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Branchiooculofacial syndrome(BOFS)

MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: BOF SYNDROME; BOFS; BOFS syndrome; Branchial clefts with characteristic facies growth retardation imperforate nasolacrimal duct and premature aging; Branchio-Oculo-Facial Syndrome; Hemangiomatous branchial clefts-lip pseudocleft syndrome; Lip pseudocleft-hemangiomatous branchial cyst syndrome
SNOMED CT: Branchiooculofacial syndrome (449821007)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Gene (location): TFAP2A (6p24.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0007235
OMIM®: 113620
Orphanet: ORPHA1297

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Branchiooculofacial Syndrome
Branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by branchial (cervical or infra- or supra-auricular) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous "hemangiomatous" lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, cataract, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include dolichocephaly, hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits, and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial weakness of cranial nerve VII). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Angela E Lin  |  Chad R Haldeman-Englert  |  Jeff M Milunsky   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by branchial cleft sinus defects, ocular anomalies such as microphthalmia and lacrimal duct obstruction, a dysmorphic facial appearance including cleft or pseudocleft lip/palate, and autosomal dominant inheritance. Although anomalies of the external and middle ear frequently cause conductive hearing loss in BOFS, severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss due to inner ear anomalies has rarely been reported (summary by Tekin et al., 2009). See also chromosome 6pter-p24 deletion syndrome (612582) for a similar phenotype. The deletion region lies telomeric to the TFAP2A gene.  http://www.omim.org/entry/113620
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome is a condition that affects development before birth, particularly of structures in the face and neck. Its characteristic features include skin anomalies on the neck, malformations of the eyes and ears, and distinctive facial features.

"Branchio-" refers to the branchial arches, which are structures in the developing embryo that give rise to tissues in the face and neck. In people with branchio-oculo-facial syndrome, the first and second branchial arches do not develop properly, leading to abnormal patches of skin, typically on the neck or near the ears. These patches can be unusually thin, hairy, or red and densely packed with blood vessels (hemangiomatous). In a small number of individuals, tissue from a gland called the thymus is abnormally located on the skin of the neck (dermal thymus). Problems with branchial arch development underlie many of the other features of branchio-oculo-facial syndrome.

"Oculo-" refers to the eyes. Many people with branchio-oculo-facial syndrome have malformations of the eyes that can lead to vision impairment. These abnormalities include unusually small eyeballs (microphthalmia), no eyeballs (anophthalmia), a gap or split in structures that make up the eyes (coloboma), or blockage of the tear ducts (nasolacrimal duct stenosis).

Problems with development of the face lead to distinctive facial features in people with branchio-oculo-facial syndrome. Many affected individuals have a split in the upper lip (cleft lip) or a pointed upper lip that resembles a poorly repaired cleft lip (often called a pseudocleft lip) with or without an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate). Other facial characteristics include widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), an increased distance between the inner corners of the eyes (telecanthus), outside corners of the eyes that point upward (upslanting palpebral fissures), a broad nose with a flattened tip, and weakness of the muscles in the lower face. The ears are also commonly affected, resulting in malformed or prominent ears. Abnormalities of the inner ear or of the tiny bones in the ears (ossicles) can cause hearing loss in people with this condition.

Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome can affect other structures and tissues as well. Some affected individuals have kidney abnormalities, such as malformed kidneys or multiple kidney cysts. Nail and teeth abnormalities also occur, and some people with this condition have prematurely graying hair.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/branchio-oculo-facial-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Hamartoma
MedGen UID:
6713
Concept ID:
C0018552
Neoplastic Process
A disordered proliferation of mature tissues that is native to the site of origin, e.g., exostoses, nevi and soft tissue hamartomas. Although most hamartomas are benign, some histologic subtypes, e.g., neuromuscular hamartoma, may proliferate aggressively such as mesenchymal cystic hamartoma, Sclerosing epithelial hamartoma, Sclerosing metanephric hamartoma.
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Renal agenesis
MedGen UID:
154237
Concept ID:
C0542519
Congenital Abnormality
Agenesis, that is, failure of the kidney to develop during embryogenesis and development.
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
163083
Concept ID:
C0848558
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft (underside) characterized by displacement of the urethral meatus from the tip of the glans penis to the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.
Renal cyst
MedGen UID:
854361
Concept ID:
C3887499
Disease or Syndrome
A fluid filled sac in the kidney.
Single transverse palmar crease
MedGen UID:
96108
Concept ID:
C0424731
Finding
The distal and proximal transverse palmar creases are merged into a single transverse palmar crease.
Short thumb
MedGen UID:
98469
Concept ID:
C0431890
Congenital Abnormality
Hypoplasia (congenital reduction in size) of the thumb.
Preaxial hand polydactyly
MedGen UID:
237235
Concept ID:
C1395852
Congenital Abnormality
Supernumerary digits located at the radial side of the hand. Polydactyly (supernumerary digits) involving the thumb occurs in many distinct forms of high variability and severity. Ranging from fleshy nubbins over varying degrees of partial duplication/splitting to completely duplicated or even triplicated thumbs or preaxial (on the radial side of the hand) supernumerary digits.
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger
MedGen UID:
340456
Concept ID:
C1850049
Congenital Abnormality
Clinodactyly refers to a bending or curvature of the fifth finger in the radial direction (i.e., towards the 4th finger).
Proximal placement of thumb
MedGen UID:
356033
Concept ID:
C1865572
Finding
Proximal mislocalization of the thumb.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Postnatal growth retardation
MedGen UID:
395343
Concept ID:
C1859778
Finding
Slow or limited growth after birth.
Malrotation of colon
MedGen UID:
82733
Concept ID:
C0266196
Congenital Abnormality
An anatomical anomaly that results from an abnormal rotation of the gut as it returns to the abdominal cavity during embryogenesis.
Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
MedGen UID:
196010
Concept ID:
C0700639
Congenital Abnormality
Pyloric stenosis, also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, is an uncommon condition in infants characterized by abnormal thickening of the pylorus muscles in the stomach leading to gastric outlet obstruction. Clinically infants are well at birth. Then, at 3 to 6 weeks of age, the infants present with projectile vomiting, potentially leading to dehydration and weight loss.
Duplication of internal organs
MedGen UID:
870777
Concept ID:
C4025234
Anatomical Abnormality
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Conductive hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
9163
Concept ID:
C0018777
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of vibrational conductance of sound to the inner ear leading to impairment of sensory perception of sound.
Sensorineural hearing loss disorder
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Microtia
MedGen UID:
57535
Concept ID:
C0152423
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the external ear.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Overfolded helix
MedGen UID:
325239
Concept ID:
C1837731
Finding
A condition in which the helix is folded over to a greater degree than normal. That is, excessive curling of the helix edge, whereby the free edge is parallel to the plane of the ear.
Hypoplastic superior helix
MedGen UID:
355438
Concept ID:
C1865305
Finding
Intellectual disability, mild
MedGen UID:
10044
Concept ID:
C0026106
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Mild intellectual disability is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 50-69.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Agenesis of cerebellar vermis
MedGen UID:
