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Facial palsy

MedGen UID:
87660
Concept ID:
C0376175
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Antoni's palsy; Bell palsy; Bell's palsy; Facial cranial nerve paralysis; Idiopathic facial palsy; Refrigeration palsy
SNOMED CT: Bell palsy (193093009); Bells palsy (193093009); Idiopathic acute facial nerve palsy (193093009); Bell's palsy (193093009)
 
HPO: HP:0010628
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005665
Orphanet: ORPHA2810

Definition

Facial nerve palsy is a dysfunction of cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) that results in inability to control facial muscles on the affected side with weakness of the muscles of facial expression and eye closure. This can either be present in unilateral or bilateral form. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVFacial palsy
Follow this link to review classifications for Facial palsy in Orphanet.

Conditions with this feature

Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome
MedGen UID:
6291
Concept ID:
C0025235
Disease or Syndrome
Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is characterized by chronic swelling of the face, peripheral facial palsy, which may be bilateral and may tend to relapse, and in some cases ligua plicata (fissured tongue). The swelling is localized especially to the lips. Onset is usually in childhood or adolescence (summary by Kunstadter, 1965).
Myasthenia gravis
MedGen UID:
7764
Concept ID:
C0026896
Disease or Syndrome
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies bind to acetylcholine receptors or to functionally related molecules in the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction. The antibodies induce weakness of skeletal muscles, which is the sole disease manifestation. The weakness can be generalized or localized, is more proximal than distal, and nearly always includes eye muscles, with diplopia and ptosis. The pattern of involvement is usually symmetric, apart from the eye involvement, which is often markedly asymmetric and involves several eye muscles. The weakness typically increases with exercise and repetitive muscle use (fatigue) and varies over the course of a day and from day to day, often with nearly normal muscle strength in the morning (summary by Gilhus, 2016).
CHARGE syndrome
MedGen UID:
75567
Concept ID:
C0265354
Disease or Syndrome
CHD7 disorder encompasses the entire phenotypic spectrum of heterozygous CHD7 pathogenic variants that includes CHARGE syndrome as well as subsets of features that comprise the CHARGE syndrome phenotype. The mnemonic CHARGE syndrome, introduced in the premolecular era, stands for coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies (including deafness). Following the identification of the genetic cause of CHD7 disorder, the phenotypic spectrum expanded to include cranial nerve anomalies, vestibular defects, cleft lip and/or palate, hypothyroidism, tracheoesophageal anomalies, brain anomalies, seizures, and renal anomalies. Life expectancy highly depends on the severity of manifestations; mortality can be high in the first few years when severe birth defects (particularly complex heart defects) are present and often complicated by airway and feeding issues. In childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, decreased life expectancy is likely related to a combination of residual heart defects, infections, aspiration or choking, respiratory issues including obstructive and central apnea, and possibly seizures. Despite these complications, the life expectancy for many individuals can be normal.
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
75730
Concept ID:
C0270952
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is characterized by ptosis and dysphagia due to selective involvement of the muscles of the eyelids and pharynx, respectively. For the vast majority of individuals with typical OPMD, the mean age of onset of ptosis is usually 48 years and of dysphagia 50 years; in 5%-10% of individuals with severe OPMD, onset of ptosis and dysphagia occur before age 45 years and is associated with lower limb girdle weakness starting around age 60 years. Swallowing difficulties, which determine prognosis, increase the risk for potentially life-threatening aspiration pneumonia and poor nutrition. Other manifestations as the disease progresses can include limitation of upward gaze, tongue atrophy and weakness, chewing difficulties, wet voice, facial muscle weakness, axial muscle weakness, and proximal limb girdle weakness predominantly in lower limbs. Some individuals with severe involvement will eventually need a wheelchair. Neuropsychological tests have shown altered scores in executive functions in some.
Sarcotubular myopathy
MedGen UID:
78750
Concept ID:
C0270968
Congenital Abnormality
A mild subtype of autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy characterized by slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness and wasting of the pelvic and shoulder girdles with onset that usually occurs during the second or third decade of life. Clinical presentation is variable and can include calf psuedohypertrophy, joint contractures, scapular winging, muscle cramping and/or facial and respiratory muscle involvement.
Sneddon syndrome
MedGen UID:
76449
Concept ID:
C0282492
Disease or Syndrome
Sneddon syndrome is a noninflammatory arteriopathy characterized by onset of livedo reticularis in the second decade and onset of cerebrovascular disease in early adulthood (summary by Bras et al., 2014). Livedo reticularis occurs also with polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, and central thrombocythemia, any one of which may be accompanied by cerebrovascular accidents (Bruyn et al., 1987).
Branchiooculofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical or infra- or supra-auricular) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous "hemangiomatous" lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits, and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7th cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal.
GAPO syndrome
MedGen UID:
98034
Concept ID:
C0406723
Disease or Syndrome
GAPO syndrome is the acronymic designation for a complex of growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia (failure of tooth eruption), and progressive optic atrophy (Tipton and Gorlin, 1984). Ilker et al. (1999) and Bayram et al. (2014) noted that optic atrophy is not a consistent feature of the disorder.
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy 1A
MedGen UID:
98046
Concept ID:
C0410179
Disease or Syndrome
Collagen VI-related dystrophies (COL6-RDs) represent a continuum of overlapping clinical phenotypes with Bethlem muscular dystrophy at the milder end, Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) at the more severe end, and a phenotype in between UCMD and Bethlem muscular dystrophy, referred to as intermediate COL6-RD. Bethlem muscular dystrophy is characterized by a combination of proximal muscle weakness and joint contractures. Hypotonia and delayed motor milestones occur in early childhood; mild hypotonia and weakness may be present congenitally. By adulthood, there is evidence of proximal weakness and contractures of the elbows, Achilles tendons, and long finger flexors. The progression of weakness is slow, and more than two thirds of affected individuals older than age 50 years remain independently ambulatory indoors, while relying on supportive means for mobility outdoors. Respiratory involvement is not a consistent feature. UCMD is characterized by congenital weakness, hypotonia, proximal joint contractures, and striking hyperlaxity of distal joints. Decreased fetal movements are frequently reported. Some affected children acquire the ability to walk independently; however, progression of the disease results in a loss of ambulation by age ten to eleven years. Early and severe respiratory insufficiency occurs in all individuals, resulting in the need for nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in the form of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) by age 11 years. Intermediate COL6-RD is characterized by independent ambulation past age 11 years and respiratory insufficiency that is later in onset than in UCMD and results in the need for NIV in the form of BiPAP by the late teens to early 20s. In contrast to individuals with Bethlem muscular dystrophy, those with intermediate COL6-RD typically do not achieve the ability to run, jump, or climb stairs without use of a railing.
Eichsfeld type congenital muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
98047
Concept ID:
C0410180
Disease or Syndrome
Rigid spine muscular dystrophy (RSMD) is a form of congenital muscular dystrophy. Disorders in this group cause muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy) beginning very early in life. In particular, RSMD involves weakness of the muscles of the torso and neck (axial muscles). Other characteristic features include spine stiffness and serious breathing problems.\n\nIn RSMD, muscle weakness is often apparent at birth or within the first few months of life. Affected infants can have poor head control and weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which may delay the development of motor skills such as crawling or walking. Over time, muscles surrounding the spine atrophy, and the joints of the spine develop deformities called contractures that restrict movement. The neck and back become stiff and rigid, and affected children have limited ability to move their heads up and down or side to side. Affected children eventually develop an abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis). In some people with RSMD, muscles in the inner thighs also atrophy, although it does not impair the ability to walk.\n\nA characteristic feature of RSMD is breathing difficulty (respiratory insufficiency) due to restricted movement of the torso and weakness of the diaphragm, which is the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest cavity. The breathing problems, which tend to occur only at night, can be life-threatening. Many affected individuals require a machine to help them breathe (mechanical ventilation) during sleep.\n\nThe combination of features characteristic of RSMD, particularly axial muscle weakness, spine rigidity, and respiratory insufficiency, is sometimes referred to as rigid spine syndrome. While these features occur on their own in RSMD, they can also occur along with additional signs and symptoms in other muscle disorders. The features of rigid spine syndrome typically appear at a younger age in people with RSMD than in those with other muscle disorders.
Severe X-linked myotubular myopathy
MedGen UID:
98374
Concept ID:
C0410203
Congenital Abnormality
X-linked myotubular myopathy (X-MTM), also known as myotubular myopathy (MTM), is characterized by muscle weakness that ranges from severe to mild. Approximately 80% of affected males present with severe (classic) X-MTM characterized by polyhydramnios, decreased fetal movement, and neonatal weakness, hypotonia, and respiratory failure. Motor milestones are significantly delayed and most individuals fail to achieve independent ambulation. Weakness is profound and often involves facial and extraocular muscles. Respiratory failure is nearly uniform, with most individuals requiring 24-hour ventilatory assistance. It is estimated that at least 25% of boys with severe X-MTM die in the first year of life, and those who survive rarely live into adulthood. Males with mild or moderate X-MTM (~20%) achieve motor milestones more quickly than males with the severe form; many ambulate independently, and may live into adulthood. Most require gastrostomy tubes and/or ventilator support. In all subtypes of X-MTM, the muscle disease is not obviously progressive. Female carriers of X-MTM are generally asymptomatic, although manifesting heterozygotes are increasingly being identified. In affected females, symptoms range from severe, generalized weakness presenting in childhood, with infantile onset similar to affected male patients, to mild (often asymmetric) weakness manifesting in adulthood. Affected adult females may experience progressive respiratory decline and ultimately require ventilatory support.
Myopathy, centronuclear, 2
MedGen UID:
98049
Concept ID:
C0410204
Disease or Syndrome
Any centronuclear myopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BIN1 gene.
Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis
MedGen UID:
96590
Concept ID:
C0432268
Disease or Syndrome
Most females with osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) present with macrocephaly and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge, and prominent jaw). Approximately half have associated features including orofacial clefting and hearing loss, and a minority have some degree of developmental delay (usually mild). Radiographic findings of cranial sclerosis, sclerosis of long bones, and metaphyseal striations (in combination with macrocephaly) can be considered pathognomonic. Males can present with a mild or severe phenotype. Mildly affected males have clinical features similar to affected females, including macrocephaly, characteristic facial features, orofacial clefting, hearing loss, and mild-to-moderate learning delays. Mildly affected males are more likely than females to have congenital or musculoskeletal anomalies. Radiographic findings include cranial sclerosis and sclerosis of the long bones; Metaphyseal striations are more common in males who are mosaic for an AMER1 pathogenic variant. The severe phenotype manifests in males as a multiple-malformation syndrome, lethal in mid-to-late gestation, or in the neonatal period. Congenital malformations include skeletal defects (e.g., polysyndactyly, absent or hypoplastic fibulae), congenital heart disease, and brain, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Macrocephaly is not always present and longitudinal metaphyseal striations have not been observed in severely affected males, except for those who are mosaic for the AMER1 pathogenic variant.
