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Lissencephaly due to TUBA1A mutation(LIS3)

MedGen UID:
930822
Concept ID:
C4305153
Congenital Abnormality
Synonyms: LIS3; Lissencephaly 3
SNOMED CT: Lissencephaly due to tubulin alpha 1A mutation (718759003); Lissencephaly due to TUBA1A (tubulin alpha 1A) mutation (718759003)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Not genetically inherited
MedGen UID:
988794
Concept ID:
CN307044
Finding
Source: Orphanet
clinical entity without genetic inheritance.
 
Gene (location): TUBA1A (12q13.12)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0012703
OMIM®: 611603
Orphanet: ORPHA171680

Definition

A congenital cortical development anomaly due to abnormal neuronal migration involving neocortical and hippocampal lamination, corpus callosum, cerebellum and brainstem. A large clinical spectrum can be observed, from children with severe epilepsy and intellectual and motor deficit to cases with severe cerebral dysgenesis in the antenatal period leading to pregnancy termination due to the severity of the prognosis. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Intellectual disability, severe
MedGen UID:
48638
Concept ID:
C0036857
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Severe mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 20-34.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Lissencephaly
MedGen UID:
78604
Concept ID:
C0266463
Finding
A spectrum of malformations of cortical development caused by insufficient neuronal migration that subsumes the terms agyria, pachygyria and subcortical band heterotopia. See also neuropathological definitions for 2-, 3-, and 4-layered lissencephaly.
Polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
78605
Concept ID:
C0266464
Congenital Abnormality
Polymicrogyria is a congenital malformation of the cerebral cortex characterized by abnormal cortical layering (lamination) and an excessive number of small gyri (folds).
Gray matter heterotopia
MedGen UID:
452349
Concept ID:
C0266491
Finding
Heterotopia or neuronal heterotopia are macroscopic clusters of misplaced neurons (gray matter), most often situated along the ventricular walls or within the subcortical white matter.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Spastic tetraplegia
MedGen UID:
98433
Concept ID:
C0426970
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paralysis affecting all four limbs.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Generalized tonic seizure
MedGen UID:
322935
Concept ID:
C1836508
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized tonic seizure is a type of generalized motor seizure characterized by bilateral limb stiffening or elevation, often with neck stiffening without a subsequent clonic phase. The tonic activity can be a sustained abnormal posture, either in extension or flexion, sometimes accompanied by tremor of the extremities.
Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
333548
Concept ID:
C1840379
Finding
Underdevelopment of the vermis of cerebellum.
Hypoplasia of the brainstem
MedGen UID:
334226
Concept ID:
C1842688
Finding
Underdevelopment of the brainstem.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Agyria
MedGen UID:
361827
Concept ID:
C1879312
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality of the cerebral hemisphere characterized by lack of gyrations (convolutions) of the cerebral cortex. Agyria is defined as cortical regions lacking gyration with sulci great than 3 cm apart and cerebral cortex thicker than 5 mm.
Periventricular laminar heterotopia
MedGen UID:
394736
Concept ID:
C2678104
Disease or Syndrome
Periventricular heterotopia is a condition in which nerve cells (neurons) do not migrate properly during the early development of the fetal brain, from about the 6th week to the 24th week of pregnancy. Heterotopia means "out of place." In normal brain development, neurons form in the periventricular region, located around fluid-filled cavities (ventricles) near the center of the brain. The neurons then migrate outward to form the exterior of the brain (cerebral cortex) in six onion-like layers. In periventricular heterotopia, some neurons fail to migrate to their proper position and form clumps around the ventricles.\n\nPeriventricular heterotopia usually becomes evident when seizures first appear, often during the teenage years. The nodules around the ventricles are then typically discovered when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are done. Affected individuals usually have normal intelligence, although some have mild intellectual disability. Difficulty with reading and spelling (dyslexia) and movement problems have been reported in some people with periventricular heterotopia.\n\nLess commonly, individuals with periventricular heterotopia may have other features including more severe brain malformations, small head size (microcephaly), developmental delays, recurrent infections, blood vessel abnormalities, stomach problems, or lung disease. Periventricular heterotopia may also occur in association with other conditions such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, which results in extremely flexible joints, skin that stretches easily, and fragile blood vessels.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Pachygyria
MedGen UID:
504794
Concept ID:
CN001193
Finding
Pachygyria is a malformation of cortical development with abnormally wide gyri with sulci 1,5-3 cm apart and abnormally thick cortex measuring more than 5 mm (radiological definition). See also neuropathological definitions for 2-, 3-, and 4-layered lissencephaly.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Accogli A, Severino M, Riva A, Madia F, Balagura G, Iacomino M, Carlini B, Baldassari S, Giacomini T, Croci C, Pisciotta L, Messana T, Boni A, Russo A, Bilo L, Tonziello R, Coppola A, Filla A, Mecarelli O, Casalone R, Pisani F, Falsaperla R, Marino S, Parisi P, Ferretti A, Elia M, Luchetti A, Milani D, Vanadia F, Silvestri L, Rebessi E, Parente E, Vatti G, Mancardi MM, Nobili L, Capra V, Salpietro V, Striano P, Zara F
Seizure 2020 Aug;80:145-152. Epub 2020 Jun 3 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2020.05.023. PMID: 32570172

