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Au-Kline syndrome

MedGen UID:
900671
Concept ID:
C4225274
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Neurodevelopmental disorder-craniofacial dysmorphism-cardiac defect-hip dysplasia syndrome due to a point mutation
SNOMED CT: Neurodevelopmental disorder, craniofacial dysmorphism, cardiac defect, skeletal anomalies syndrome (1222710008); Au Kline syndrome (1222710008)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Not genetically inherited
MedGen UID:
988794
Concept ID:
CN307044
Finding
Source: Orphanet
clinical entity without genetic inheritance.
 
Gene (location): HNRNPK (9q21.32)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014700
OMIM®: 616580
Orphanet: ORPHA453504

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Au-Kline Syndrome
Au-Kline syndrome is characterized by developmental delay and hypotonia with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and typical facial features that include long palpebral fissures, ptosis, shallow orbits, large and deeply grooved tongue, broad nose with a wide nasal bridge, and downturned mouth. Congenital heart disease, hydronephrosis, palate abnormalities, and oligodontia are reported in the majority of affected individuals. Variable autonomic dysfunction (gastrointestinal dysmotility, high pain threshold, heat intolerance, recurrent fevers, abnormal sweating) is found in more than one third of affected individuals. Additional complications can include craniosynostosis, feeding difficulty, vision issues, hearing loss, osteopenia, and other skeletal anomalies. Epilepsy and brain malformations are rare. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Ping-Yee Billie Au  |  Vanda McNiven  |  Lindsay Phillips, et. al.   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Au-Kline syndrome (AUKS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypotonia, global developmental delay, characteristic facies (long palpebral fissures, shallow orbits, ptosis, a broad nasal bridge, hypoplastic alae nasi, downturned corners of the mouth and a long face), congenital heart defects, genitourinary abnormalities, skeletal abnormalities, and variable other congenital malformations (summary by Choufani et al., 2022).  http://www.omim.org/entry/616580
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Au-Kline syndrome is a condition that affects many body systems. Individuals with this condition typically have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), intellectual disability, and delayed development. Speech is delayed in children with Au-Kline syndrome, and some are able to say only one or a few words or are never able to speak. In addition, affected children learn to walk later than usual, and some are never able to walk on their own.

Individuals with Au-Kline syndrome can have distinctive facial features, including long openings of the eyelids (long palpebral fissures), drooping eyelids (ptosis), and shallow eye sockets. Other common facial features in this condition include a broad nasal bridge, a mouth with the outer corners turned downward and often held in an open position, and a deep groove down the middle of the tongue. Less common abnormalities include premature joining of certain skull bones (craniosynostosis) in affected infants, an opening or unusually high arch in the roof of the mouth (cleft or high-arched palate), a split in the soft flap of tissue that hangs from the back of the mouth (bifid uvula), and missing teeth (oligodontia).

Malformations of the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, or bones can also occur in people with Au-Kline syndrome. For example, in some affected individuals, the large blood vessel that distributes blood from the heart to the rest of the body (the aorta) becomes weakened and stretched (aortic dilatation), which can be life-threatening. Some people with Au-Kline syndrome have an abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis). In addition, affected individuals may have difficulty feeding or poor vision.