Congenital myopathy with fiber type disproportion
MedGen UID:
108177
Concept ID:
C0546264
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital fiber-type disproportion is a condition that primarily affects skeletal muscles, which are muscles used for movement. People with this condition typically experience muscle weakness (myopathy), particularly in the muscles of the shoulders, upper arms, hips, and thighs. Weakness can also affect the muscles of the face and muscles that control eye movement (ophthalmoplegia), sometimes causing droopy eyelids (ptosis). Individuals with congenital fiber-type disproportion generally have a long face, a high arch in the roof of the mouth (high-arched palate), and crowded teeth.\n\nIndividuals with congenital fiber-type disproportion may have joint deformities (contractures) and an abnormally curved lower back (lordosis) or a spine that curves to the side (scoliosis). Approximately 30 percent of people with this disorder experience mild to severe breathing problems related to weakness of muscles needed for breathing. Some people who experience these breathing problems require use of a machine to help regulate their breathing at night (noninvasive mechanical ventilation), and occasionally during the day as well. About 30 percent of affected individuals have difficulty swallowing due to muscle weakness in the throat. Rarely, people with this condition have a weakened and enlarged heart muscle (dilated cardiomyopathy).\n\nThe severity of congenital fiber-type disproportion varies widely. It is estimated that up to 25 percent of affected individuals experience severe muscle weakness at birth and die in infancy or childhood. Others have only mild muscle weakness that becomes apparent in adulthood. Most often, the signs and symptoms of this condition appear by age 1. The first signs of this condition are usually decreased muscle tone (hypotonia) and muscle weakness. In most cases, muscle weakness does not worsen over time, and in some instances it may improve. Although motor skills such as standing and walking may be delayed, many affected children eventually learn to walk. These individuals often have less stamina than their peers, but they remain active. Rarely, people with this condition have a progressive decline in muscle strength over time. These individuals may lose the ability to walk and require wheelchair assistance.
Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy
MedGen UID:
148283
Concept ID:
C0751335
Disease or Syndrome
The autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders (previously considered to be clinically distinct phenotypes before their molecular basis was discovered) are now grouped into neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias; however, the overlap within each group is considerable. Affected individuals typically have either neuromuscular or skeletal manifestations alone, and in only rare instances an overlap syndrome has been reported. The three autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders (mildest to most severe) are: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C. Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. The autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders are characterized by a congenital-onset, static, or later-onset progressive peripheral neuropathy with variable combinations of laryngeal dysfunction (i.e., vocal fold paresis), respiratory dysfunction, and joint contractures. The six autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias (mildest to most severe) are: Familial digital arthropathy-brachydactyly. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Maroteaux type. Parastremmatic dysplasia. Metatropic dysplasia. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by brachydactyly (in all 6); the five that are more severe have short stature that varies from mild to severe with progressive spinal deformity and involvement of the long bones and pelvis. In the mildest of the autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders life span is normal; in the most severe it is shortened. Bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) can occur with both autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias.
Blepharonasofacial malformation syndrome
MedGen UID:
163226
Concept ID:
C0796197
Disease or Syndrome
A rare otorhinolaryngological malformation syndrome with characteristics of a distinctive mask-like facial dysmorphism, lacrimal duct obstruction, extrapyramidal features, digital malformations and intellectual disability. Reported in 3 families to date. The facies has a mask-like appearance due to weakness of facial muscles and lacrimal duct obstruction is characteristic. Clinical features also include telecanthus, bulky nose, broad nasal bridge, sometimes a hypoplastic midface, longitudinal cheek furrows, trapezoidal upper lip and malformation of the ears. Intellectual disability, cutaneous syndactyly, torsion dystonia, increased deep tendon reflexes; Babinski sign, poor coordination and joint laxity are also observed.
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome
MedGen UID:
163227
Concept ID:
C0796200
Disease or Syndrome
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome (WRWF) is a severe X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is characterized by onset of muscle weakness in utero (fetal akinesia), which results in arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) apparent at birth. Affected boys are born with severe contractures, show delayed motor development, facial and bulbar weakness, characteristic dysmorphic facial features, and skeletal abnormalities, such as hip dislocation, scoliosis, and foot deformities. Additional features include global developmental delay with poor or absent speech and impaired intellectual development, feeding difficulties and poor growth, hypotonia, hypogenitalism, and spasticity. Carrier females may be unaffected or have mild features of the disorder (summary by Hirata et al., 2013 and Frints et al., 2019).
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
163239
Concept ID:
C0796274
Disease or Syndrome
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and a variety of cranial nerve palsies, usually involving the motor components of the seventh and ninth to twelfth (more rarely the third, fifth, and sixth) cranial nerves. Spinal motor nerves and, less commonly, upper motor neurons are sometimes affected, giving a picture resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400). The onset of the disease is usually in the second decade, but earlier and later onset have been reported. Hearing loss tends to precede the onset of neurologic signs, mostly progressive muscle weakness causing respiratory compromise. However, patients with very early onset may present with bulbar palsy and may not develop hearing loss until later. The symptoms, severity, and disease duration are variable (summary by Green et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome See also BVVLS2 (614707), caused by mutation in the SLC52A2 gene (607882) on chromosome 8q.
Duane-radial ray syndrome
MedGen UID:
301647
Concept ID:
C1623209
Disease or Syndrome
SALL4-related disorders include Duane-radial ray syndrome (DRRS, Okihiro syndrome), acro-renal-ocular syndrome (AROS), and SALL4-related Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) – three phenotypes previously thought to be distinct entities. DRRS is characterized by uni- or bilateral Duane anomaly and radial ray malformation that can include thenar hypoplasia and/or hypoplasia or aplasia of the thumbs, hypoplasia or aplasia of the radii, shortening and radial deviation of the forearms, triphalangeal thumbs, and duplication of the thumb (preaxial polydactyly). AROS is characterized by radial ray malformations, renal abnormalities (mild malrotation, ectopia, horseshoe kidney, renal hypoplasia, vesicoureteral reflux, bladder diverticula), ocular coloboma, and Duane anomaly. Rarely, pathogenic variants in SALL4 may cause clinically typical HOS (i.e., radial ray malformations and cardiac malformations without additional features).
Facial paresis, hereditary congenital, 1
MedGen UID:
371292
Concept ID:
C1832284
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary congenital facial paresis (HCFP) is the isolated dysfunction of the facial nerve (CN VII). HCFP is considered to be distinct from Moebius syndrome (157900), which shares some of the same clinical features. Genetic Heterogeneity of Hereditary Congenital Facial Paresis One locus for HCFP (HCFP1) has been mapped to chromosome 3q. Another locus (HCFP2; 604185) has been mapped to chromosome 10q. HCFP3 (614744) is caused by mutation in the HOXB1 gene (142968) on chromosome 17q21.
Desmin-related myofibrillar myopathy
MedGen UID:
330449
Concept ID:
C1832370
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) is a noncommittal term that refers to a group of morphologically homogeneous, but genetically heterogeneous chronic neuromuscular disorders. The morphologic changes in skeletal muscle in MFM result from disintegration of the sarcomeric Z disc and the myofibrils, followed by abnormal ectopic accumulation of multiple proteins involved in the structure of the Z disc, including desmin, alpha-B-crystallin (CRYAB; 123590), dystrophin (300377), and myotilin (TTID; 604103). Genetic Heterogeneity of Myofibrillar Myopathy Other forms of MFM include MFM2 (608810), caused by mutation in the CRYAB gene (123590); MFM3 (609200), caused by mutation in the MYOT gene (604103); MFM4 (609452), caused by mutation in the ZASP gene (LDB3; 605906); MFM5 (609524), caused by mutation in the FLNC gene (102565); MFM6 (612954), caused by mutation in the BAG3 gene (603883); MFM7 (617114), caused by mutation in the KY gene (605739); MFM8 (617258), caused by mutation in the PYROXD1 gene (617220); MFM9 (603689), caused by mutation in the TTN gene (188840); MFM10 (619040), caused by mutation in the SVIL UNC45B gene (611220); MFM11 (619178), caused by mutation in the UNC45B gene (611220); and MFM12 (619424), caused by mutation in the MYL2 gene (160781). 'Desmin-related myopathy' is another term referring to MFM in which there are intrasarcoplasmic aggregates of desmin, usually in addition to other sarcomeric proteins. Rigid spine syndrome (602771), caused by mutation in the SEPN1 gene (606210), is another desmin-related myopathy. Goebel (1995) provided a review of desmin-related myopathy.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B1
MedGen UID:
321947
Concept ID:
C1832399
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 4B1 (CMT4B1) is a severe early-onset demyelinating CMT peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy. It was initially described in an Italian family and around 10 additional families have been described so far. Onset occurs during early childhood with distal and proximal muscular weakness starting in the lower extremities, sensory loss and cranial nerve involvement. Foot deformities are frequent and diaphragmatic and facial involvement has been reported. CMT4B1 is caused by mutations in the gene encoding myotubularin-related protein 2 (MTMR2; 11q22), involved in polyphosphoinositide signaling. Transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner.
Spinal muscular atrophy-progressive myoclonic epilepsy syndrome
MedGen UID:
371854
Concept ID:
C1834569
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of ASAH1-related disorders ranges from Farber disease (FD) to spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME). Classic FD is characterized by onset in the first weeks of life of painful, progressive deformity of the major joints; palpable subcutaneous nodules of joints and mechanical pressure points; and a hoarse cry resulting from granulomas of the larynx and epiglottis. Life expectancy is usually less than two years. In the other less common types of FD, onset, severity, and primary manifestations vary. SMA-PME is characterized by early-childhood-onset progressive lower motor neuron disease manifest typically between ages three and seven years as proximal lower-extremity weakness, followed by progressive myoclonic and atonic seizures, tremulousness/tremor, and sensorineural hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy typically begins in late childhood after the onset of weakness and can include jerking of the upper limbs, action myoclonus, myoclonic status, and eyelid myoclonus. Other findings include generalized tremor, and cognitive decline. The time from disease onset to death from respiratory complications is usually five to 15 years.
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 2
MedGen UID:
320405
Concept ID:
C1834671
Disease or Syndrome
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) typically presents with weakness of the facial muscles, the stabilizers of the scapula, or the dorsiflexors of the foot. Severity is highly variable. Weakness is slowly progressive and approximately 20% of affected individuals eventually require a wheelchair. Life expectancy is not shortened.
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
371919
Concept ID:
C1834846
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 2
MedGen UID:
322925
Concept ID:
C1836460