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Hagege R, Krajden Haratz K, Malinger G, Ben-Sira L, Leibovitz Z, Heron D, Burglen L, Birnbaum R, Valence S, Keren B, Blumkin L, Jouannic JM, Lerman-Sagie T, Garel C
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2023 Jun;61(6):740-748. doi: 10.1002/uog.26140. PMID: 36484554
Maillard C, Roux CJ, Charbit-Henrion F, Steffann J, Laquerriere A, Quazza F, Buisson NB
Semin Cell Dev Biol 2023 Mar 15;137:87-95. Epub 2022 Jul 30 doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2022.07.009. PMID: 35915025
Poirier K, Saillour Y, Fourniol F, Francis F, Souville I, Valence S, Desguerre I, Marie Lepage J, Boddaert N, Line Jacquemont M, Beldjord C, Chelly J, Bahi-Buisson N
Eur J Hum Genet 2013 Apr;21(4):381-5. Epub 2012 Sep 5 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2012.195. PMID: 22948023Free PMC Article
Guerrini R, Parrini E
Neurobiol Dis 2010 May;38(2):154-66. Epub 2009 Feb 23 doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2009.02.008. PMID: 19245832
Mochida GH
Semin Pediatr Neurol 2009 Sep;16(3):120-6. doi: 10.1016/j.spen.2009.07.001. PMID: 19778709Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Hagege R, Krajden Haratz K, Malinger G, Ben-Sira L, Leibovitz Z, Heron D, Burglen L, Birnbaum R, Valence S, Keren B, Blumkin L, Jouannic JM, Lerman-Sagie T, Garel C
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2023 Jun;61(6):740-748. doi: 10.1002/uog.26140. PMID: 36484554
Maillard C, Roux CJ, Charbit-Henrion F, Steffann J, Laquerriere A, Quazza F, Buisson NB
Semin Cell Dev Biol 2023 Mar 15;137:87-95. Epub 2022 Jul 30 doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2022.07.009. PMID: 35915025
Weber M, Jaber D, Encha-Razavi F, Julien E, Grevoul-Fesquet J, Steffann J, Melki J, Martinovic J
Am J Med Genet A 2022 Aug;188(8):2331-2338. Epub 2022 Jun 10 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62866. PMID: 35686685
Schröter J, Popp B, Brennenstuhl H, Döring JH, Donze SH, Bijlsma EK, van Haeringen A, Huhle D, Jestaedt L, Merkenschlager A, Arelin M, Gräfe D, Neuser S, Oates S, Pal DK, Parker MJ, Lemke JR, Hoffmann GF, Kölker S, Harting I, Syrbe S
Eur J Hum Genet 2022 Mar;30(3):298-306. Epub 2022 Jan 11 doi: 10.1038/s41431-021-01027-0. PMID: 35017693Free PMC Article
Fry AE, Cushion TD, Pilz DT
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2014 Jun;166C(2):198-210. Epub 2014 May 23 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31402. PMID: 24862549