Au-Kline syndrome can sometimes affect the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary body functions, such as digestion and regulation of body temperature. In people with Au-Kline syndrome, abnormalities in this system can lead to digestive problems, difficulty feeling pain, abnormal sweating, and an inability to adjust to high heat in people with Au-Kline syndrome.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/au-kline-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Severe distention of the kidney with dilation of the renal pelvis and calices.
Vesicoureteral reflux
MedGen UID:
21852
Concept ID:
C0042580
Disease or Syndrome
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is characterized by the reflux of urine from the bladder into the ureters and sometimes into the kidneys. It is a risk factor for urinary tract infections. Primary VUR results from a developmental defect of the ureterovesical junction (UVJ). In combination with intrarenal reflux, the resulting inflammatory reaction may result in renal injury or scarring, also called reflux nephropathy (RN). Extensive renal scarring impairs renal function and may predispose patients to hypertension, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency (summary by Lu et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Vesicoureteral Reflux A locus designated VUR1 maps to chromosome 1p13. VUR2 (610878) is caused by mutation in the ROBO2 gene (602431) on chromosome 3p12; VUR3 (613674) is caused by mutation in the SOX17 gene (610928) on chromosome 8q11; VUR4 (614317) maps to chromosome 5; VUR5 (614318) maps to chromosome 13; VUR6 (614319) maps to chromosome 18; VUR7 (615390) maps to chromosome 12; and VUR8 (615963) is caused by mutation in the TNXB gene (600985) on chromosome 6p21. A possible X-linked form has been reported (VURX; 314550).
Dilatation of the renal pelvis
MedGen UID:
574571
Concept ID:
C0341676
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of dilatation of the renal pelvis.
Chronic kidney disease
MedGen UID:
473458
Concept ID:
C1561643
Disease or Syndrome
Functional anomaly of the kidney persisting for at least three months.
Postaxial polydactyly
MedGen UID:
67394
Concept ID:
C0220697
Disease or Syndrome
Polydactyly refers to the occurrence of supernumerary digits and is the most frequent of congenital hand and foot deformities. Based on the location of the extra digits, polydactyly can be classified into preaxial, involving the thumb or great toe; postaxial, affecting the fifth digit; and central, involving the 3 central digits. Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is further subclassified into 2 types: in type A, a well-formed extra digit articulates with the fifth or a sixth metacarpal, whereas in type B, a rudimentary, poorly developed extra digit is present (summary by Umm-e-Kalsoom et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Postaxial Polydactyly Other forms of postaxial polydactyly type A include PAPA2 (602085) on chromosome 13q21; PAPA3 (607324) on chromosome 19p13; PAPA4 (608562) on chromosome 7q22; PAPA5 (263450) on chromosome 13q13; PAPA6 (615226), caused by mutation in the ZNF141 gene (194648) on chromosome 4p16; PAPA7 (617642), caused by mutation in the IQCE gene (617631) on chromosome 7p22; PAPA8 (618123), caused by mutation in the GLI1 gene (165220) on chromosome 12q13; PAPA9 (618219), caused by mutation in the FAM98A gene (617273) on chromosome 8q22; and PAPA10 (618498), caused by mutation in the KIAA0825 gene (617266) on chromosome 5q15.
Coxa valga
MedGen UID:
116080
Concept ID:
C0239137
Finding
Coxa valga is a deformity of the hip in which the angle between the femoral shaft and the femoral neck is increased compared to age-adjusted values (about 150 degrees in newborns gradually reducing to 120-130 degrees in adults).
Overlapping toe
MedGen UID:
182531
Concept ID:
C0920299
Anatomical Abnormality
Describes a foot digit resting on the dorsal surface of an adjacent digit when the foot is at rest. Initially clawing may be dynamic and only noticeable on walking. Over time the plantar plate tears, subluxation occurs at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ), and the deformity becomes permanent.
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger
MedGen UID:
340456
Concept ID:
C1850049
Congenital Abnormality
Clinodactyly refers to a bending or curvature of the fifth finger in the radial direction (i.e., towards the 4th finger).
Deep palmar crease
MedGen UID:
387849
Concept ID:
C1857539
Finding
Excessively deep creases of the palm.
Hypertensive disorder
MedGen UID:
6969
Concept ID:
C0020538
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of chronic increased pressure in the systemic arterial system.
Aortic root aneurysm
MedGen UID:
720712
Concept ID:
C1298820
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal localized widening (dilatation) of the aortic root.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Constipation
MedGen UID:
1101
Concept ID:
C0009806
Sign or Symptom
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Sensorineural hearing loss disorder
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Microtia
MedGen UID:
57535
Concept ID:
C0152423
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the external ear.
Syringomyelia
MedGen UID:
21449
Concept ID:
C0039144
Disease or Syndrome
Dilated, glial-lined cavity in spinal cord. This cavity does not communicate with the central canal, and usually is between the dorsal columns unilaterally or bilaterally along the side of the cord.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.
Lipomyelomeningocele
MedGen UID:
332109
Concept ID:
C1836022
Congenital Abnormality
A type of spinal dysraphism presenting as a subcutaneous fatty mass, that is, a spinal defect associated with lipomatous tissue, and covered by skin. The most usual location for lipomyelomeningocele is at the gluteal cleft.
Poor speech
MedGen UID:
341172
Concept ID:
C1848207
Finding
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Craniosynostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
1163
Concept ID:
C0010278
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis refers to the premature closure of the cranial sutures. Primary craniosynostosis refers to the closure of one or more sutures due to abnormalities in skull development, and secondary craniosynostosis results from failure of brain growth.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Retrognathia
MedGen UID:
19766
Concept ID:
C0035353
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality in which the mandible is mislocalised posteriorly.
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Sagittal craniosynostosis
MedGen UID:
140921
Concept ID:
C0432123
Congenital Abnormality
A kind of craniosynostosis affecting the sagittal suture.
Vertebral segmentation defect
MedGen UID:
96577
Concept ID:
C0432163
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality related to a defect of vertebral separation during development.
Thoracolumbar scoliosis
MedGen UID:
196671
Concept ID:
C0749379
Anatomical Abnormality
Prominent metopic ridge
MedGen UID:
387953
Concept ID:
C1857949
Finding
Vertical bony ridge positioned in the midline of the forehead.
Shallow orbits
MedGen UID:
351328
Concept ID:
C1865244
Finding
Reduced depth of the orbits associated with prominent-appearing ocular globes.
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest ("pectus") a caved-in ("excavatum") appearance.
Plagiocephaly
MedGen UID:
1825944
Concept ID:
C2081594
Finding
