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Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 29(MRD29)

MedGen UID:
863578
Concept ID:
C4015141
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT 29; MRD29
 
Gene (location): SETBP1 (18q12.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014482
OMIM®: 616078

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: SETBP1 Haploinsufficiency Disorder
SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder (SETBP1-HD) is characterized by hypotonia and mild motor developmental delay; intellectual abilities ranging from normal to severe disability; speech and language disorder; behavioral problems (most commonly attention/concentration deficits and hyperactivity, impulsivity), and refractive errors and strabismus. Typically children with SETBP1-HD whose intellect is in the normal or borderline range (IQ 80-90) were diagnosed following genetic testing for behavioral problems and/or severe speech and language disorders (respectively: the inability to produce sounds in words correctly, and deficits in the understanding and/or expression of words and sentences). To date, 47 individuals with SETBP1-HD have been reported. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Angela Morgan  |  Siddharth Srivastava  |  Jessica Duis, et. al.   view full author information

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder is a condition that involves speech and language problems, intellectual disability, and distinctive facial features.

In people with SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder, problems with vocabulary and the production of speech (expressive language skills) are generally more severely affected than the ability to understand speech (receptive language skills). About 80 percent of affected children have a condition called childhood apraxia of speech, in which they have difficulty with the mouth movements needed to speak. Speech development may be limited to a few words or no speech. Affected individuals often communicate using gestures or by mimicking the expressions of others.

Individuals with SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder have intellectual disability that can range from mild to moderate. They may also have neurodevelopment problems, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autistic behaviors that affect communication and social interaction. Affected individuals may have weak muscle tone (hypotonia); delayed development of motor skills, such as sitting, standing, and walking; or recurrent seizures (epilepsy).

Distinctive facial features in people with SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder can include a long face, a high forehead, eyebrows that grow together in the middle (synophrys), short eye openings (short palpebral fissures), skin folds covering the inner corner of the eyes (epicanthal folds), droopy eyelids (ptosis), puffiness of the skin around the eyes (periorbital fullness), small nostrils, a high nasal bridge, a broad tip of the nose, a thin upper lip, a high arch in the roof of the mouth (high-arched palate), and a small chin.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/setbp1-haploinsufficiency-disorder

