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Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 14 with polydactyly(SRTD14)

MedGen UID:
901479
Concept ID:
C4225286
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: SRTD14
 
Gene (location): KIAA0586 (14q23.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014688
OMIM®: 616546

Definition

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, see SRTD1 (208500). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Hamartoma of tongue
MedGen UID:
98465
Concept ID:
C0431565
Finding
A benign (noncancerous) tumorlike malformation made up of an abnormal mixture of cells and tissues that originates in the tongue.
Polycystic kidney disease
MedGen UID:
9639
Concept ID:
C0022680
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of multiple cysts in both kidneys.
Micropenis
MedGen UID:
1633603
Concept ID:
C4551492
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small penis. At birth, the normal penis is about 3 cm (stretched length from pubic tubercle to tip of penis) with micropenis less than 2.0-2.5 cm.
Micromelia
MedGen UID:
10031
Concept ID:
C0025995
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of abnormally small extremities.
Postaxial polydactyly
MedGen UID:
67394
Concept ID:
C0220697
Disease or Syndrome
Polydactyly refers to the occurrence of supernumerary digits and is the most frequent of congenital hand and foot deformities. Based on the location of the extra digits, polydactyly can be classified into preaxial, involving the thumb or great toe; postaxial, affecting the fifth digit; and central, involving the 3 central digits. Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is further subclassified into 2 types: in type A, a well-formed extra digit articulates with the fifth or a sixth metacarpal, whereas in type B, a rudimentary, poorly developed extra digit is present (summary by Umm-e-Kalsoom et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Postaxial Polydactyly Other forms of postaxial polydactyly type A include PAPA2 (602085) on chromosome 13q21; PAPA3 (607324) on chromosome 19p13; PAPA4 (608562) on chromosome 7q22; PAPA5 (263450) on chromosome 13q13; PAPA6 (615226), caused by mutation in the ZNF141 gene (194648) on chromosome 4p16; PAPA7 (617642), caused by mutation in the IQCE gene (617631) on chromosome 7p22; PAPA8 (618123), caused by mutation in the GLI1 gene (165220) on chromosome 12q13; PAPA9 (618219), caused by mutation in the FAM98A gene (617273) on chromosome 8q22; and PAPA10 (618498), caused by mutation in the KIAA0825 gene (617266) on chromosome 5q15.
Preaxial polydactyly
MedGen UID:
87498
Concept ID:
C0345354
Congenital Abnormality
A form of polydactyly in which the extra digit or digits are localized on the side of the thumb or great toe.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Anencephaly
MedGen UID:
8068
Concept ID:
C0002902
Congenital Abnormality
Anencephaly is a condition that prevents the normal development of the brain and the bones of the skull. This condition results when a structure called the neural tube fails to close during the first few weeks of embryonic development. The neural tube is a layer of cells that ultimately develops into the brain and spinal cord. Because anencephaly is caused by abnormalities of the neural tube, it is classified as a neural tube defect.\n\nBecause the neural tube fails to close properly, the developing brain and spinal cord are exposed to the amniotic fluid that surrounds the fetus in the womb. This exposure causes the nervous system tissue to break down (degenerate). As a result, people with anencephaly are missing large parts of the brain called the cerebrum and cerebellum. These brain regions are necessary for thinking, hearing, vision, emotion, and coordinating movement. The bones of the skull are also missing or incompletely formed.\n\nBecause these nervous system abnormalities are so severe, almost all babies with anencephaly die before birth or within a few hours or days after birth.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation.
Polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
78605
Concept ID:
C0266464
Congenital Abnormality
Polymicrogyria is a congenital malformation of the cerebral cortex characterized by abnormal cortical layering (lamination) and an excessive number of small gyri (folds).
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Hyporeflexia
MedGen UID:
195967
Concept ID:
C0700078
Finding
Reduction of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
333548
Concept ID:
C1840379
Finding
Underdevelopment of the vermis of cerebellum.
Hypoplasia of the brainstem
MedGen UID:
334226
Concept ID:
C1842688
Finding
Underdevelopment of the brainstem.
Occipital meningocele
MedGen UID:
336389
Concept ID:
C1848652
Disease or Syndrome
A herniation of meninges through a congenital bone defect in the skull in the occipital region.
Molar tooth sign on MRI
MedGen UID:
400670
Concept ID:
C1865060
Finding
An abnormal appearance of the midbrain in axial magnetic resonance imaging in which the elongated superior cerebellar peduncles give the midbrain an appearance reminiscent of a molar or wisdom tooth.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Aplasia of the olfactory bulb
MedGen UID:
1696661
Concept ID:
C5139362
Congenital Abnormality
Lack of formation (congenital absence) of the olfactory bulb.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
MedGen UID:
68625
Concept ID:
C0235833
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of a hernia of the diaphragm present at birth.
Narrow chest
MedGen UID:
96528
Concept ID:
C0426790
Finding
Reduced width of the chest from side to side, associated with a reduced distance from the sternal notch to the tip of the shoulder.
Short ribs
MedGen UID:
98094
Concept ID:
C0426817
Finding
Reduced rib length.
Enlarged cisterna magna
MedGen UID:
344031
Concept ID:
C1853377
Finding
Increase in size of the cisterna magna, one of three principal openings in the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid and pia mater, located between the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata.
Aplastic clavicle
MedGen UID:
341820
Concept ID:
C1857665
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of the clavicles as a developmental defect.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Pulmonary hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
78574
Concept ID:
C0265783
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality in which the lung parenchyma is not fully developed. It may be associated with other congenital abnormalities.
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Accessory oral frenulum
MedGen UID:
867439
Concept ID:
C4021814
Congenital Abnormality
Extra fold of tissue extending from the alveolar ridge to the inner surface of the upper or lower lip.
Polyhydramnios
MedGen UID:
6936
Concept ID:
C0020224
Pathologic Function
The presence of excess amniotic fluid in the uterus during pregnancy.
Hydrops fetalis
MedGen UID:
6947
Concept ID:
C0020305
Disease or Syndrome
The abnormal accumulation of fluid in two or more fetal compartments, including ascites, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and skin edema.
Retinal coloboma
MedGen UID:
761889
Concept ID:
C3540764
Disease or Syndrome
A notch or cleft of the retina.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Dugoff L, Coffin CT, Hobbins JC
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1997 Oct;10(4):269-71. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-0705.1997.10040269.x. PMID: 9383879