Asymmetric head shape, which is usually a combination of unilateral occipital flattening with ipsilateral frontal prominence, leading to rhomboid cranial shape.
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
MedGen UID:
1640560
Concept ID:
C4551649
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH) is an abnormality of the seating of the femoral head in the acetabulum. Its severity ranges from mild instability of the femoral head with slight capsular laxity, through moderate lateral displacement of the femoral head, without loss of contact of the head with the acetabulum, up to complete dislocation of the femoral head from the acetabulum. It is one of the most common skeletal congenital anomalies (summary by Sollazzo et al., 2000). Acetabular dysplasia is an idiopathic, localized developmental dysplasia of the hip that is characterized by a shallow hip socket and decreased coverage of the femoral head. Its radiologic criteria include the center-edge angle of Wiberg, the Sharp angle, and the acetabular roof obliquity. Most patients with acetabular dysplasia develop osteoarthritis (165720) after midlife, and even mild acetabular dysplasia can cause hip osteoarthritis (summary by Mabuchi et al., 2006). CDH occurs as an isolated anomaly or with more general disorders represented by several syndromes and with chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomy 18 (Wynne-Davies, 1970). Genetic Heterogeneity of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Developmental dysplasia of the hip-1 (DDH1) maps to chromosome 13q22; DDH2 (615612) maps to chromosome 3p21. DDH3 (620690) is caused by mutation in the LRP1 gene (107770) on chromosome 12q13.
Dental malocclusion
MedGen UID:
9869
Concept ID:
C0024636
Anatomical Abnormality
Dental malocclusion refers to an abnormality of the occlusion, or alignment, of the teeth and the way the upper and lower teeth fit together, resulting in overcrowding of teeth or in abnormal bite patterns.
Lagophthalmos
MedGen UID:
57517
Concept ID:
C0152226
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which the eyelids do not close to cover the eye completely.
Open mouth
MedGen UID:
116104
Concept ID:
C0240379
Finding
A facial appearance characterized by a permanently or nearly permanently opened mouth.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Bifid tongue
MedGen UID:
82731
Concept ID:
C0266111
Congenital Abnormality
Tongue with a median apical indentation or fork.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Bifid nasal tip
MedGen UID:
140870
Concept ID:
C0426428
Finding
A splitting of the nasal tip. Visually assessable vertical indentation, cleft, or depression of the nasal tip.
Underdeveloped nasal alae
MedGen UID:
322332
Concept ID:
C1834055
Congenital Abnormality
Thinned, deficient, or excessively arched ala nasi.
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Narrow forehead
MedGen UID:
326956
Concept ID:
C1839758
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations below the mean (objective); or apparently narrow intertemporal region (subjective).
Long palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
340300
Concept ID:
C1849340
Finding
Distance between medial and lateral canthi is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, apparently increased length of the palpebral fissures.
Prominent nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
343051
Concept ID:
C1854113
Finding
Anterior positioning of the nasal root in comparison to the usual positioning for age.
Short nose
MedGen UID:
343052
Concept ID:
C1854114
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations below the mean, or alternatively, an apparently decreased length from the nasal root to the nasal tip.
Sparse lateral eyebrow
MedGen UID:
387768
Concept ID:
C1857206
Finding
Decreased density/number and/or decreased diameter of lateral eyebrow hairs.
Downturned corners of mouth
MedGen UID:
356471
Concept ID:
C1866195
Anatomical Abnormality
A morphological abnormality of the mouth in which the angle of the mouth is downturned. The oral commissures are positioned inferior to the midline labial fissure.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Wide nasal ridge
MedGen UID:
866473
Concept ID:
C4020718
Finding
Increased width of the nasal ridge.
Oligodontia
MedGen UID:
904670
Concept ID:
C4082304
Congenital Abnormality
The absence of six or more teeth from the normal series by a failure to develop.
Bifid uvula
MedGen UID:
1646931
Concept ID:
C4551488
Congenital Abnormality
Uvula separated into two parts most easily seen at the tip.
Sacral dimple
MedGen UID:
98428
Concept ID:
C0426848
Finding
A cutaneous indentation resulting from tethering of the skin to underlying structures (bone) of the intergluteal cleft.
Deep plantar creases
MedGen UID:
341890
Concept ID:
C1857953
Finding
The presence of unusually deep creases (ridges/wrinkles) on the skin of sole of foot.
Breech presentation
MedGen UID:
654
Concept ID:
C0006157
Pathologic Function
A position of the fetus at delivery in which the fetus enters the birth canal with the buttocks or feet first.
Single umbilical artery
MedGen UID:
278026
Concept ID:
C1384670
Congenital Abnormality
Single umbilical artery (SUA) is the absence of one of the two umbilical arteries surrounding the fetal bladder and in the fetal umbilical cord.
Thickened nuchal skin fold
MedGen UID:
324644
Concept ID:
C1836940
Finding
A thickening of the skin thickness in the posterior aspect of the fetal neck. A nuchal fold (NF) measurement is obtained in a transverse section of the fetal head at the level of the cavum septum pellucidum and thalami, angled posteriorly to include the cerebellum. The measurement is taken from the outer edge of the occiput bone to the outer skin limit directly in the midline. An NF measurement greater than 5 mm at 14 to 17+6 weeks of gestation, or 6 mm at 18 to 28 weeks has been associated with a markedly increased risk for Down syndrome.
Fetal pericardial effusion
MedGen UID:
759278
Concept ID:
C3532165
Pathologic Function
An abnormal accumulation of fluid in which the heart is partially or completely surrounded by fluid that is seen in all views and the thickness of the fluid as observed by prenatal ultrasound is above age-dependent norms.
Abnormal four chamber view of the fetal heart
MedGen UID:
1841900
Concept ID:
C5826852
Finding
The four-chamber (4Ch) view of the fetal heart is the most widely used screening examination for the detection of structural cardiac abnormalities during routine fetal ultrasonography. In the healthy normal fetus, the apical 4Ch view demonstrates four well-developed chambers, a concordant atrioventricular (AV) connection, unobstructed AV valves (mitral and tricuspid valves), the foramen ovale flap opening into left atrium (LA), and an intact interventricular septum. Additionally, the pulmonary venous opening can be visualized at the LA wall. Any structural deviations from normal anatomy may lead to congenital heart disease that can be determined by the 4Ch view of the fetal heart's ultrasound imaging.
Supernumerary nipple
MedGen UID:
120564
Concept ID:
C0266011
Congenital Abnormality
Presence of more than two nipples.
Inversion of nipple
MedGen UID:
82844
Concept ID:
C0269269
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of nipples that instead of pointing outward are retracted inwards.
Wide intermamillary distance
MedGen UID:
473489
Concept ID:
C1827524
Finding
A larger than usual distance between the left and right nipple.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVAu-Kline syndrome