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is characterized by multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. The most common clinical features include adult onset of weakness of the external eye muscles and exercise intolerance. Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance can occur; autosomal recessive inheritance is usually more severe (Filosto et al., 2003; Luoma et al., 2004). PEO caused by mutations in the POLG gene are associated with more complicated phenotypes than those forms caused by mutations in the ANT1 or C10ORF2 genes (Lamantea et al., 2002). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia, see PEOA1 (157640).
Nemaline myopathy 6
MedGen UID:
373095
Concept ID:
C1836472
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-6 is an autosomal dominant skeletal muscle disorder characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and slow movements with stiff muscles. Patients are unable to run or correct themselves from falling over. Histopathologic changes seen on skeletal muscle biopsy include nemaline rods, cores devoid of oxidative enzyme activity, and predominance of hypertrophic type 1 fibers. There is no cardiac or respiratory involvement (summary by Sambuughin et al., 2010).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 4C
MedGen UID:
373251
Concept ID:
C1837091
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with AChR deficiency is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) clinically characterized by early-onset muscle weakness with variable severity. Electrophysiologic studies show low amplitude of the miniature endplate potential (MEPP) and current (MEPC) resulting from deficiency of AChR at the endplate. Patients with mutations in the CHRNE gene may have compensatory increased expression of the fetal subunit CHRNG (100730) and may respond to treatment with cholinergic agents, pyridostigmine, or amifampridine (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B6
MedGen UID:
373284
Concept ID:
C1837229
Disease or Syndrome
MDDGB6 is an autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy with impaired intellectual development and structural brain abnormalities (Longman et al., 2003). It is part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Mercuri et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B, see MDDGB1 (613155).
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 2
MedGen UID:
325157
Concept ID:
C1837355
Disease or Syndrome
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease 1 (PMLD1) is a slowly progressive leukodystrophy that typically presents during the neonatal or early-infantile period with nystagmus, commonly associated with hypotonia, delayed acquisition of motor milestones, speech delay, and dysarthria. Over time the hypotonia typically evolves into spasticity that affects the ability to walk and communicate. Cerebellar signs (gait ataxia, dysmetria, intention tremor, head titubation, and dysdiadochokinesia) frequently manifest during childhood. Some individuals develop extrapyramidal movement abnormalities (choreoathetosis and dystonia). Hearing loss and optic atrophy are observed in rare cases. Motor impairments can lead to swallowing difficulty and orthopedic complications, including hip dislocation and scoliosis. Most individuals have normal cognitive skills or mild intellectual disability – which, however, can be difficult to evaluate in the context of profound motor impairment.
Mitochondrial myopathy with diabetes
MedGen UID:
333236
Concept ID:
C1839028
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, mitochondrial DNA-related mitochondrial myopathy disorder characterized by slowly progressive muscular weakness (proximal greater than distal), predominantly involving the facial muscles and scapular girdle, associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Neurological involvement and congenital myopathy may be variably observed.
Hyperostosis cranialis interna
MedGen UID:
327093
Concept ID:
C1840404
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperostosis cranialis interna is a bone disorder characterized by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the calvaria and the skull base. The progressive bone overgrowth causes entrapment and dysfunction of cranial nerves I, II, V, VII, and VIII (Waterval et al., 2010).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2E
MedGen UID:
375127
Concept ID:
C1843225
Disease or Syndrome
A form of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease a peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy. Onset is in the first to sixth decade with a gait anomaly and a leg weakness that reaches the arms secondarily. Tendon reflexes are reduced or absent and after years all patients have a pes cavus. Other signs may be present including hearing loss and postural tremor.
Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease
MedGen UID:
375289
Concept ID:
C1843807
Disease or Syndrome
Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD) may present in childhood, early infancy, or adulthood. The classic presentation of BTBGD occurs in childhood (age 3-10 years) and is characterized by recurrent subacute encephalopathy manifest as confusion, seizures, ataxia, dystonia, supranuclear facial palsy, external ophthalmoplegia, and/or dysphagia which, if left untreated, can eventually lead to coma and even death. Dystonia and cogwheel rigidity are nearly always present; hyperreflexia, ankle clonus, and Babinski responses are common. Hemiparesis or quadriparesis may be seen. Episodes are often triggered by febrile illness or mild trauma or stress. Simple partial or generalized seizures are easily controlled with anti-seizure medication. An early-infantile Leigh-like syndrome / atypical infantile spasms presentation occurs in the first three months of life with poor feeding, vomiting, acute encephalopathy, and severe lactic acidosis. An adult-onset Wernicke-like encephalopathy presentation is characterized by acute onset of status epilepticus, ataxia, nystagmus, diplopia, and ophthalmoplegia in the second decade of life. Prompt administration of biotin and thiamine early in the disease course results in partial or complete improvement within days in the childhood and adult presentations, but most with the infantile presentation have had poor outcome even after supplementation with biotin and thiamine.
Infantile-onset X-linked spinal muscular atrophy
MedGen UID:
337123
Concept ID:
C1844934
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked infantile spinal muscular atrophy (XL-SMA) is characterized by congenital hypotonia, areflexia, and evidence of degeneration and loss of anterior horn cells (i.e., lower motor neurons) in the spinal cord and brain stem. Often congenital contractures and/or fractures are present. Intellect is normal. Life span is significantly shortened because of progressive ventilatory insufficiency resulting from chest muscle involvement.
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B5
MedGen UID:
335764
Concept ID:
C1847759
Disease or Syndrome
MDDGB5 is an autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy with impaired intellectual development and structural brain abnormalities (Brockington et al., 2001). It is part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Mercuri et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B, see MDDGB1 (613155).
Hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome
MedGen UID:
341133
Concept ID:
C1848030
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic disorder of amino acid absorption and transport, characterized by generalized hypotonia at birth, neonatal/infantile failure to thrive (followed by hyperphagia and rapid weight gain in late childhood), cystinuria type 1, nephrolithiasis, growth retardation due to growth hormone deficiency, and minor facial dysmorphism. Dysmorphic features mainly include dolichocephaly and ptosis. Nephrolithiasis occurs at variable ages.
Cold-induced sweating syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
338577
Concept ID:
C1848947
Disease or Syndrome
Cold-induced sweating syndrome (CISS) and its infantile presentation, Crisponi syndrome(CS) is characterized by dysmorphic features (distinctive facies, lower facial weakness, flexion deformity at the elbows, camptodactyly with fisted hands, misshapen feet, and overriding toes); intermittent contracture of facial and oropharyngeal muscles when crying or being handled with puckering of lips and drooling of foamy saliva often associated with laryngospasm and respiratory distress; excessive startling and opisthotonus-like posturing with unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli; poor suck reflex and severely impaired swallowing; and a scaly erythematous rash. During the first decade of life, children with CISS/CS develop profuse sweating of the face, arms, and chest with ambient temperatures below 18º to 22º C, and with other stimuli including nervousness or ingestion of sweets. Affected individuals sweat very little in hot environments and may feel overheated. Progressive thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis occurs, requiring intervention in the second decade.
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 1
MedGen UID:
376708
Concept ID:
C1850127
Disease or Syndrome
Osteopetrosis (OPT) is a life-threatening disease caused by subnormal osteoclast function, with an incidence of 1 in 250,000 births. The disease usually manifests in the first few months of life with macrocephaly and frontal bossing, resulting in a characteristic facial appearance. Defective bone remodeling of the skull results in choanal stenosis with concomitant respiratory problems and feeding difficulties, which are the first clinical manifestation of disease. The expanding bone encroaches on neural foramina, leading to blindness, deafness, and facial palsy. Complete visual loss invariably occurs in all untreated patients, and hearing loss is estimated to affect 78% of patients with OPT. Tooth eruption defects and severe dental caries are common. Calcium feedback hemostasis is impaired, and children with OPT are at risk of developing hypocalcemia with attendant tetanic seizures and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The most severe complication of OPT, limiting survival, is bone marrow insufficiency. The abnormal expansion of cortical and trabecular bone physically limits the availability of medullary space for hematopoietic activity, leading to life-threatening cytopenia and secondary expansion of extramedullary hematopoiesis at sites such as the liver and spleen (summary by Aker et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis Other forms of autosomal recessive infantile malignant osteopetrosis include OPTB4 (611490), which is caused by mutation in the CLCN7 gene (602727) on chromosome 16p13, and OPTB5 (259720), which is caused by mutation in the OSTM1 gene (607649) on chromosome 6q21. A milder, osteoclast-poor form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (OPTB2; 259710) is caused by mutation in the TNFSF11 gene (602642) on chromosome 13q14, an intermediate form (OPTB6; 611497) is caused by mutation in the PLEKHM1 gene (611466) on chromosome 17q21, and a severe osteoclast-poor form associated with hypogammaglobulinemia (OPTB7; 612301) is caused by mutation in the TNFRSF11A gene (603499) on chromosome 18q22. Another form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (OPTB8; 615085) is caused by mutation in the SNX10 gene (614780) on chromosome 7p15. A form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis associated with renal tubular acidosis (OPTB3; 259730) is caused by mutation in the CA2 gene (611492) on chromosome 8q21. OPTB9 (620366) is caused by mutation in the SLC4A2 gene (109280) on chromosome 7q36. Autosomal dominant forms of osteopetrosis are more benign (see OPTA1, 607634).
Giant axonal neuropathy 1
MedGen UID:
376775
Concept ID:
C1850386
Disease or Syndrome
GAN-related neurodegeneration comprises a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe (sometimes called classic giant axonal neuropathy) to milder pure early-onset peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies. The classic giant axonal neuropathy phenotype typically manifests as an infantile-onset neurodegenerative disorder, starting as a severe peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy and evolving into central nervous system impairment (intellectual disability, seizures, cerebellar signs, and pyramidal tract signs). Most affected individuals become wheelchair dependent in the second decade of life and eventually bedridden with severe polyneuropathy, ataxia, and dementia. Death usually occurs in the third decade. At the milder end of the spectrum are predominantly motor and sensory neuropathies (with little to no CNS involvement) that overlap with the axonal form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies.
Myosclerosis
MedGen UID:
338098
Concept ID:
C1850671
Disease or Syndrome