1768774
Concept ID:
C5437781
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital absence of the vermis of cerebellum.
Kyphosis
MedGen UID:
44042
Concept ID:
C0022821
Anatomical Abnormality
Exaggerated anterior convexity of the thoracic vertebral column.
Hyperlordosis
MedGen UID:
9805
Concept ID:
C0024003
Finding
Abnormally increased curvature (anterior concavity) of the lumbar or cervical spine.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Facial palsy
MedGen UID:
87660
Concept ID:
C0376175
Disease or Syndrome
Facial nerve palsy is a dysfunction of cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) that results in inability to control facial muscles on the affected side with weakness of the muscles of facial expression and eye closure. This can either be present in unilateral or bilateral form.
Elbow flexion contracture
MedGen UID:
98367
Concept ID:
C0409338
Acquired Abnormality
An elbow contracture that limits the ability of the elbow joint to be extended (straightened), meaning that the elbow is fixed in an flexed (bent) position.
Malar flattening
MedGen UID:
347616
Concept ID:
C1858085
Finding
Underdevelopment of the malar prominence of the jugal bone (zygomatic bone in mammals), appreciated in profile, frontal view, and/or by palpation.
Fusion of middle ear ossicles
MedGen UID:
349423
Concept ID:
C1862068
Finding
Bony fusion of malleus, incus, and stapes.
Atypical scarring of skin
MedGen UID:
867415
Concept ID:
C4021786
Pathologic Function
Atypically scarred skin .
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Ectopic thymus tissue
MedGen UID:
869369
Concept ID:
C4023795
Finding
The presence of ectopic thymus tissue. Normally, cells of the ventral bud of the third pharyngeal pouch detach and migrate in the eighth gestational week caudally and medially towards the location of the mature thyroid. They migrate further retrosternally into the superior mediastinum. There are two main ways ectopic thymus tissue can develop. Either cells detach along the descensus path and proliferate, thereby forming accessory thymus tissue, or the entire gland fails to descend.
Hypernasal speech
MedGen UID:
107884
Concept ID:
C0566620
Finding
A type of speech characterized by the presence of an abnormally increased nasal airflow during speech associated with structural abnormality of the nasal passages.
Cleft upper lip
MedGen UID:
40327
Concept ID:
C0008924
Congenital Abnormality
A gap or groove in the upper lip. This is a congenital defect resulting from nonfusion of tissues of the lip during embryonal development.
Abnormality of the dentition
MedGen UID:
78084
Concept ID:
C0262444
Finding
Any abnormality of the teeth.
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Telecanthus
MedGen UID:
140836
Concept ID:
C0423113
Finding
Distance between the inner canthi more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparently increased distance between the inner canthi.
Broad nasal tip
MedGen UID:
98424
Concept ID:
C0426429
Finding
Increase in width of the nasal tip.
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Nasolacrimal duct obstruction
MedGen UID:
226915
Concept ID:
C1281931
Finding
Blockage of the lacrimal duct.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Short nasal septum
MedGen UID:
336799
Concept ID:
C1844857
Finding
Reduced superior to inferior length of the nasal septum.
Small forehead
MedGen UID:
336888
Concept ID:
C1845250
Finding
The presence of a forehead that is abnormally small.
Cleft of chin
MedGen UID:
336544
Concept ID:
C1849227
Finding
A bony peculiarity underlies the Y-shaped fissure of the chin.
Low posterior hairline
MedGen UID:
383755
Concept ID:
C1855728
Finding
Hair on the neck extends more inferiorly than usual.
Branchial anomaly
MedGen UID:
349421
Concept ID:
C1862066
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital developmental defect arising from the primitive branchial apparatus.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Dimple chin
MedGen UID:
1370532
Concept ID:
C4317152
Anatomical Abnormality
A persistent midline depression of the skin over the fat pad of the chin.
Dermoid cyst
MedGen UID:
41504
Concept ID:
C0011649
Neoplastic Process
A congenital subcutaneous cyst that arises from entrapment of skin along the lines of embryonic fusion. In contrast to epidermal cysts, dermoid cysts tend to contain various adnexal structures such as hair, sebaceous, eccrine or apocrine glands. Dermoid cysts are present at birth, and are indolent, firm, deep, subcutaneous nodules. They are often located on the head and neck, and rarely in the anogenital area. Dermoid cysts are slowly progressive and can grow to a size of 1 to 4 cm.
Dermal atrophy
MedGen UID:
101793
Concept ID:
C0151514
Disease or Syndrome
Partial or complete wasting (atrophy) of the skin.