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Choufani S, McNiven V, Cytrynbaum C, Jangjoo M, Adam MP, Bjornsson HT, Harris J, Dyment DA, Graham GE, Nezarati MM, Aul RB, Castiglioni C, Breckpot J, Devriendt K, Stewart H, Banos-Pinero B, Mehta S, Sandford R, Dunn C, Mathevet R, van Maldergem L, Piard J, Brischoux-Boucher E, Vitobello A, Faivre L, Bournez M, Tran-Mau F, Maystadt I, Fernández-Jaén A, Alvarez S, García-Prieto ID, Alkuraya FS, Alsaif HS, Rahbeeni Z, El-Akouri K, Al-Mureikhi M, Spillmann RC, Shashi V, Sanchez-Lara PA, Graham JM Jr, Roberts A, Chorin O, Evrony GD, Kraatari-Tiri M, Dudding-Byth T, Richardson A, Hunt D, Hamilton L, Dyack S, Mendelsohn BA, Rodríguez N, Sánchez-Martínez R, Tenorio-Castaño J, Nevado J, Lapunzina P, Tirado P, Carminho Amaro Rodrigues MT, Quteineh L, Innes AM, Kline AD, Au PYB, Weksberg R
Am J Hum Genet 2022 Oct 6;109(10):1867-1884. Epub 2022 Sep 20 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.08.014. PMID: 36130591Free PMC Article
Yamada M, Shiraishi Y, Uehara T, Suzuki H, Takenouchi T, Abe-Hatano C, Kurosawa K, Kosaki K
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 Sep;8(9):e1364. Epub 2020 Jun 26 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1364. PMID: 32588992Free PMC Article
Okamoto N
Am J Med Genet A 2019 May;179(5):822-826. Epub 2019 Feb 21 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61079. PMID: 30793470

Prognosis

Wang Z, Qiu H, He J, Liu L, Xue W, Fox A, Tickner J, Xu J
J Cell Physiol 2020 Mar;235(3):1995-2008. Epub 2019 Sep 19 doi: 10.1002/jcp.29186. PMID: 31538344

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