Debiais C, Princet I, Bouyer S, Dindinaud E, Delwail V, Systchenko T, Moya N, Gruchet C, Sabirou F, Bobin A, Gardeney H, Nsiala L, Cailly L, Olivier G, Motard C, Fleck E, Corby A, Roul C, Denis G, Dieval C, Leleu X, Tomowiak C
Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Nov;62(11):2665-2670. Epub 2021 Jun 4 doi: 10.1080/10428194.2021.1907379. PMID: 34085595
GBD 2017 HIV collaborators
Lancet HIV 2019 Dec;6(12):e831-e859. Epub 2019 Aug 19 doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30196-1. PMID: 31439534Free PMC Article
Casanova JL, Abel L
Semin Immunol 2018 Apr;36:1-12. Epub 2017 Dec 16 doi: 10.1016/j.smim.2017.12.008. PMID: 29254755Free PMC Article
Dong JP, Gao W, Teng GG, Tian Y, Wang HH
Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 Jul 5;130(13):1604-1609. doi: 10.4103/0366-6999.208234. PMID: 28639577Free PMC Article
van Os NJH, Jansen AFM, van Deuren M, Haraldsson A, van Driel NTM, Etzioni A, van der Flier M, Haaxma CA, Morio T, Rawat A, Schoenaker MHD, Soresina A, Taylor AMR, van de Warrenburg BPC, Weemaes CMR, Roeleveld N, Willemsen MAAP
Clin Immunol 2017 May;178:45-55. Epub 2017 Jan 24 doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2017.01.009. PMID: 28126470

Clinical prediction guides

Banday AZ, Nisar R, Patra PK, Kaur A, Sadanand R, Chaudhry C, Bukhari STA, Banday SZ, Bhattarai D, Notarangelo LD
J Clin Immunol 2023 Dec 22;44(1):17. doi: 10.1007/s10875-023-01633-1. PMID: 38129705
Ben Khaled M, Merdassi A, Rekaya S, Fraj IB, Lamouchi T, Zaiter I, Kouki R, Bejaoui M, Mellouli F, Ouederni M
Clin Rheumatol 2023 Nov;42(11):3123-3129. Epub 2023 Jul 28 doi: 10.1007/s10067-023-06722-5. PMID: 37505303
Laila U, Akram M, Shariati MA, Hashmi AM, Akhtar N, Tahir IM, Ghauri AO, Munir N, Riaz M, Akhter N, Shaheen G, Ullah Q, Zahid R, Ahmad S
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2019 Dec;46(12):1063-1073. Epub 2019 Aug 22 doi: 10.1111/1440-1681.13151. PMID: 31365763
Casanova JL, Abel L
Semin Immunol 2018 Apr;36:1-12. Epub 2017 Dec 16 doi: 10.1016/j.smim.2017.12.008. PMID: 29254755Free PMC Article
Probst C, Parry CD, Rehm J
Trop Med Int Health 2016 Jul;21(7):846-55. Epub 2016 May 18 doi: 10.1111/tmi.12712. PMID: 27118253

