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Encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with brain edema and/or leukoencephalopathy, 1(PEBEL1)

MedGen UID:
934642
Concept ID:
C4310675
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: NAD(P)HX epimerase deficiency; PEBEL1
SNOMED CT: Apolipoprotein A-I binding protein deficiency (1251447008); NAD(P)HX epimerase deficiency (1251447008)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): NAXE (1q22)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0020781
OMIM®: 617186
Orphanet: ORPHA555407

Definition

Early-onset progressive encephalopathy with brain edema and/or leukoencephalopathy-1 (PEBEL1) is an autosomal recessive severe neurometabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration that is usually associated with a febrile illness. Affected infants tend to show normal early development followed by acute psychomotor regression with ataxia, hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and seizures, resulting in coma and death in the first years of life. Brain imaging shows multiple abnormalities, including brain edema and signal abnormalities in the cortical and subcortical regions (summary by Kremer et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of PEBEL See also PEBEL2 (618321), caused by mutation in the NAXD gene (615910) on chromosome 13q34. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Fatigue
MedGen UID:
41971
Concept ID:
C0015672
Sign or Symptom
A subjective feeling of tiredness characterized by a lack of energy and motivation.
Cerebral edema
MedGen UID:
2337
Concept ID:
C0006114
Pathologic Function
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Coma
MedGen UID:
1054
Concept ID:
C0009421
Disease or Syndrome
The complete absence of wakefulness and consciousness, which is evident through a lack of response to any form of external stimuli.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Myelopathy
MedGen UID:
11550
Concept ID:
C0037928
Disease or Syndrome
A non neoplastic or neoplastic disorder that affects the spinal cord.
Torticollis
MedGen UID:
11859
Concept ID:
C0040485
Sign or Symptom
Torticollis is a twisted neck as a result of shortening of sternocleidomastoid muscle. This short and fibrotic muscle pulls the head laterally and rotates the chin and face to the opposite end. Facial asymmetry may be a manifestation (summary by Engin et al., 1997).
Tremor
MedGen UID:
21635
Concept ID:
C0040822
Sign or Symptom
An unintentional, oscillating to-and-fro muscle movement about a joint axis.
Encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
39314
Concept ID:
C0085584
Disease or Syndrome
Encephalopathy is a term that means brain disease, damage, or malfunction. In general, encephalopathy is manifested by an altered mental state.
Cervical myelopathy
MedGen UID:
57691
Concept ID:
C0149645
Disease or Syndrome
Global brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
66840
Concept ID:
C0241816
Pathologic Function
Unlocalized atrophy of the brain with decreased total brain matter volume and increased ventricular size.
Leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
78722
Concept ID:
C0270612
Disease or Syndrome
This term describes abnormality of the white matter of the cerebrum resulting from damage to the myelin sheaths of nerve cells.
Tetraparesis
MedGen UID:
78731
Concept ID:
C0270790
Finding
Weakness of all four limbs.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Increased CSF lactate
MedGen UID:
257904
Concept ID:
C1167918
Finding
Increased concentration of lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Developmental regression
MedGen UID:
324613
Concept ID:
C1836830
Disease or Syndrome
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Irritability
MedGen UID:
397841
Concept ID:
C2700617
Mental Process
A proneness to anger, i.e., a tendency to become easily bothered or annoyed.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Restlessness
MedGen UID:
854457
Concept ID:
C3887611
Sign or Symptom
A state of unease is characterized by diffuse motor activity or motion, which is subject to limited control, nonproductive, or disorganized behavior.
Cerebral white matter atrophy
MedGen UID:
868341
Concept ID:
C4022735
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of atrophy (wasting) of the cerebral white matter.
Elevated brain choline level by MRS
MedGen UID:
868369
Concept ID:
C4022763
Finding
An increase in the level of choline-containing compounds in the brain identified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).
Cerebellar edema
MedGen UID:
1375706
Concept ID:
C4316985
Disease or Syndrome
Swelling from fluid accumulation (serous fluid infiltration into the interstitial space) in the cerebellum.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Abducens nerve palsy
MedGen UID:
1645218
Concept ID:
C4551519
Disease or Syndrome
Malfunction of the abducens nerve as manifested by impairment of the ability of the affected eye to be moved outward. Patients who develop abducens nerve palsy often present with binocular horizontal diplopia, which is a double vision when looking at objects side by side. There will be a notable weakness of the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle leading to a deficit in of eye abduction on the affected side. Some patients may present with a constant head turning movement to maintain binocular fusion and to lessen the degree of diplopia.
Brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1643639
Concept ID:
C4551584
Disease or Syndrome
Partial or complete wasting (loss) of brain tissue that was once present.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Rigidity
MedGen UID:
7752
Concept ID:
C0026837
Sign or Symptom
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from muscle spasticity.
Bradypnea
MedGen UID:
66670
Concept ID:
C0231837
Finding
Bradypnea is referring to breathing that is abnormally slow.
Respiratory failure
MedGen UID:
257837
Concept ID:
C1145670
Disease or Syndrome
A severe form of respiratory insufficiency characterized by inadequate gas exchange such that the levels of oxygen or carbon dioxide cannot be maintained within normal limits.
Lactic acidosis
MedGen UID:
1717
Concept ID:
C0001125
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormal buildup of lactic acid in the body, leading to acidification of the blood and other bodily fluids.
Increased circulating lactate concentration
MedGen UID:
332209
Concept ID:
C1836440
Finding
Abnormally increased level of blood lactate (2-hydroxypropanoic acid). Lactate is produced from pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase during normal metabolism. The terms lactate and lactic acid are often used interchangeably but lactate (the component measured in blood) is strictly a weak base whereas lactic acid is the corresponding acid. Lactic acidosis is often used clinically to describe elevated lactate but should be reserved for cases where there is a corresponding acidosis (pH below 7.35).
Skin erosion
MedGen UID:
854383
Concept ID:
C3887524
Disease or Syndrome
A discontinuity of the skin exhibiting incomplete loss of the epidermis, a lesion that is moist, circumscribed, and usually depressed.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Vertical supranuclear gaze palsy
MedGen UID:
334385
Concept ID:
C1843369
Disease or Syndrome
A supranuclear gaze palsy is an inability to look in a vertical direction as a result of cerebral impairment. There is a loss of the voluntary aspect of eye movements, but, as the brainstem is still intact, all the reflex conjugate eye movements are normal.
Abnormal activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain
MedGen UID:
868721
Concept ID:
C4023126
Finding
An increased or decreased activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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