Collagen VI-related dystrophies (COL6-RDs) represent a continuum of overlapping clinical phenotypes with Bethlem muscular dystrophy at the milder end, Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) at the more severe end, and a phenotype in between UCMD and Bethlem muscular dystrophy, referred to as intermediate COL6-RD. Bethlem muscular dystrophy is characterized by a combination of proximal muscle weakness and joint contractures. Hypotonia and delayed motor milestones occur in early childhood; mild hypotonia and weakness may be present congenitally. By adulthood, there is evidence of proximal weakness and contractures of the elbows, Achilles tendons, and long finger flexors. The progression of weakness is slow, and more than two thirds of affected individuals older than age 50 years remain independently ambulatory indoors, while relying on supportive means for mobility outdoors. Respiratory involvement is not a consistent feature. UCMD is characterized by congenital weakness, hypotonia, proximal joint contractures, and striking hyperlaxity of distal joints. Decreased fetal movements are frequently reported. Some affected children acquire the ability to walk independently; however, progression of the disease results in a loss of ambulation by age ten to eleven years. Early and severe respiratory insufficiency occurs in all individuals, resulting in the need for nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in the form of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) by age 11 years. Intermediate COL6-RD is characterized by independent ambulation past age 11 years and respiratory insufficiency that is later in onset than in UCMD and results in the need for NIV in the form of BiPAP by the late teens to early 20s. In contrast to individuals with Bethlem muscular dystrophy, those with intermediate COL6-RD typically do not achieve the ability to run, jump, or climb stairs without use of a railing.
Congenital multicore myopathy with external ophthalmoplegia
MedGen UID:
340597
Concept ID:
C1850674
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-1B (CMYP1B) is an autosomal recessive disorder of skeletal muscle characterized by severe hypotonia and generalized muscle weakness apparent soon after birth or in early childhood with delayed motor development, generalized muscle weakness and atrophy, and difficulty walking or running. Affected individuals show proximal muscle weakness with axial and shoulder girdle involvement, external ophthalmoplegia, and bulbar weakness, often resulting in feeding difficulties and respiratory insufficiency. Orthopedic complications such as joint laxity, distal contractures, hip dislocation, cleft palate, and scoliosis are commonly observed. Serum creatine kinase is normal. The phenotype is variable in severity (Jungbluth et al., 2005; Bharucha-Goebel et al., 2013). Some patients show symptoms in utero, including reduced fetal movements, polyhydramnios, and intrauterine growth restriction. The most severely affected patients present in utero with fetal akinesia, arthrogryposis, and lung hypoplasia resulting in fetal or perinatal death (McKie et al., 2014). Skeletal muscle biopsy of patients with recessive RYR1 mutations can show variable features, including multiminicores (Ferreiro and Fardeau, 2002), central cores (Jungbluth et al., 2002), congenital fiber-type disproportion (CFTD) (Monnier et al., 2009), and centronuclear myopathy (Wilmshurst et al., 2010). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Familial recurrent peripheral facial palsy
MedGen UID:
342742
Concept ID:
C1851399
Disease or Syndrome
A rare peripheral neuropathy with characteristics of acute onset of unilateral facial muscle weakness with Bell''s phenomenon. It is non-progressive, resolves spontaneously and it might be recurrent with no obvious precipitating factors.
Early-onset generalized limb-onset dystonia
MedGen UID:
338823
Concept ID:
C1851945
Disease or Syndrome
DYT1 early-onset isolated dystonia typically presents in childhood or adolescence and only on occasion in adulthood. Dystonic muscle contractions causing posturing or irregular tremor of a leg or arm are the most common presenting findings. Dystonia is usually first apparent with specific actions such as writing or walking. Over time, the contractions frequently (but not invariably) become evident with less specific actions and spread to other body regions. No other neurologic abnormalities are present. Disease severity varies considerably even within the same family. Isolated writer's cramp may be the only sign.
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
338945
Concept ID:
C1852502
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant craniometaphyseal dysplasia (designated AD-CMD in this review) is characterized by progressive diffuse hyperostosis of cranial bones evident clinically as wide nasal bridge, paranasal bossing, widely spaced eyes with an increase in bizygomatic width, and prominent mandible. Development of dentition may be delayed and teeth may fail to erupt as a result of hyperostosis and sclerosis of alveolar bone. Progressive thickening of craniofacial bones continues throughout life, often resulting in narrowing of the cranial foramina, including the foramen magnum. If untreated, compression of cranial nerves can lead to disabling conditions such as facial palsy, blindness, or deafness (conductive and/or sensorineural hearing loss). In individuals with typical uncomplicated AD-CMD life expectancy is normal; in those with severe AD-CMD life expectancy can be reduced as a result of compression of the foramen magnum.
Cranial nerves, recurrent paresis of
MedGen UID:
387846
Concept ID:
C1857530
Disease or Syndrome
Cranial nerves, congenital paresis of
MedGen UID:
346609
Concept ID:
C1857531
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy 1B
MedGen UID:
346746
Concept ID:
C1858118
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic neuromuscular disorder characterized by proximal and symmetrical muscle weakness (particularly of neck, sternomastoid, facial and diaphragm muscles), spinal rigidity, joint contractures (Achilles tendon, elbows, hands), generalized muscle hypertrophy and early respiratory failure (usually in the first decade of life). Patients typically present delayed motor milestones and grossly elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and with disease progression, forced expiratory abdominal squeeze and nocturnal hypoventilation.
Facial paresis, hereditary congenital, 2
MedGen UID:
346971
Concept ID:
C1858717
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A1
MedGen UID:
350076
Concept ID:
C1861678
Disease or Syndrome
MFN2 hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (MFN2-HMSN) is a classic axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, inherited in either an autosomal dominant (AD) manner (~90%) or an autosomal recessive (AR) manner (~10%). MFN2-HMSN is characterized by more severe involvement of the lower extremities than the upper extremities, distal upper-extremity involvement as the neuropathy progresses, more prominent motor deficits than sensory deficits, and normal (>42 m/s) or only slightly decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCVs). Postural tremor is common. Median onset is age 12 years in the AD form and age eight years in the AR form. The prevalence of optic atrophy is approximately 7% in the AD form and approximately 20% in the AR form.
Aortic arch interruption, facial palsy, and retinal coloboma
MedGen UID:
350733
Concept ID:
C1862681
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 4
MedGen UID:
350480
Concept ID:
C1864668
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia-4 is an autosomal dominant form of mitochondrial disease that variably affects skeletal muscle, the nervous system, the liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Age at onset ranges from infancy to adulthood. The phenotype ranges from relatively mild, with adult-onset skeletal muscle weakness and weakness of the external eye muscles, to severe, with a multisystem disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, lactic acidosis, constipation, and liver involvement (summary by Young et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia, see PEOA1 (157640).
Megaconial type congenital muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
355943
Concept ID:
C1865233
Disease or Syndrome
Megaconial-type congenital muscular dystrophy (MDCMC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset muscle wasting and impaired intellectual development. Some patients develop fatal cardiomyopathy. Muscle biopsy shows peculiar enlarged mitochondria that are prevalent toward the periphery of the fibers but are sparse in the center (summary by Mitsuhashi et al., 2011).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C
MedGen UID:
356581
Concept ID:
C1866636
Disease or Syndrome
SH3TC2-related hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (SH3TC2-HMSN) is a demyelinating neuropathy characterized by severe spine deformities (scoliosis or kyphoscoliosis) and foot deformities (pes cavus, pes planus, or pes valgus) that typically present in the first decade of life or early adolescence. Other findings can include cranial nerve involvement (most commonly tongue involvement, facial weakness/paralysis, hearing impairment, dysarthria) and respiratory problems.
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A
MedGen UID:
358391
Concept ID:
C1869123
Disease or Syndrome
Calpainopathy is characterized by symmetric and progressive weakness of proximal limb-girdle muscles. The age at onset of muscle weakness ranges from two to 40 years. The phenotype shows intra- and interfamilial variability ranging from severe to mild. Three autosomal recessive calpainopathy phenotypes have been identified based on the distribution of muscle weakness and age at onset: Pelvifemoral limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) (Leyden-Möbius LGMD) phenotype, the most frequently observed calpainopathy phenotype, in which muscle weakness is first evident in the pelvic girdle and later in the shoulder girdle, with onset that may occur as early as before age 12 years or as late as after age 30 years. Scapulohumeral LGMD (Erb LGMD) phenotype, usually a milder phenotype with infrequent early onset, in which muscle weakness is first evident in the shoulder girdle and later in the pelvic girdle. HyperCKemia, usually observed in children or young individuals, in which individuals are asymptomatic and have high serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations. The autosomal dominant form of calpainopathy shows a variability of clinical phenotype, ranging from almost asymptomatic to wheelchair dependence after age 60 years in few cases with a generally milder phenotype than the recessive form. Clinical findings of calpainopathy include the tendency to walk on tiptoe, difficulty in running, scapular winging, waddling gait, and slight hyperlordosis. Other findings include symmetric weakness of proximal more than distal muscles in the limbs, trunk, and periscapular area; laxity of the abdominal muscles; Achilles tendon shortening; scoliosis; and joint contractures. Affected individuals typically do not have cardiac involvement or intellectual disability.
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 5
MedGen UID:
409627
Concept ID:
C1968603
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis-5 is a form of infantile malignant osteopetrosis, characterized by defective osteoclast function resulting in decreased bone resorption and generalized osteosclerosis. Defective resorption causes development of densely sclerotic fragile bones and progressive obliteration of the marrow spaces and cranial foramina. Marrow obliteration is associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis and hepatosplenomegaly, and results in anemia and thrombocytopenia, whereas nerve entrapment accounts for progressive blindness and hearing loss. Other major manifestations include failure to thrive, pathologic fractures, and increased infection rate. Most affected children succumb to severe bone marrow failure and overwhelming infection in the first few years of life (Quarello et al., 2004).
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 4
MedGen UID:
370598
Concept ID:
C1969106
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of CLCN7-related osteopetrosis includes infantile malignant CLCN7-related autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO), intermediate autosomal osteopetrosis (IAO), and autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADOII; Albers-Schönberg disease). ARO. Onset is at birth. Findings may include: fractures; reduced growth; sclerosis of the skull base (with or without choanal stenosis or hydrocephalus) resulting in optic nerve compression, facial palsy, and hearing loss; absence of the bone marrow cavity resulting in severe anemia and thrombocytopenia; dental abnormalities, odontomas, and risk for mandibular osteomyelitis; and hypocalcemia with tetanic seizures and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Without treatment maximal life span in ARO is ten years. IAO. Onset is in childhood. Findings may include: fractures after minor trauma, characteristic skeletal radiographic changes found incidentally, mild anemia, and occasional visual impairment secondary to optic nerve compression. Life expectancy in IAO is usually normal. ADOII. Onset is usually late childhood or adolescence. Findings may include: fractures (in any long bone and/or the posterior arch of a vertebra), scoliosis, hip osteoarthritis, and osteomyelitis of the mandible or septic osteitis or osteoarthritis elsewhere. Cranial nerve compression is rare.
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L
MedGen UID:
370102
Concept ID:
C1969785
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of ANO5 muscle disease is a continuum that ranges from asymptomatic hyperCKemia and exercise-induced myalgia to proximal and/or distal muscle weakness. The most typical presentation is limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L (LGMD2L) with late-onset proximal lower-limb weakness in the fourth or fifth decade (range 15-70 years). Less common is Miyoshi-like disease (Miyoshi muscular dystrophy 3) with early-adult-onset calf distal myopathy (around age 20 years). Incidental hyperCKemia may be present even earlier. Initial symptoms are walking difficulties, reduced sports performance, and difficulties in standing on toes as well as nonspecific exercise myalgia and/or burning sensation in the calf muscles. Muscle weakness and atrophy are frequently asymmetric. Cardiac findings can include cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias and/or left ventricular dysfunction. Bulbar or respiratory symptoms have not been reported. Females have milder disease manifestations than males. Disease progression is slow in both the LGMD and distal forms; ambulation is preserved until very late in the disease course. Life span is normal.