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Baujat G, Huber C, El Hokayem J, Caumes R, Do Ngoc Thanh C, David A, Delezoide AL, Dieux-Coeslier A, Estournet B, Francannet C, Kayirangwa H, Lacaille F, Le Bourgeois M, Martinovic J, Salomon R, Sigaudy S, Malan V, Munnich A, Le Merrer M, Le Quan Sang KH, Cormier-Daire V
J Med Genet 2013 Feb;50(2):91-8. doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2012-101282. PMID: 23339108
Eleftheriades M, Iavazzo C, Manolakos E, Hassiakos D, Botsis D, Petersen M, Konstantinidou A
J Obstet Gynaecol 2013 Jan;33(1):14-6. doi: 10.3109/01443615.2012.698334. PMID: 23259870
den Hollander NS, Robben SG, Hoogeboom AJ, Niermeijer MF, Wladimiroff JW
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2001 Oct;18(4):378-83. doi: 10.1046/j.0960-7692.2001.00530.x. PMID: 11779000
Dugoff L, Coffin CT, Hobbins JC
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1997 Oct;10(4):269-71. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-0705.1997.10040269.x. PMID: 9383879

Diagnosis

Cheng C, Li X, Zhao S, Feng Q, Ren X, Chen X
BMC Med Genomics 2022 Mar 12;15(1):55. doi: 10.1186/s12920-022-01205-z. PMID: 35277174Free PMC Article
Zhang W, Taylor SP, Ennis HA, Forlenza KN, Duran I, Li B, Sanchez JAO, Nevarez L, Nickerson DA, Bamshad M; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Lachman RS, Krakow D, Cohn DH
Hum Mutat 2018 Jan;39(1):152-166. Epub 2017 Nov 6 doi: 10.1002/humu.23362. PMID: 29068549Free PMC Article
Lin AE, Traum AZ, Sahai I, Keppler-Noreuil K, Kukolich MK, Adam MP, Westra SJ, Arts HH
Am J Med Genet A 2013 Nov;161A(11):2762-76. Epub 2013 Oct 3 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36265. PMID: 24123776
Baujat G, Huber C, El Hokayem J, Caumes R, Do Ngoc Thanh C, David A, Delezoide AL, Dieux-Coeslier A, Estournet B, Francannet C, Kayirangwa H, Lacaille F, Le Bourgeois M, Martinovic J, Salomon R, Sigaudy S, Malan V, Munnich A, Le Merrer M, Le Quan Sang KH, Cormier-Daire V
J Med Genet 2013 Feb;50(2):91-8. doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2012-101282. PMID: 23339108
Eleftheriades M, Iavazzo C, Manolakos E, Hassiakos D, Botsis D, Petersen M, Konstantinidou A
J Obstet Gynaecol 2013 Jan;33(1):14-6. doi: 10.3109/01443615.2012.698334. PMID: 23259870

Prognosis

Cheng C, Li X, Zhao S, Feng Q, Ren X, Chen X
BMC Med Genomics 2022 Mar 12;15(1):55. doi: 10.1186/s12920-022-01205-z. PMID: 35277174Free PMC Article
Baujat G, Huber C, El Hokayem J, Caumes R, Do Ngoc Thanh C, David A, Delezoide AL, Dieux-Coeslier A, Estournet B, Francannet C, Kayirangwa H, Lacaille F, Le Bourgeois M, Martinovic J, Salomon R, Sigaudy S, Malan V, Munnich A, Le Merrer M, Le Quan Sang KH, Cormier-Daire V
J Med Genet 2013 Feb;50(2):91-8. doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2012-101282. PMID: 23339108
den Hollander NS, Robben SG, Hoogeboom AJ, Niermeijer MF, Wladimiroff JW
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2001 Oct;18(4):378-83. doi: 10.1046/j.0960-7692.2001.00530.x. PMID: 11779000

Clinical prediction guides

Cheng C, Li X, Zhao S, Feng Q, Ren X, Chen X
BMC Med Genomics 2022 Mar 12;15(1):55. doi: 10.1186/s12920-022-01205-z. PMID: 35277174Free PMC Article

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