Premature graying of hair
MedGen UID:
75524
Concept ID:
C0263498
Finding
Development of gray hair at a younger than normal age.
Preauricular pit
MedGen UID:
120587
Concept ID:
C0266610
Congenital Abnormality
Small indentation anterior to the insertion of the ear.
Aplasia cutis congenita
MedGen UID:
79390
Concept ID:
C0282160
Congenital Abnormality
Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is defined as congenital localized absence of skin. The skin appears as a thin, transparent membrane through which the underlying structures are visible. The location is usually on the scalp (Evers et al., 1995). Approximately 20 to 30% of cases have underlying osseous involvement (Elliott and Teebi, 1997). Autosomal dominant inheritance is most common, but recessive inheritance has also been reported. Cutaneous aplasia of the scalp vertex also occurs in Johanson-Blizzard syndrome (243800) and Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS; 100300). A defect in the scalp is sometimes found in cases of trisomy 13 and in about 15% of cases of deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4, the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS; 194190) (Hirschhorn et al., 1965; Fryns et al., 1973). Evers et al. (1995) provided a list of disorders associated with aplasia cutis congenita, classified according to etiology. They also tabulated points of particular significance in history taking and examination of patients with ACC.
White forelock
MedGen UID:
91023
Concept ID:
C0344312
Finding
A triangular depigmented region of white hairs located in the anterior midline of the scalp.
Postauricular pit
MedGen UID:
583129
Concept ID:
C0395905
Acquired Abnormality
Benign congenital lesion of the postauricular soft tissue consisting of a blind-ending narrow tube or pit.
Hypoplastic fingernail
MedGen UID:
347304
Concept ID:
C1856786
Finding
Underdevelopment of a fingernail.
Lower lip pit
MedGen UID:
396160
Concept ID:
C1861544
Finding
Depression located on the vermilion of the lower lip, usually paramedian.
Supraauricular pit
MedGen UID:
396280
Concept ID:
C1862059
Congenital Abnormality
Benign congenital lesion of the supraauricular soft tissue consisting of a blind-ending narrow tube or pit.
Sparse hair
MedGen UID:
1790211
Concept ID:
C5551005
Finding
Reduced density of hairs.
Supernumerary nipple
MedGen UID:
120564
Concept ID:
C0266011
Congenital Abnormality
Presence of more than two nipples.
Wide intermamillary distance
MedGen UID:
473489
Concept ID:
C1827524
Finding
A larger than usual distance between the left and right nipple.
Anophthalmia
MedGen UID:
314
Concept ID:
C0003119
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of the globe or eyeball.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Microphthalmia
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.\n\nBetween one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Iris coloboma
MedGen UID:
116097
Concept ID:
C0240063
Anatomical Abnormality
A coloboma of the iris.
Retinal coloboma
MedGen UID:
761889
Concept ID:
C3540764
Disease or Syndrome
A notch or cleft of the retina.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVBranchiooculofacial syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Branchiooculofacial syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Pao J, D'Arco F, Clement E, Picariello S, Moonis G, Robson CD, Juliano AF
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2022 Feb;43(2):309-314. Epub 2022 Jan 20 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A7396. PMID: 35058298Free PMC Article
Masuda M, Kanno A, Nara K, Mutai H, Morisada N, Iijima K, Morimoto N, Nakano A, Sugiuchi T, Okamoto Y, Masuda S, Katsunuma S, Ogawa K, Matsunaga T
Sci Rep 2022 Jan 19;12(1):969. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-04885-w. PMID: 35046468Free PMC Article
Bertucci E, Mazza V, Lugli L, Ferrari F, Stanghellini I, Percesepe A
J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2015 Nov;41(11):1831-4. Epub 2015 Jul 30 doi: 10.1111/jog.12791. PMID: 26227013

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Luo F, Lu M, Zhao L, Zhou P
Medicine (Baltimore) 2023 Nov 3;102(44):e34962. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000034962. PMID: 37932997Free PMC Article
Laugsch M, Bartusel M, Rehimi R, Alirzayeva H, Karaolidou A, Crispatzu G, Zentis P, Nikolic M, Bleckwehl T, Kolovos P, van Ijcken WFJ, Šarić T, Koehler K, Frommolt P, Lachlan K, Baptista J, Rada-Iglesias A
Cell Stem Cell 2019 May 2;24(5):736-752.e12. Epub 2019 Apr 11 doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2019.03.004. PMID: 30982769
Ječmenica J, Bajec-Opančina A
J Craniofac Surg 2015 Jan;26(1):e30-1. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000001268. PMID: 25569411

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