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Kinked brainstem

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Anatomical Abnormality
Synonym: Kinked brain stem
HPO: HP:0012793


A kinked appearance of the brainstem, i.e., an exaggerated flexure. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and early death. The phenotype commonly includes cobblestone (type II) lissencephaly, cerebellar malformations, and retinal malformations. More variable features include macrocephaly or microcephaly, hypoplasia of midline brain structures, ventricular dilatation, microphthalmia, cleft lip/palate, and congenital contractures (Dobyns et al., 1989). Those with a more severe phenotype characterized as Walker-Warburg syndrome often die within the first year of life, whereas those characterized as having muscle-eye-brain disease may rarely acquire the ability to walk and to speak a few words. These are part of a group of disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of DAG1 (128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Godfrey et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy-Dystroglycanopathy with Brain and Eye Anomalies (Type A) Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by mutation in other genes involved in DAG1 glycosylation: see MDDGA2 (613150), caused by mutation in the POMT2 gene (607439); MDDGA3 (253280), caused by mutation in the POMGNT1 gene (606822); MDDGA4 (253800), caused by mutation in the FKTN gene (607440); MDDGA5 (613153), caused by mutation in the FKRP gene (606596); MDDGA6 (613154), caused by mutation in the LARGE gene (603590); MDDGA7 (614643), caused by mutation in the ISPD gene (CRPPA; 614631); MDDGA8 (614830) caused by mutation in the GTDC2 gene (POMGNT2; 614828); MDDGA9 (616538), caused by mutation in the DAG1 gene (128239); MDDGA10 (615041), caused by mutation in the TMEM5 gene (RXYLT1; 605862); MDDGA11 (615181), caused by mutation in the B3GALNT2 gene (610194); MDDGA12 (615249), caused by mutation in the SGK196 gene (POMK; 615247); MDDGA13 (615287), caused by mutation in the B3GNT1 gene (B4GAT1; 605517); and MDDGA14 (615350), caused by mutation in the GMPPB gene (615320).
Alkuraya-Kucinskas syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
ALKKUCS is an autosomal recessive severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by arthrogryposis, brain abnormalities associated with cerebral parenchymal underdevelopment, and global developmental delay. Most affected individuals die in utero or soon after birth. Additional abnormalities may include hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, and involvement of other organ systems, such as cardiac or renal. The few patients who survive have variable intellectual disability and may have seizures (summary by Gueneau et al., 2018).

Professional guidelines


Benacerraf BR, Shipp TD, Bromley B, Levine D
J Ultrasound Med 2007 Nov;26(11):1513-22. doi: 10.7863/jum.2007.26.11.1513. PMID: 17957045Free PMC Article

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