Sarcoidosis, susceptibility to, 2
MedGen UID:
436694
Concept ID:
C2676468
Finding
Any sarcoidosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BTNL2 gene.
Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3A, with or without extraocular involvement
MedGen UID:
412638
Concept ID:
C2748801
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) encompasses several different inherited strabismus syndromes characterized by congenital restrictive ophthalmoplegia affecting extraocular muscles innervated by the oculomotor and/or trochlear nerves. If all affected members of a family have classic CFEOM with bilateral involvement and inability to raise the eyes above midline, the phenotype is classified as CFEOM1 (135700). CFEOM2 (602078) shows autosomal recessive inheritance. CFEOM3 is characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance of a more variable phenotype than classic CFEOM1. Individuals with CFEOM3 may not have bilateral involvement, may be able to raise the eyes above midline, or may not have blepharoptosis (reviews by Yamada et al., 2004 and Heidary et al., 2008). Yamada et al. (2003) concluded that CFEOM3 is a relatively rare form of CFEOM. Genetic Heterogeneity of CFEOM3 The CFEOM3 phenotype is genetically heterogeneous; see also CFEOM3B (135700), caused by mutation in the KIF21A gene on chromosome 12q12, and CFEOM3C (609384), which maps to chromosome 13q.
Myopathy, congenital, with fiber-type disproportion, X-linked
MedGen UID:
440714
Concept ID:
C2749128
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy 6
MedGen UID:
414119
Concept ID:
C2751831
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy-6 is an autosomal dominant severe neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset in the first decade of rapidly progressive generalized and proximal muscle weakness, respiratory insufficiency, cardiomyopathy, and skeletal deformities related to muscle weakness. Muscle biopsy shows fiber-type grouping, disruption of the Z lines, and filamentous inclusions, and sural nerve biopsy shows a neuropathy, often with giant axonal neurons. Most patients are severely affected by the second decade and need cardiac transplant, ventilation, and/or a wheelchair (summary by Jaffer et al., 2012). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy (MFM), see MFM1 (601419).
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
419753
Concept ID:
C2931244
Disease or Syndrome
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia is an osteochondrodysplasia characterized by hyperostosis and sclerosis of the craniofacial bones associated with abnormal modeling of the metaphyses. Sclerosis of the skull may lead to asymmetry of the mandible, as well as to cranial nerve compression, that may finally result in hearing loss and facial palsy (summary by Nurnberg et al., 1997). The delineation of separate autosomal dominant (CMDD; 123000) and autosomal recessive forms of CMD by Gorlin et al. (1969) was confirmed by reports that made it evident that the dominant form is relatively mild and comparatively common, whereas the recessive form is rare, severe, and possibly heterogeneous.
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with intellectual disability), type B2
MedGen UID:
461766
Concept ID:
C3150416
Disease or Syndrome
MDDGB2 is an autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy associated with impaired intellectual development and mild structural brain abnormalities (Yanagisawa et al., 2007). It is part of a group of similar disorders, collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies,' resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239) (Godfrey et al., 2007). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B, see MDDGB1 (613155).
Mitochondrial myopathy with reversible cytochrome C oxidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
463248
Concept ID:
C3151898
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile mitochondrial myopathy due to reversible COX deficiency is a rare mitochondrial disorder characterized by onset in infancy of severe hypotonia and generalized muscle weakness associated with lactic acidosis, but is distinguished from other mitochondrial disorders in that affected individuals recover spontaneously after 1 year of age (summary by Mimaki et al., 2010). See also transient infantile liver failure (LFIT; 613070), which is a similar disorder.
Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis 2
MedGen UID:
465707
Concept ID:
C3179239
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of CLCN7-related osteopetrosis includes infantile malignant CLCN7-related autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO), intermediate autosomal osteopetrosis (IAO), and autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADOII; Albers-Schönberg disease). ARO. Onset is at birth. Findings may include: fractures; reduced growth; sclerosis of the skull base (with or without choanal stenosis or hydrocephalus) resulting in optic nerve compression, facial palsy, and hearing loss; absence of the bone marrow cavity resulting in severe anemia and thrombocytopenia; dental abnormalities, odontomas, and risk for mandibular osteomyelitis; and hypocalcemia with tetanic seizures and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Without treatment maximal life span in ARO is ten years. IAO. Onset is in childhood. Findings may include: fractures after minor trauma, characteristic skeletal radiographic changes found incidentally, mild anemia, and occasional visual impairment secondary to optic nerve compression. Life expectancy in IAO is usually normal. ADOII. Onset is usually late childhood or adolescence. Findings may include: fractures (in any long bone and/or the posterior arch of a vertebra), scoliosis, hip osteoarthritis, and osteomyelitis of the mandible or septic osteitis or osteoarthritis elsewhere. Cranial nerve compression is rare.
Sclerosteosis 2
MedGen UID:
482032
Concept ID:
C3280402
Disease or Syndrome
Sclerosteosis is a severe sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by progressive skeletal overgrowth. Syndactyly is a variable manifestation. The disorder is rare and the majority of affected individuals have been reported in the Afrikaner population of South Africa (summary by Brunkow et al., 2001). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sclerosteosis, see SOST1 (269500).
MEGF10-related myopathy
MedGen UID:
482309
Concept ID:
C3280679
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-10A (CMYP10A) is a severe autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by generalized hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and poor feeding apparent from birth. Decreased fetal movements may be observed. More variable features include high-arched palate, distal joint contractures, foot deformities, scoliosis, areflexia, and dysphagia. Many patients show eventration of the diaphragm. Affected individuals become ventilator-dependent in the first months or years of life and never achieve walking; many die in childhood (Logan et al., 2011). Patients with more damaging mutations in the MEGF10 gene, including nonsense or frameshift null mutations, show the more severe phenotype (CMYP10A), whereas those with missense mutations affecting conserved cysteine residues in the EGF-like domain show the less severe phenotype with later onset of respiratory failure and minicores on muscle biopsy (CMYP10B) (Croci et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia
MedGen UID:
762040
Concept ID:
C3541340
Disease or Syndrome
Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia (PTCD) refers to a neurologic condition characterized by a distinct pattern of hindbrain malformations apparent on brain imaging. The abnormalities affect the pons, medulla, and cerebellum. In neuroradiologic studies, the ventral side of the pons is flattened, whereas there is vaulting ('capping') of the dorsal pontine border into the fourth ventricle. Affected individuals show a variety of neurologic deficits, most commonly sensorineural deafness, impaired cranial nerve function, and variable psychomotor retardation (summary by Barth et al., 2007).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
765249
Concept ID:
C3552335
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-12 is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of proximal muscle weakness in the first decade. EMG classically shows a decremental response to repeated nerve stimulation. Affected individuals show a favorable response to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors (summary by Senderek et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766452
Concept ID:
C3553538
Disease or Syndrome
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome-2 (BVVLS2) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by early childhood onset of sensorineural deafness, bulbar dysfunction, and severe diffuse muscle weakness and wasting of the upper and lower limbs and axial muscles, resulting in respiratory insufficiency. Some patients may lose independent ambulation. Because it results from a defect in riboflavin metabolism, some patients may benefit from high-dose riboflavin supplementation (summary by Johnson et al., 2012; Foley et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, see BVVLS1 (211530).
Facial paresis, hereditary congenital, 3
MedGen UID:
766539
Concept ID:
C3553625
Disease or Syndrome
HCFP3 is an autosomal recessive congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder characterized by isolated dysfunction of the seventh cranial nerve resulting in facial palsy. Additional features may include orofacial anomalies, such as smooth philtrum, lagophthalmos, swallowing difficulties, and dysarthria, as well as hearing loss. There is some phenotypic overlap with Moebius syndrome (see, e.g., 157900), but patients with HCFP usually retain full eye motility or have esotropia without paralysis of the sixth cranial nerve (summary by Vogel et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary congenital facial paresis, see 601471.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 11
MedGen UID:
767376
Concept ID:
C3554462
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome-11 is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder characterized by onset in childhood or adulthood of progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), muscle weakness and atrophy, exercise intolerance, and respiratory insufficiency due to muscle weakness. More variable features include spinal deformity, emaciation, and cardiac abnormalities. Skeletal muscle biopsies show deletion and depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with variable defects in respiratory chain enzyme activities (summary by Kornblum et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive mtDNA depletion syndromes, see MTDPS1 (603041).
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 8
MedGen UID:
767392
Concept ID:
C3554478
Disease or Syndrome
A sub-type of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis caused by mutation(s) in the SNX10 gene, encoding sorting nexin-10.
Actin accumulation myopathy
MedGen UID:
777997
Concept ID:
C3711389
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-2A (CMYP2A) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by infantile- or childhood-onset myopathy with delayed motor milestones and nonprogressive muscle weakness. Of the patients with congenital myopathy caused by mutation in the ACTA1 gene, about 90% carry heterozygous mutations that are usually de novo and cause the severe infantile phenotype (CMYP2C; 620278). Some patients with de novo mutations have a more typical and milder disease course with delayed motor development and proximal muscle weakness, but are able to achieve independent ambulation. Less frequently, autosomal dominant transmission of the disorder within a family may occur when the ACTA1 mutation produces a phenotype compatible with adult life. Of note, intrafamilial variability has also been reported: a severely affected proband may be identified and then mildly affected or even asymptomatic relatives are found to carry the same mutation. The severity of the disease most likely depends on the detrimental effect of the mutation, although there are probably additional modifying factors (Ryan et al., 2001; Laing et al., 2009; Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001; Agrawal et al., 2004; Nowak et al., 2013; Sewry et al., 2019; Laitila and Wallgren-Pettersson, 2021). The most common histologic finding on muscle biopsy in patients with ACTA1 mutations is the presence of 'nemaline rods,' which represent abnormal thread- or rod-like structures ('nema' is Greek for 'thread'). However, skeletal muscle biopsy from patients with mutations in the ACTA1 gene can show a range of pathologic phenotypes. These include classic rods, intranuclear rods, clumped filaments, cores, or fiber-type disproportion, all of which are nonspecific pathologic findings and not pathognomonic of a specific congenital myopathy. Most patients have clinically severe disease, regardless of the histopathologic phenotype (Nowak et al., 2007; Sewry et al., 2019). ACTA1 mutations are the second most common cause of congenital myopathies classified histologically as 'nemaline myopathy' after mutations in the NEB gene (161650). ACTA1 mutations are overrepresented in the severe phenotype with early death (Laing et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM2 (256030).