Therapy

Kolbjer S, Martin DA, Pettersson M, Dahlin M, Anderlid BM
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Jan;30:71-81. Epub 2021 Jan 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2020.12.011. PMID: 33453472
Breuss M, Heng JI, Poirier K, Tian G, Jaglin XH, Qu Z, Braun A, Gstrein T, Ngo L, Haas M, Bahi-Buisson N, Moutard ML, Passemard S, Verloes A, Gressens P, Xie Y, Robson KJ, Rani DS, Thangaraj K, Clausen T, Chelly J, Cowan NJ, Keays DA
Cell Rep 2012 Dec 27;2(6):1554-62. Epub 2012 Dec 13 doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2012.11.017. PMID: 23246003Free PMC Article
Fallet-Bianco C, Loeuillet L, Poirier K, Loget P, Chapon F, Pasquier L, Saillour Y, Beldjord C, Chelly J, Francis F
Brain 2008 Sep;131(Pt 9):2304-20. Epub 2008 Jul 18 doi: 10.1093/brain/awn155. PMID: 18669490

Prognosis

Schröter J, Popp B, Brennenstuhl H, Döring JH, Donze SH, Bijlsma EK, van Haeringen A, Huhle D, Jestaedt L, Merkenschlager A, Arelin M, Gräfe D, Neuser S, Oates S, Pal DK, Parker MJ, Lemke JR, Hoffmann GF, Kölker S, Harting I, Syrbe S
Eur J Hum Genet 2022 Mar;30(3):298-306. Epub 2022 Jan 11 doi: 10.1038/s41431-021-01027-0. PMID: 35017693Free PMC Article
Kolbjer S, Martin DA, Pettersson M, Dahlin M, Anderlid BM
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Jan;30:71-81. Epub 2021 Jan 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2020.12.011. PMID: 33453472
Hebebrand M, Hüffmeier U, Trollmann R, Hehr U, Uebe S, Ekici AB, Kraus C, Krumbiegel M, Reis A, Thiel CT, Popp B
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2019 Feb 11;14(1):38. doi: 10.1186/s13023-019-1020-x. PMID: 30744660Free PMC Article
Myers KA, Bello-Espinosa LE, Kherani A, Wei XC, Innes AM
Pediatr Neurol 2015 Nov;53(5):442-4. Epub 2015 Jul 22 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.07.004. PMID: 26294046
Okumura A, Hayashi M, Tsurui H, Yamakawa Y, Abe S, Kudo T, Suzuki R, Shimizu T, Shimojima K, Yamamoto T
Brain Dev 2013 Mar;35(3):274-9. Epub 2012 May 26 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2012.05.006. PMID: 22633752

Clinical prediction guides

Hagege R, Krajden Haratz K, Malinger G, Ben-Sira L, Leibovitz Z, Heron D, Burglen L, Birnbaum R, Valence S, Keren B, Blumkin L, Jouannic JM, Lerman-Sagie T, Garel C
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2023 Jun;61(6):740-748. doi: 10.1002/uog.26140. PMID: 36484554
Schröter J, Popp B, Brennenstuhl H, Döring JH, Donze SH, Bijlsma EK, van Haeringen A, Huhle D, Jestaedt L, Merkenschlager A, Arelin M, Gräfe D, Neuser S, Oates S, Pal DK, Parker MJ, Lemke JR, Hoffmann GF, Kölker S, Harting I, Syrbe S
Eur J Hum Genet 2022 Mar;30(3):298-306. Epub 2022 Jan 11 doi: 10.1038/s41431-021-01027-0. PMID: 35017693Free PMC Article
Kolbjer S, Martin DA, Pettersson M, Dahlin M, Anderlid BM
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Jan;30:71-81. Epub 2021 Jan 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2020.12.011. PMID: 33453472
Hebebrand M, Hüffmeier U, Trollmann R, Hehr U, Uebe S, Ekici AB, Kraus C, Krumbiegel M, Reis A, Thiel CT, Popp B
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2019 Feb 11;14(1):38. doi: 10.1186/s13023-019-1020-x. PMID: 30744660Free PMC Article
Romaniello R, Arrigoni F, Fry AE, Bassi MT, Rees MI, Borgatti R, Pilz DT, Cushion TD
Eur J Med Genet 2018 Dec;61(12):744-754. Epub 2018 Jul 17 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.07.012. PMID: 30016746

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