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
An increase in height of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot that does not flatten on weight bearing (i.e., a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight).
Sandal gap
MedGen UID:
374376
Concept ID:
C1840069
Finding
A widely spaced gap between the first toe (the great toe) and the second toe.
Broad hallux
MedGen UID:
401165
Concept ID:
C1867131
Finding
Visible increase in width of the hallux without an increase in the dorso-ventral dimension.
Cutaneous finger syndactyly
MedGen UID:
866898
Concept ID:
C4021254
Congenital Abnormality
A soft tissue continuity in the A/P axis between two fingers that extends distally to at least the level of the proximal interphalangeal joints, or a soft tissue continuity in the A/P axis between two fingers that lies significantly distal to the flexion crease that overlies the metacarpophalangeal joint of the adjacent fingers.
Obesity
MedGen UID:
18127
Concept ID:
C0028754
Disease or Syndrome
Accumulation of substantial excess body fat.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Aggressive behavior
MedGen UID:
1375
Concept ID:
C0001807
Individual Behavior
Behavior or an act aimed at harming a person, animal, or physical property (e.g., acts of physical violence; shouting, swearing, and using harsh language; slashing someone's tires).
Anxiety
MedGen UID:
1613
Concept ID:
C0003467
Finding
Intense feelings of nervousness, tension, or panic often arise in response to interpersonal stresses. There is worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative possibilities. Individuals may feel fearful, apprehensive, or threatened by uncertainty, and they may also have fears of falling apart or losing control.
Aphasia
MedGen UID:
8159
Concept ID:
C0003537
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
An acquired language impairment of some or all of the abilities to produce or comprehend speech and to read or write.
Febrile seizure (within the age range of 3 months to 6 years)
MedGen UID:
3232
Concept ID:
C0009952
Disease or Syndrome
A febrile seizure is any type of seizure (most often a generalized tonic-clonic seizure) occurring with fever (at least 38 degrees Celsius) but in the absence of central nervous system infection, severe metabolic disturbance or other alternative precipitant in children between the ages of 3 months and 6 years.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Self-injurious behavior
MedGen UID:
88371
Concept ID:
C0085271
Individual Behavior
Self-aggression.
Generalized-onset seizure
MedGen UID:
115963
Concept ID:
C0234533
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized-onset seizure is a type of seizure originating at some point within, and rapidly engaging, bilaterally distributed networks. The networks may include cortical and subcortical structures but not necessarily the entire cortex.
Hyperactivity
MedGen UID:
98406
Concept ID:
C0424295
Finding
Hyperactivity is a condition characterized by constant and unusually high levels of activity, even in situations where it is deemed inappropriate.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Frequent temper tantrums
MedGen UID:
1369702
Concept ID:
C4476626
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Temper tantrums that occur more frequently compared to the temper tantrums that are a part of the normal developmental process.
Hyperlordosis
MedGen UID:
9805
Concept ID:
C0024003
Finding
Abnormally increased curvature (anterior concavity) of the lumbar or cervical spine.
Hypertonia
MedGen UID:
10132
Concept ID:
C0026826
Finding
A condition in which there is increased muscle tone so that arms or legs, for example, are stiff and difficult to move.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Brachycephaly
MedGen UID:
113165
Concept ID:
C0221356
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a decreased anterior-posterior diameter. That is, a cephalic index greater than 81%. Alternatively, an apparently shortened anteroposterior dimension (length) of the head compared to width.
Lumbar hyperlordosis
MedGen UID:
263149
Concept ID:
C1184923
Finding
An abnormal accentuation of the inward curvature of the spine in the lumbar region.
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
MedGen UID:
1640560
Concept ID:
C4551649
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH) is an abnormality of the seating of the femoral head in the acetabulum. Its severity ranges from mild instability of the femoral head with slight capsular laxity, through moderate lateral displacement of the femoral head, without loss of contact of the head with the acetabulum, up to complete dislocation of the femoral head from the acetabulum. It is one of the most common skeletal congenital anomalies (summary by Sollazzo et al., 2000). Acetabular dysplasia is an idiopathic, localized developmental dysplasia of the hip that is characterized by a shallow hip socket and decreased coverage of the femoral head. Its radiologic criteria include the center-edge angle of Wiberg, the Sharp angle, and the acetabular roof obliquity. Most patients with acetabular dysplasia develop osteoarthritis (165720) after midlife, and even mild acetabular dysplasia can cause hip osteoarthritis (summary by Mabuchi et al., 2006). CDH occurs as an isolated anomaly or with more general disorders represented by several syndromes and with chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomy 18 (Wynne-Davies, 1970). Genetic Heterogeneity of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Developmental dysplasia of the hip-1 (DDH1) maps to chromosome 13q22; DDH2 (615612) maps to chromosome 3p21. DDH3 (620690) is caused by mutation in the LRP1 gene (107770) on chromosome 12q13.
Narrow mouth
MedGen UID:
44435
Concept ID:
C0026034
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the commissures of the mouth more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Dental crowding
MedGen UID:
11850
Concept ID:
C0040433
Finding