Nemaline myopathy 8
MedGen UID:
815539
Concept ID:
C3809209
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-8 is a severe autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by fetal akinesia or hypokinesia, followed by contractures, fractures, respiratory failure, and swallowing difficulties apparent at birth. Most patients die in infancy. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows numerous small nemaline bodies, often with no normal myofibrils (summary by Ravenscroft et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM3 (161800).
ADNP-related multiple congenital anomalies - intellectual disability - autism spectrum disorder
MedGen UID:
862975
Concept ID:
C4014538
Disease or Syndrome
ADNP-related disorder is characterized by hypotonia, severe speech and motor delay, mild-to-severe intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, wide and depressed nasal bridge, and short nose with full, upturned nasal tip) based on a cohort of 78 individuals. Features of autism spectrum disorder are common (stereotypic behavior, impaired social interaction). Other common findings include additional behavioral problems, sleep disturbance, brain abnormalities, seizures, feeding issues, gastrointestinal problems, visual dysfunction (hypermetropia, strabismus, cortical visual impairment), musculoskeletal anomalies, endocrine issues including short stature and hormonal deficiencies, cardiac and urinary tract anomalies, and hearing loss.
Nemaline myopathy 10
MedGen UID:
863797
Concept ID:
C4015360
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-10 (NEM10) is an autosomal recessive severe congenital myopathy characterized by early-onset generalized muscle weakness and hypotonia with respiratory insufficiency and feeding difficulties. Many patients present antenatally with decreased fetal movements, and most die of respiratory failure in early infancy (summary by Yuen et al., 2014). Patients with a stable and much milder disease course have been described (Schatz et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM3 (161800).
Autosomal dominant mitochondrial myopathy with exercise intolerance
MedGen UID:
863950
Concept ID:
C4015513
Disease or Syndrome
CHCHD10-related disorders are characterized by a spectrum of adult-onset neurologic phenotypes that can include: Mitochondrial myopathy (may also be early onset): weakness, amyotrophy, exercise intolerance. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): progressive degeneration of upper motor neurons and lower motor neurons. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD): slowly progressive behavioral changes, language disturbances, cognitive decline, extrapyramidal signs. Late-onset spinal motor neuronopathy (SMA, Jokela type): weakness, cramps, and/or fasciculations; areflexia. Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy: slowly progressive lower-leg muscle weakness and atrophy, small hand muscle weakness, loss of tendon reflexes, sensory abnormalities. Cerebellar ataxia: gait ataxia, kinetic ataxia (progressive loss of coordination of lower- and upper-limb movements), dysarthria/dysphagia, nystagmus, cerebellar oculomotor disorder. Because of the recent discovery of CHCHD10-related disorders and the limited number of affected individuals reported to date, the natural history of these disorders (except for SMAJ caused by the p.Gly66Val pathogenic variant) is largely unknown.
Fanconi anemia complementation group T
MedGen UID:
896157
Concept ID:
C4084840
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal recessive 1
MedGen UID:
897191
Concept ID:
C4225153
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Progressive scapulohumeroperoneal distal myopathy
MedGen UID:
905125
Concept ID:
C4225181
Disease or Syndrome
Scapulohumeroperoneal myopathy is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy affecting both proximal and distal muscles of the upper and lower limbs. Onset is usually in the first decade and can be as early as infancy, although some patients do not notice symptoms until young adulthood. There is marked variability in severity (summary by Zukosky et al., 2015).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 19
MedGen UID:
897962
Concept ID:
C4225235
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-19 (CMS19) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from a defect in the neuromuscular junction, causing generalized muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and respiratory insufficiency. Patients present with hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and respiratory problems soon after birth, but the severity of the weakness and disease course is variable (summary by Logan et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy 2
MedGen UID:
899150
Concept ID:
C4225314
Disease or Syndrome
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy-2 (UCMD2) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by joint hypermobility, proximal contractures, and muscle weakness precluding ambulation (summary by Zou et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, see UCMD1A (254090).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
895641
Concept ID:
C4225368
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with AChR deficiency is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) clinically characterized by early-onset muscle weakness with variable severity. Electrophysiologic studies show low amplitude of the miniature endplate potential (MEPP) and current (MEPC) resulting from deficiency of AChR at the endplate. Patients may show a favorable response to amifampridine (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 3C
MedGen UID:
903088
Concept ID:
C4225370
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with AChR deficiency is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) clinically characterized by early-onset muscle weakness with variable severity. Electrophysiologic studies show low amplitude of the miniature endplate potential (MEPP) and current (MEPC) resulting from deficiency of AChR at the endplate. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or amifampridine may be helpful (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 3B
MedGen UID:
909404
Concept ID:
C4225371
Disease or Syndrome
Fast-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (FCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor channel, specifically from abnormally brief opening and activity of the channel, with a rapid decay in endplate current and a failure to reach the threshold for depolarization. Treatment with pyridostigmine or amifampridine may be helpful; quinine, quinidine, and fluoxetine should be avoided (summary by Sine et al., 2003 and Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 2A
MedGen UID:
908185
Concept ID:
C4225374
Disease or Syndrome
Slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor channel, specifically from prolonged opening and activity of the channel, which causes prolonged synaptic currents resulting in a depolarization block. This is associated with calcium overload, which may contribute to subsequent degeneration of the endplate and postsynaptic membrane. Treatment with quinine, quinidine, or fluoxetine may be helpful; cholinesterase inhibitors and amifampridine should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 1B, fast-channel
MedGen UID:
909200
Concept ID:
C4225405
Disease or Syndrome
Fast-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (FCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel, specifically from abnormally brief opening and activity of the channel, with a rapid decay in endplate current and a failure to reach the threshold for depolarization. Treatment with pyridostigmine or amifampridine may be helpful; quinine, quinidine, and fluoxetine should be avoided (summary by Sine et al., 2003 and Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 20
MedGen UID:
934661
Concept ID:
C4310694
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-20 is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by severe hypotonia associated with episodic apnea soon after birth. Patients have muscle weakness resulting in delayed walking, ptosis, poor sucking and swallowing, and generalized limb fatigability and weakness. EMG studies usually show a decremental response to repetitive nerve stimulation, and some patients may show a good response to AChE inhibitors (summary by Bauche et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Myofibrillar myopathy 7
MedGen UID:
934678
Concept ID:
C4310711
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy-7 (MFM7) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by early childhood onset of slowly progressive muscle weakness that primarily affects the lower limbs and is associated with joint contractures (summary by Straussberg et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419).
MYPN-related myopathy
MedGen UID:
1384302
Concept ID:
C4479186
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-24 (CMYP24) is an autosomal recessive congenital myopathy characterized by onset of slowly progressive muscle weakness in the first decade. Affected individuals present with gait difficulties due to proximal muscle weakness and atrophy mainly affecting the lower limbs and neck. Muscle biopsy shows nemaline bodies. Some patients may have mild cardiac or respiratory involvement, but they do not have respiratory failure (summary by Miyatake et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see 117000. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see 256030.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, neuropathy, and deafness
MedGen UID:
1382171
Concept ID:
C4479603
Disease or Syndrome
SPTBN4 disorder is typically characterized by severe-to-profound developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, although two individuals in one family had a milder phenotype, including one individual with normal cognitive development. Speech and language skills are often severely limited. Affected individuals rarely achieve head control. Most are unable to sit, stand, or walk. Affected individuals typically have congenital hypotonia that may transition to hypertonia. Axonal motor neuropathy leads to hyporeflexia/areflexia and weakness, which can result in respiratory difficulties requiring ventilatory support. Most affected individuals require tube feeding for nutrition. Half of affected individuals develop seizures. Cortical visual impairment and auditory neuropathy have also been reported.
Facial palsy, congenital, with ptosis and velopharyngeal dysfunction
MedGen UID:
1623077
Concept ID:
C4540277
Disease or Syndrome
Sclerosteosis 1
MedGen UID:
1642815
Concept ID:
C4551483
Disease or Syndrome
SOST-related sclerosing bone dysplasias include sclerosteosis and van Buchem disease, both disorders of progressive bone overgrowth due to increased bone formation. The major clinical features of sclerosteosis are progressive skeletal overgrowth, most pronounced in the skull and mandible, and variable syndactyly, usually of the second (index) and third (middle) fingers. Affected individuals appear normal at birth except for syndactyly. Facial distortion due to bossing of the forehead and mandibular overgrowth is seen in nearly all individuals and becomes apparent in early childhood with progression into adulthood. Hyperostosis of the skull results in narrowing of the foramina, causing entrapment of the seventh cranial nerve (leading to facial palsy) with other, less common nerve entrapment syndromes including visual loss (2nd cranial nerve), neuralgia or anosmia (5th cranial nerve), and sensory hearing loss (8th cranial nerve). In sclerosteosis, hyperostosis of the calvarium reduces intracranial volume, increasing the risk for potentially lethal elevation of intracranial pressure. Survival of individuals with sclerosteosis into old age is unusual, but not unprecedented. The manifestations of van Buchem disease are generally milder than sclerosteosis and syndactyly is absent; life span appears to be normal.
Branchiootorenal syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1632634
Concept ID:
C4551702
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootorenal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment, branchial fistulae and cysts, and renal malformations ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. Some individuals progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in life. Extreme variability can be observed in the presence, severity, and type of branchial arch, otologic, audiologic, and renal abnormality from right side to left side in an affected individual and also among individuals in the same family.
Inclusion body myopathy with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia type 1
MedGen UID:
1641069
Concept ID:
C4551951
Disease or Syndrome
Inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB) and/or frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) is characterized by adult-onset proximal and distal muscle weakness (clinically resembling a limb-girdle muscular dystrophy syndrome), early-onset PDB, and premature frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Muscle weakness progresses to involve other limb and respiratory muscles. PDB involves focal areas of increased bone turnover that typically lead to spine and/or hip pain and localized enlargement and deformity of the long bones; pathologic fractures occur on occasion. Early stages of FTD are characterized by dysnomia, dyscalculia, comprehension deficits, and paraphasic errors, with minimal impairment of episodic memory; later stages are characterized by inability to speak, auditory comprehension deficits for even one-step commands, alexia, and agraphia. Mean age at diagnosis for muscle disease and PDB is 42 years; for FTD, 56 years. Dilated cardiomyopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson disease are now known to be part of the spectrum of findings associated with IBMPFD.
Autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy
MedGen UID:
1645741
Concept ID:
C4551952
Disease or Syndrome
Centronuclear myopathy-1 (CNM1) is an autosomal dominant congenital myopathy characterized by slowly progressive muscular weakness and wasting. The disorder involves mainly limb girdle, trunk, and neck muscles but may also affect distal muscles. Weakness may be present during childhood or adolescence or may not become evident until the third decade of life, and some affected individuals become wheelchair-bound in their fifties. Ptosis and limitation of eye movements occur frequently. The most prominent histopathologic features include high frequency of centrally located nuclei in a large number of extrafusal muscle fibers (which is the basis of the name of the disorder), radial arrangement of sarcoplasmic strands around the central nuclei, and predominance and hypotrophy of type 1 fibers (summary by Bitoun et al., 2005). Genetic Heterogeneity of Centronuclear Myopathy Centronuclear myopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also X-linked CNM (CNMX; 310400), caused by mutation in the MTM1 gene (300415) on chromosome Xq28; CNM2 (255200), caused by mutation in the BIN1 gene (601248) on chromosome 2q14; CNM4 (614807), caused by mutation in the CCDC78 gene (614666) on chromosome 16p13; CNM5 (615959), caused by mutation in the SPEG gene (615950) on chromosome 2q35; and CNM6 (617760), caused by mutation in the ZAK gene (609479) on chromosome 2q31. The mutation in the MYF6 gene that was reported to cause a form of CNM, formerly designated CNM3, has been reclassified as a variant of unknown significance; see 159991.0001. Some patients with mutation in the RYR1 gene (180901) have findings of centronuclear myopathy on skeletal muscle biopsy (see 255320).
MYH7-related skeletal myopathy
MedGen UID:
1647391
Concept ID:
C4552004
Disease or Syndrome
Laing distal myopathy is characterized by early-onset weakness (usually before age 5 years) that initially involves the dorsiflexors of the ankles and great toes and then the finger extensors, especially those of the third and fourth fingers. Weakness of the neck flexors is seen in most affected individuals and mild facial weakness is often present. After distal weakness has been present for more than ten years, mild proximal weakness may be observed. Life expectancy is normal.
Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1D (DNAJB6)
MedGen UID:
1648441
Concept ID:
C4721885
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy is characterized by proximal and/or distal muscle weakness and atrophy. The age at onset is variable and can range from the first to the sixth decade, although later onset is less common. Most patients present with proximal muscle weakness that progresses to distal involvement, but some can present with distal impairment. The severity is variable: patients with a more severe phenotype can lose ambulation after several decades and have facial weakness with bulbar and respiratory involvement. Muscle biopsy shows dystrophic changes with protein aggregates, myofibrillar degeneration, and rimmed vacuoles (summary by Ruggieri et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Dominant Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Other forms of autosomal dominant LGMD include LGMDD2 (608423), previously LGMD1F, caused by mutation in the TNPO3 gene (610032) on chromosome 7q32; LGMDD3 (609115), previously LGMD1G, caused by mutation in the HNRNPDL gene (607137) on chromosome 4q21; and LGMDD4 (618129), previously LGMD1I, caused by mutation in the CAPN3 gene (114240) on chromosome 15q15. For a discussion of autosomal recessive LGMD, see 253600.
Mullegama-Klein-Martinez syndrome
MedGen UID:
1683985
Concept ID:
C5193008
Disease or Syndrome
Mullegama-Klein-Martinez syndrome (MKMS) is an X-linked recessive disorder with features of microcephaly, microtia, hearing loss, developmental delay, dysmorphic features, congenital heart defect, and digit abnormalities. Females are generally affected more severely than males (Mullegama et al., 2019).
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy 1
MedGen UID:
1684682
Concept ID:
C5231388
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy-1 (OPDM1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by adult-onset ptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, facial muscle weakness, distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy, and pharyngeal involvement, resulting in dysphagia and dysarthria. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows myopathic changes with rimmed vacuoles. There are variable manifestations of the disorder regarding muscle involvement and severity (summary by Ishiura et al., 2019). Genetic Heterogeneity of Oculopharyngodistal Myopathy See also OPDM2 (618940), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the GIPC1 gene (605072) on chromosome 19p13; OPDM3 (619473), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the NOTCH2NLC gene (618025) on chromosome 1q21; and OPDM4 (619790), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the RILPL1 gene (614092) on chromosome 12q24. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD; 164300) is a similar disorder with overlapping features. It is caused by a similar heterozygous trinucleotide repeat expansion in the PABPN1 gene (602279) (summary by Durmus et al., 2011).
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome, female-restricted
MedGen UID:
1715791
Concept ID:
C5393303
Disease or Syndrome
Female-restricted Wieacker-Wolff syndrome (WRWFFR) is an X-linked dominant syndromic form of neurogenic arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) with central and peripheral nervous system involvement. Affected individuals have decreased fetal movements causing the development of contractures in utero and resulting in AMC and diffuse contractures involving the large and small joints apparent at birth. There is global developmental delay with difficulty walking or inability to walk, hypotonia that often evolves to spasticity, and variably impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language. Dysmorphic facial features, including hypotonic facies, ptosis, microretrognathia, and small mouth, are seen in most patients. Seizures are uncommon; some patients have evidence of a peripheral motor neuropathy with distal muscle weakness. The level of X inactivation in lymphocytes and fibroblasts is often skewed, but may not predict the severity of the phenotype. Most cases occur sporadically; rare X-linked dominant inheritance has been reported in families (summary by Frints et al., 2019).
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1
MedGen UID:
1727901
Concept ID:
C5399970
Disease or Syndrome
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) typically presents with weakness of the facial muscles, the stabilizers of the scapula, or the dorsiflexors of the foot. Severity is highly variable. Weakness is slowly progressive and approximately 20% of affected individuals eventually require a wheelchair. Life expectancy is not shortened.
Myopathy, distal, with rimmed vacuoles
MedGen UID:
1728314
Concept ID:
C5399975
Disease or Syndrome
Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) is an autosomal dominant myopathic disorder characterized by adult onset of muscle weakness affecting the distal upper and lower limbs, which may result in walking difficulties, as well as proximal weakness of the shoulder girdle muscles. Muscle biopsy shows rimmed vacuoles (summary by Bucelli et al., 2015).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with intellectual disability), type B1
MedGen UID:
1774807
Concept ID:
C5436962
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophies resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239) are characterized by early onset of muscle weakness, usually before ambulation is achieved; intellectual disability mild brain anomalies are variable (Balci et al., 2005; Godfrey et al., 2007). Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathies with or without impaired intellectual development (type B) represent the intermediate range of the spectrum of dystroglycanopathies. They are less severe than muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A; see MDDGA1, 236670), previously designated Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) or muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), and more severe than limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (type C; see MDDGC1, 609308). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy-Dystroglycanopathy with or without Impaired Intellectual Development (Type B) Congenital muscular dystrophy with impaired intellectual development due to defective glycosylation of DAG1 is genetically heterogeneous. See also MDDGB2 (613156), caused by mutation in the POMT2 gene (607439); MDDGB3 (613151), caused by mutation in the POMGNT1 gene (606822); MDDGB4 (613152), caused by mutation in the FKTN gene (607440); MDDGB5 (616612), caused by mutation in the FKRP gene (606596); MDDGB6 (608840), caused by mutation in the LARGE gene (603590); MDDGB14 (615351), caused by mutation in the GMPPB gene (615320); and MDDGB15 (618992), caused by mutation in the DPM3 gene (605951).
Coffin-Siris syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
1782096
Concept ID:
C5444111
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome-12 (CSS12) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, speech and language delay, and behavioral abnormalities, such as autism or hyperactivity. Affected individuals may have hypotonia and poor feeding in infancy. There are variable dysmorphic facial features, although most patients do not have the classic hypoplastic fifth digit/nail abnormalities that are often observed in other forms of CSS (Barish et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Myopathy, myofibrillar, 12, infantile-onset, with cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
1794147
Concept ID:
C5561937
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset myofibrillar myopathy-12 with cardiomyopathy (MFM12) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder affecting both skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue that is apparent in the first weeks of life. Affected infants show tremor or clonus at birth, followed by onset of rapidly progressive generalized muscle weakness and dilated cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure, usually resulting in death by 6 months of age. Skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues show hypotrophy of type I muscle fibers and evidence of myofibrillar disorganization (summary by Weterman et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419).
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1804638
Concept ID:
C5676876
Disease or Syndrome
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome-1 (CFZS1) is a multisystem congenital disorder characterized by hypotonia, Moebius sequence (bilateral congenital facial palsy with impairment of ocular abduction), Pierre Robin complex (micrognathia, glossoptosis, and high-arched or cleft palate), delayed motor milestones, and failure to thrive. More variable features include dysmorphic facial features, brain abnormalities, and intellectual disability. It has been postulated that many clinical features in CFZS1 may be secondary effects of muscle weakness during development or brainstem anomalies (summary by Pasetti et al., 2016). Di Gioia et al. (2017) determined that CFZS1 represents a slowly progressive congenital myopathy resulting from a defect in myoblast fusion. Genetic Heterogeneity of Carey-Fineman-Ziter Syndrome Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome-2 (CFZS2) is caused by mutation in the MYMX gene (619912) on chromosome 6p21.
Branchial arch abnormalities, choanal atresia, athelia, hearing loss, and hypothyroidism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1824056
Concept ID:
C5774283
Disease or Syndrome
Branchial arch abnormalities, choanal atresia, athelia, hearing loss, and hypothyroidism syndrome (BCAHH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by choanal atresia, athelia or hypoplastic nipples, branchial sinus abnormalities, neck pits, lacrimal duct anomalies, hearing loss, external ear malformations, and thyroid abnormalities. Additional features may include developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and growth failure/retardation (summary by Cuvertino et al., 2020 and Baldridge et al., 2020).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Robinson MW, Baiungo J
Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2018 Dec;51(6):1151-1167. Epub 2018 Sep 24 doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2018.07.011. PMID: 30262166
Cooper L, Lui M, Nduka C
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2017 Jun;70(6):833-841. Epub 2017 Feb 16 doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2017.01.009. PMID: 28389084
Sudulagunta SR, Sodalagunta MB, Sepehrar M, Khorram H, Bangalore Raja SK, Kothandapani S, Noroozpour Z, Aheta Sham M, Prasad N, Sunny SP, Mohammed MD, Gangadharappa R, Nidsale Sudarshan R
Ger Med Sci 2015;13:Doc16. Epub 2015 Sep 21 doi: 10.3205/000220. PMID: 26421004Free PMC Article