Recent systematic reviews

Wu S, Wang J, Guo Q, Lan H, Sun Y, Ren M, Liu Y, Wang P, Wang L, Su R, Zhang J, Chen Y, Li G
Clin Microbiol Infect 2023 Aug;29(8):1000-1007. Epub 2023 Mar 13 doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2023.03.002. PMID: 36921717
Global Burden of Disease 2019 Cancer Collaboration, Kocarnik JM, Compton K, Dean FE, Fu W, Gaw BL, Harvey JD, Henrikson HJ, Lu D, Pennini A, Xu R, Ababneh E, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abbastabar H, Abd-Elsalam SM, Abdoli A, Abedi A, Abidi H, Abolhassani H, Adedeji IA, Adnani QES, Advani SM, Afzal MS, Aghaali M, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad S, Ahmad T, Ahmadi A, Ahmadi S, Ahmed Rashid T, Ahmed Salih Y, Akalu GT, Aklilu A, Akram T, Akunna CJ, Al Hamad H, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Ali S, Alimohamadi Y, Alipour V, Aljunid SM, Alkhayyat M, Almasi-Hashiani A, Almasri NA, Al-Maweri SAA, Almustanyir S, Alonso N, Alvis-Guzman N, Amu H, Anbesu EW, Ancuceanu R, Ansari F, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antwi MH, Anvari D, Anyasodor AE, Aqeel M, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Aremu O, Ariffin H, Aripov T, Arshad M, Artaman A, Arulappan J, Asemi Z, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Ashraf T, Atorkey P, Aujayeb A, Ausloos M, Awedew AF, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayenew T, Azab MA, Azadnajafabad S, Azari Jafari A, Azarian G, Azzam AY, Badiye AD, Bahadory S, Baig AA, Baker JL, Balakrishnan S, Banach M, Bärnighausen TW, Barone-Adesi F, Barra F, Barrow A, Behzadifar M, Belgaumi UI, Bezabhe WMM, Bezabih YM, Bhagat DS, Bhagavathula AS, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhaskar S, Bhattacharyya K, Bhojaraja VS, Bibi S, Bijani A, Biondi A, Bisignano C, Bjørge T, Bleyer A, Blyuss O, Bolarinwa OA, Bolla SR, Braithwaite D, Brar A, Brenner H, Bustamante-Teixeira MT, Butt NS, Butt ZA, Caetano Dos Santos FL, Cao Y, Carreras G, Catalá-López F, Cembranel F, Cerin E, Cernigliaro A, Chakinala RC, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Chaturvedi P, Chimed-Ochir O, Cho DY, Christopher DJ, Chu DT, Chung MT, Conde J, Cortés S, Cortesi PA, Costa VM, Cunha AR, Dadras O, Dagnew AB, Dahlawi SMA, Dai X, Dandona L, Dandona R, Darwesh AM, das Neves J, De la Hoz FP, Demis AB, Denova-Gutiérrez E, Dhamnetiya D, Dhimal ML, Dhimal M, Dianatinasab M, Diaz D, Djalalinia S, Do HP, Doaei S, Dorostkar F, Dos Santos Figueiredo FW, Driscoll TR, Ebrahimi H, Eftekharzadeh S, El Tantawi M, El-Abid H, Elbarazi I, Elhabashy HR, Elhadi M, El-Jaafary SI, Eshrati B, Eskandarieh S, Esmaeilzadeh F, Etemadi A, Ezzikouri S, Faisaluddin M, Faraon EJA, Fares J, Farzadfar F, Feroze AH, Ferrero S, Ferro Desideri L, Filip I, Fischer F, Fisher JL, Foroutan M, Fukumoto T, Gaal PA, Gad MM, Gadanya MA, Gallus S, Gaspar Fonseca M, Getachew Obsa A, Ghafourifard M, Ghashghaee A, Ghith N, Gholamalizadeh M, Gilani SA, Ginindza TG, Gizaw ATT, Glasbey JC, Golechha M, Goleij P, Gomez RS, Gopalani SV, Gorini G, Goudarzi H, Grosso G, Gubari MIM, Guerra MR, Guha A, Gunasekera DS, Gupta B, Gupta VB, Gupta VK, Gutiérrez RA, Hafezi-Nejad N, Haider MR, Haj-Mirzaian A, Halwani R, Hamadeh RR, Hameed S, Hamidi S, Hanif A, Haque S, Harlianto NI, Haro JM, Hasaballah AI, Hassanipour S, Hay RJ, Hay SI, Hayat K, Heidari G, Heidari M, Herrera-Serna BY, Herteliu C, Hezam K, Holla R, Hossain MM, Hossain MBH, Hosseini MS, Hosseini M, Hosseinzadeh M, Hostiuc M, Hostiuc S, Househ M, Hsairi M, Huang J, Hugo FN, 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