Changes in alignment of teeth in the dental arch
Ankyloglossia
MedGen UID:
56288
Concept ID:
C0152415
Congenital Abnormality
Ankyloglossia, commonly known as 'tongue-tie,' is a congenital anomaly that occurs predominantly in males and is characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. The phenotype varies from absence of clinical significance to rare complete ankyloglossia where the ventral part of the tongue is fused to the floor of the mouth (Klockars, 2007). Some patients also exhibit absence of lower incisors (Acevedo et al., 2010).
Open mouth
MedGen UID:
116104
Concept ID:
C0240379
Finding
A facial appearance characterized by a permanently or nearly permanently opened mouth.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Short palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98067
Concept ID:
C0423112
Finding
Distance between the medial and lateral canthi is more than 2 SD below the mean for age (objective); or, apparently reduced length of the palpebral fissures.
Wide nose
MedGen UID:
140869
Concept ID:
C0426421
Finding
Interalar distance more than two standard deviations above the mean for age, i.e., an apparently increased width of the nasal base and alae.
Narrow palate
MedGen UID:
278045
Concept ID:
C1398312
Finding
Width of the palate more than 2 SD below the mean (objective) or apparently decreased palatal width (subjective).
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Thick vermilion border
MedGen UID:
332232
Concept ID:
C1836543
Finding
Increased width of the skin of vermilion border region of upper lip.
Pointed chin
MedGen UID:
336193
Concept ID:
C1844505
Finding
A marked tapering of the lower face to the chin.
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Hirsutism
MedGen UID:
42461
Concept ID:
C0019572
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally increased hair growth referring to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair).
Nevus flammeus
MedGen UID:
65911
Concept ID:
C0235752
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital vascular malformation consisting of superficial and deep dilated capillaries in the skin which produce a reddish to purplish discolouration of the skin.
Synophrys
MedGen UID:
98132
Concept ID:
C0431447
Congenital Abnormality
Meeting of the medial eyebrows in the midline.
Astigmatism
MedGen UID:
2473
Concept ID:
C0004106
Disease or Syndrome
Astigmatism (from the Greek 'a' meaning absence and 'stigma' meaning point) is a condition in which the parallel rays of light entering the eye through the refractive media are not focused on a single point. Both corneal and noncorneal factors contribute to refractive astigmatism. Corneal astigmatism is mainly the result of an aspheric anterior surface of the cornea, which can be measured readily by means of a keratometer; in a small fraction of cases (approximately 1 in 10) the effect is neutralized by the back surface. The curvature of the back surface of the cornea is not considered in most studies, because it is more difficult to measure; moreover, in the case of severe corneal astigmatism, there is evidence that both surfaces have the same configuration. Noncorneal factors are errors in the curvature of the 2 surfaces of the crystalline lens, irregularity in the refractive index of the lens, and an eccentric lens position. Since the cornea is the dominant component of the eye's refracting system, a highly astigmatic cornea is likely to result in a similarly astigmatic ocular refraction (summary by Clementi et al., 1998).
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
473112
Concept ID:
C0423224
Finding
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.
Visual impairment
MedGen UID:
777085
Concept ID:
C3665347
Finding
Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Vetri L, Calì F, Saccone S, Vinci M, Chiavetta NV, Carotenuto M, Roccella M, Costanza C, Elia M
Int J Mol Sci 2024 Jan 17;25(2) doi: 10.3390/ijms25021146. PMID: 38256219Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Pena JLB, Melo FJ, Santos WC, Moura ICG, Nakashima GP, Freitas NC, Sternick EB
Arq Bras Cardiol 2022 Dec;119(6):902-909. doi: 10.36660/abc.20210801. PMID: 36417616Free PMC Article
Pekeles H, Accogli A, Boudrahem-Addour N, Russell L, Parente F, Srour M
Pediatr Neurol 2019 Mar;92:32-36. Epub 2018 Nov 22 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2018.11.005. PMID: 30581057
Carmona-Iragui M, Balasa M, Benejam B, Alcolea D, Fernández S, Videla L, Sala I, Sánchez-Saudinós MB, Morenas-Rodriguez E, Ribosa-Nogué R, Illán-Gala I, Gonzalez-Ortiz S, Clarimón J, Schmitt F, Powell DK, Bosch B, Lladó A, Rafii MS, Head E, Molinuevo JL, Blesa R, Videla S, Lleó A, Sánchez-Valle R, Fortea J
Alzheimers Dement 2017 Nov;13(11):1251-1260. Epub 2017 Apr 29 doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2017.03.007. PMID: 28463681Free PMC Article
Lefebvre M, Sanlaville D, Marle N, Thauvin-Robinet C, Gautier E, Chehadeh SE, Mosca-Boidron AL, Thevenon J, Edery P, Alex-Cordier MP, Till M, Lyonnet S, Cormier-Daire V, Amiel J, Philippe A, Romana S, Malan V, Afenjar A, Marlin S, Chantot-Bastaraud S, Bitoun P, Heron B, Piparas E, Morice-Picard F, Moutton S, Chassaing N, Vigouroux-Castera A, Lespinasse J, Manouvrier-Hanu S, Boute-Benejean O, Vincent-Delorme C, Petit F, Meur NL, Marti-Dramard M, Guerrot AM, Goldenberg A, Redon S, Ferrec C, Odent S, Caignec CL, Mercier S, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Toutain A, Arpin S, Blesson S, Mortemousque I, Schaefer E, Martin D, Philip N, Sigaudy S, Busa T, Missirian C, Giuliano F, Benailly HK, Kien PK, Leheup B, Benneteau C, Lambert L, Caumes R, Kuentz P, François I, Heron D, Keren B, Cretin E, Callier P, Julia S, Faivre L
Clin Genet 2016 May;89(5):630-5. Epub 2016 Jan 4 doi: 10.1111/cge.12696. PMID: 26582393
McDonald CM, Johnson ER, Abresch RT, Carter GT, Fowler WM Jr, Kilmer DD
Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1995 Sep-Oct;74(5 Suppl):S117-30. doi: 10.1097/00002060-199509001-00006. PMID: 7576419