Curated

UK NICE Guideline (NG127), Suspected neurological conditions: recognition and referral, 2023

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Nakano H, Fujiwara T, Tsujimoto Y, Morishima N, Kasahara T, Ameya M, Tachibana K, Sanada S, Toufukuji S, Hato N
Auris Nasus Larynx 2024 Feb;51(1):154-160. Epub 2023 May 4 doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2023.04.007. PMID: 37149416
Osborne RF
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2021 May;33(2):169-175. Epub 2021 Jan 19 doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2020.12.002. PMID: 33478916
Jung J, Park DC, Jung SY, Park MJ, Kim SH, Yeo SG
Acta Otolaryngol 2019 Oct;139(10):934-938. Epub 2019 Aug 20 doi: 10.1080/00016489.2019.1651134. PMID: 31430217
Hohman MH, Hadlock TA
Laryngoscope 2014 Jul;124(7):E283-93. Epub 2014 Jan 15 doi: 10.1002/lary.24542. PMID: 24431233
Pereira LM, Obara K, Dias JM, Menacho MO, Lavado EL, Cardoso JR
Clin Rehabil 2011 Jul;25(7):649-58. Epub 2011 Mar 7 doi: 10.1177/0269215510395634. PMID: 21382865

Diagnosis

Kim SJ, Lee HY
J Korean Med Sci 2020 Aug 3;35(30):e245. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e245. PMID: 32743989Free PMC Article
Jung J, Park DC, Jung SY, Park MJ, Kim SH, Yeo SG
Acta Otolaryngol 2019 Oct;139(10):934-938. Epub 2019 Aug 20 doi: 10.1080/00016489.2019.1651134. PMID: 31430217
O TM, Jowett N, Hadlock TA
Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2018 Dec;51(6):xvii-xviii. Epub 2018 Sep 15 doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2018.08.018. PMID: 30228002
Hohman MH, Hadlock TA
Laryngoscope 2014 Jul;124(7):E283-93. Epub 2014 Jan 15 doi: 10.1002/lary.24542. PMID: 24431233
Pereira LM, Obara K, Dias JM, Menacho MO, Lavado EL, Cardoso JR
Clin Rehabil 2011 Jul;25(7):649-58. Epub 2011 Mar 7 doi: 10.1177/0269215510395634. PMID: 21382865

Therapy

Nakano H, Fujiwara T, Tsujimoto Y, Morishima N, Kasahara T, Ameya M, Tachibana K, Sanada S, Toufukuji S, Hato N
Auris Nasus Larynx 2024 Feb;51(1):154-160. Epub 2023 May 4 doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2023.04.007. PMID: 37149416
Kim SJ, Lee HY
J Korean Med Sci 2020 Aug 3;35(30):e245. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e245. PMID: 32743989Free PMC Article
Paolucci T, Cardarola A, Colonnelli P, Ferracuti G, Gonnella R, Murgia M, Santilli V, Paoloni M, Bernetti A, Agostini F, Mangone M
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2020 Feb;56(1):58-67. Epub 2019 Mar 27 doi: 10.23736/S1973-9087.19.05757-5. PMID: 30916916
Teixeira LJ, Valbuza JS, Prado GF
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011 Dec 7;(12):CD006283. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006283.pub3. PMID: 22161401
Pereira LM, Obara K, Dias JM, Menacho MO, Lavado EL, Cardoso JR
Clin Rehabil 2011 Jul;25(7):649-58. Epub 2011 Mar 7 doi: 10.1177/0269215510395634. PMID: 21382865

Prognosis

Haginomori SI
Auris Nasus Larynx 2023 Apr;50(2):180-186. Epub 2022 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2022.08.010. PMID: 36057466
Jung J, Park DC, Jung SY, Park MJ, Kim SH, Yeo SG
Acta Otolaryngol 2019 Oct;139(10):934-938. Epub 2019 Aug 20 doi: 10.1080/00016489.2019.1651134. PMID: 31430217
Dong SH, Jung AR, Jung J, Jung SY, Byun JY, Park MS, Kim SH, Yeo SG
Clin Otolaryngol 2019 May;44(3):305-312. Epub 2019 Feb 22 doi: 10.1111/coa.13293. PMID: 30672667
Hohman MH, Hadlock TA
Laryngoscope 2014 Jul;124(7):E283-93. Epub 2014 Jan 15 doi: 10.1002/lary.24542. PMID: 24431233
Kanerva M, Moilanen K, Virolainen S, Vaheri A, Pitkäranta A
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2008 Feb;138(2):246-51. doi: 10.1016/j.otohns.2007.11.015. PMID: 18241724

Clinical prediction guides

Nakano H, Fujiwara T, Tsujimoto Y, Morishima N, Kasahara T, Ameya M, Tachibana K, Sanada S, Toufukuji S, Hato N
Auris Nasus Larynx 2024 Feb;51(1):154-160. Epub 2023 May 4 doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2023.04.007. PMID: 37149416
Haginomori SI
Auris Nasus Larynx 2023 Apr;50(2):180-186. Epub 2022 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2022.08.010. PMID: 36057466
Paolucci T, Cardarola A, Colonnelli P, Ferracuti G, Gonnella R, Murgia M, Santilli V, Paoloni M, Bernetti A, Agostini F, Mangone M
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2020 Feb;56(1):58-67. Epub 2019 Mar 27 doi: 10.23736/S1973-9087.19.05757-5. PMID: 30916916
Cooper L, Lui M, Nduka C
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2017 Jun;70(6):833-841. Epub 2017 Feb 16 doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2017.01.009. PMID: 28389084
Hohman MH, Hadlock TA
Laryngoscope 2014 Jul;124(7):E283-93. Epub 2014 Jan 15 doi: 10.1002/lary.24542. PMID: 24431233

Recent systematic reviews

Nakano H, Fujiwara T, Tsujimoto Y, Morishima N, Kasahara T, Ameya M, Tachibana K, Sanada S, Toufukuji S, Hato N
Auris Nasus Larynx 2024 Feb;51(1):154-160. Epub 2023 May 4 doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2023.04.007. PMID: 37149416
Khan AJ, Szczepura A, Palmer S, Bark C, Neville C, Thomson D, Martin H, Nduka C
Clin Rehabil 2022 Nov;36(11):1424-1449. Epub 2022 Jul 5 doi: 10.1177/02692155221110727. PMID: 35787015Free PMC Article
Kim SJ, Lee HY
J Korean Med Sci 2020 Aug 3;35(30):e245. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e245. PMID: 32743989Free PMC Article
Cooper L, Lui M, Nduka C
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2017 Jun;70(6):833-841. Epub 2017 Feb 16 doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2017.01.009. PMID: 28389084
Pereira LM, Obara K, Dias JM, Menacho MO, Lavado EL, Cardoso JR
Clin Rehabil 2011 Jul;25(7):649-58. Epub 2011 Mar 7 doi: 10.1177/0269215510395634. PMID: 21382865

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Curated

    • NICE, 2023
      UK NICE Guideline (NG127), Suspected neurological conditions: recognition and referral, 2023

    Consumer resources

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