Diagnosis

Wang L, Wang XD, Yang B, Wang XM, Peng YQ, Tan HJ, Xiao HM
BMC Med Genomics 2023 Oct 5;16(1):233. doi: 10.1186/s12920-023-01649-x. PMID: 37798664Free PMC Article
Hu J, Xu M, Zhu X, Zhang Y
Genes (Basel) 2022 May 2;13(5) doi: 10.3390/genes13050813. PMID: 35627197Free PMC Article
Cousin MA, Creighton BA, Breau KA, Spillmann RC, Torti E, Dontu S, Tripathi S, Ajit D, Edwards RJ, Afriyie S, Bay JC, Harper KM, Beltran AA, Munoz LJ, Falcon Rodriguez L, Stankewich MC, Person RE, Si Y, Normand EA, Blevins A, May AS, Bier L, Aggarwal V, Mancini GMS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Cremer K, Becker J, Engels H, Aretz S, MacKenzie JJ, Brilstra E, van Gassen KLI, van Jaarsveld RH, Oegema R, Parsons GM, Mark P, Helbig I, McKeown SE, Stratton R, Cogne B, Isidor B, Cacheiro P, Smedley D, Firth HV, Bierhals T, Kloth K, Weiss D, Fairley C, Shieh JT, Kritzer A, Jayakar P, Kurtz-Nelson E, Bernier RA, Wang T, Eichler EE, van de Laar IMBH, McConkie-Rosell A, McDonald MT, Kemppainen J, Lanpher BC, Schultz-Rogers LE, Gunderson LB, Pichurin PN, Yoon G, Zech M, Jech R, Winkelmann J; Undiagnosed Diseases Network; Genomics England Research Consortium, Beltran AS, Zimmermann MT, Temple B, Moy SS, Klee EW, Tan QK, Lorenzo DN
Nat Genet 2021 Jul;53(7):1006-1021. Epub 2021 Jul 1 doi: 10.1038/s41588-021-00886-z. PMID: 34211179Free PMC Article
Pekeles H, Accogli A, Boudrahem-Addour N, Russell L, Parente F, Srour M
Pediatr Neurol 2019 Mar;92:32-36. Epub 2018 Nov 22 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2018.11.005. PMID: 30581057
Baer S, Afenjar A, Smol T, Piton A, Gérard B, Alembik Y, Bienvenu T, Boursier G, Boute O, Colson C, Cordier MP, Cormier-Daire V, Delobel B, Doco-Fenzy M, Duban-Bedu B, Fradin M, Geneviève D, Goldenberg A, Grelet M, Haye D, Heron D, Isidor B, Keren B, Lacombe D, Lèbre AS, Lesca G, Masurel A, Mathieu-Dramard M, Nava C, Pasquier L, Petit A, Philip N, Piard J, Rondeau S, Saugier-Veber P, Sukno S, Thevenon J, Van-Gils J, Vincent-Delorme C, Willems M, Schaefer E, Morin G
Clin Genet 2018 Jul;94(1):141-152. Epub 2018 May 17 doi: 10.1111/cge.13254. PMID: 29574747

Therapy

Hetzelt KLML, Kerling F, Kraus C, Rauch C, Thiel CT, Winterholler M, Reis A, Zweier C
Eur J Med Genet 2021 Jan;64(1):104123. Epub 2020 Dec 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2020.104123. PMID: 33338668
Matevosyan NR
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2016 Jan;293(1):87-99. Epub 2015 Jun 11 doi: 10.1007/s00404-015-3770-6. PMID: 26063342

Prognosis

Park H, Kim MS, Kim J, Jang JH, Choi JM, Lee SM, Cho SY, Jin DK
Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2021 Jan;41(6):285-289. PMID: 33714239
Hetzelt KLML, Kerling F, Kraus C, Rauch C, Thiel CT, Winterholler M, Reis A, Zweier C
Eur J Med Genet 2021 Jan;64(1):104123. Epub 2020 Dec 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2020.104123. PMID: 33338668
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