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Bone marrow failure syndrome 3(BMFS3)

MedGen UID:
934711
Concept ID:
C4310744
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: BMFS3
 
Gene (location): DNAJC21 (5p13.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014887
OMIM®: 617052

Definition

Bone marrow failure syndrome-3 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of pancytopenia in early childhood. Patients may have additional variable nonspecific somatic abnormalities, including poor growth, microcephaly, and skin anomalies (summary by Tummala et al., 2016). BMFS3 has a distinct phenotype and may include features that overlap with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS1; 260400), such as pancreatic insufficiency and short stature, and with dyskeratosis congenita (see, e.g., DKCA1, 127550), such as dental and hair abnormalities and shortened telomeres. In addition, some patients may have joint and skeletal abnormalities, impaired development, and retinal dysplasia (summary by D'Amours et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of BMFS, see BMFS1 (614675). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Acute myeloid leukemia
MedGen UID:
9730
Concept ID:
C0023467
Neoplastic Process
A clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in the bone marrow, blood or other tissues. The classification of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) encompasses four major categories: 1) AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities; 2) AML with multilineage dysplasia; 3) Therapy-related AML; 4) AML not otherwise specified. The required bone marrow or peripheral blood blast percentage for the diagnosis of AML is 20% (WHO classification)
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
MedGen UID:
75647
Concept ID:
C0267963
Disease or Syndrome
Impaired function of the exocrine pancreas associated with a reduced ability to digest foods because of lack of digestive enzymes.
Hyperechogenic pancreas
MedGen UID:
347581
Concept ID:
C1857945
Disease or Syndrome
Pancreatic steatosis
MedGen UID:
1667283
Concept ID:
C4087488
Disease or Syndrome
Fat infiltration in the pancreas.
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Cupped ear
MedGen UID:
335186
Concept ID:
C1845447
Congenital Abnormality
Laterally protruding ear that lacks antihelical folding (including absence of inferior and superior crura).
Hyperactivity
MedGen UID:
98406
Concept ID:
C0424295
Finding
Hyperactivity is a condition characterized by constant and unusually high levels of activity, even in situations where it is deemed inappropriate.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Anemia
MedGen UID:
1526
Concept ID:
C0002871
Disease or Syndrome
A reduction in erythrocytes volume or hemoglobin concentration.
Aplastic anemia
MedGen UID:
8063
Concept ID:
C0002874
Disease or Syndrome
Aplastic anemia is a serious disorder of the bone marrow that affects between 2 and 5 persons per million per year. About 75% of these cases are classified as idiopathic (Young, 2000). In about 15% of cases a drug or infection can be identified that precipitates the aplasia, although why only some individuals are susceptible is unclear. In about 5 to 10% of patients, the aplastic anemia is constitutional--i.e., is familial or presents with one or more associated somatic abnormalities (summary by Vulliamy et al., 2002).
Pancytopenia
MedGen UID:
18281
Concept ID:
C0030312
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormal reduction in numbers of all blood cell types (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets).
Thrombocytopenia
MedGen UID:
52737
Concept ID:
C0040034
Disease or Syndrome
A reduction in the number of circulating thrombocytes.
Persistence of hemoglobin F
MedGen UID:
68693
Concept ID:
C0239941
Finding
Hemoglobin F (HbF) contains two globin alpha chains and two globin gamma chains. It is the main form of hemoglobin in the fetus during the last seven months of intrauterine development and in the half year of postnatal life. In adults it normally makes up less than one percent of all hemoglobin. This term refers to an increase in HbF above this limit. In beta thalassemia major, it may represent over 90 percent of all hemoglobin, and in beta thalassemia minor it may make up between 0.5 to 4 percent.
Increased mean corpuscular volume
MedGen UID:
81303
Concept ID:
C0302845
Finding
Larger than normal size of erythrocytes.
Bone marrow hypocellularity
MedGen UID:
383749
Concept ID:
C1855710
Finding
A reduced number of hematopoietic cells present in the bone marrow relative to marrow fat.
Amelogenesis imperfecta
MedGen UID:
240
Concept ID:
C0002452
Congenital Abnormality
A developmental dysplasia of the dental enamel.
Hernia
MedGen UID:
6816
Concept ID:
C0019270
Finding
The protrusion of part of an organ or fibroadipose tissue through an abnormal opening.
Congenital hip dislocation
MedGen UID:
9258
Concept ID:
C0019555
Disease or Syndrome
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Reduced bone mineral density
MedGen UID:
393152
Concept ID:
C2674432
Finding
A reduction of bone mineral density, that is, of the amount of matter per cubic centimeter of bones.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Metaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
1677924
Concept ID:
C5194606
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of dysplastic regions in metaphyseal regions.
Recurrent infections
MedGen UID:
65998
Concept ID:
C0239998
Finding
Increased susceptibility to infections.
Neutropenia
MedGen UID:
163121
Concept ID:
C0853697
Finding
An abnormally low number of neutrophils in the peripheral blood.
Decreased circulating vitamin E concentration
MedGen UID:
21881
Concept ID:
C0042875
Disease or Syndrome
A reduced concentration of vitamin E in the blood circulation. Vitamin E is a lipophilic vitamin that is also known as alpha-tocopherol.
Enamel hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
3730
Concept ID:
C0011351
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental hypoplasia of the dental enamel.
Partial congenital absence of teeth
MedGen UID:
43794
Concept ID:
C0020608
Congenital Abnormality
Tooth agenesis in some form is a common human anomaly that affects approximately 20% of the population. Although tooth agenesis is associated with numerous syndromes, several case reports describe nonsyndromic forms that are either sporadic or familial in nature, as reviewed by Gorlin et al. (1990). The incidence of familial tooth agenesis varies with each class of teeth. Most commonly affected are third molars (wisdom teeth), followed by either upper lateral incisors or lower second premolars; agenesis involving first and second molars is very rare. Also see 114600 and 302400. Selective tooth agenesis without associated systemic disorders has sometimes been divided into 2 types: oligodontia, defined as agenesis of 6 or more permanent teeth, and hypodontia, defined as agenesis of less than 6 teeth. The number in both cases does not include absence of third molars (wisdom teeth). Faulty use of the terms, however, have confounded their use. The term 'partial anodontia' is obsolete (Salinas, 1978). Genetic Heterogeneity of Selective Tooth Agenesis Other forms of selective tooth agenesis include STHAG2 (602639), mapped to chromosome 16q12; STHAG3 (604625), caused by mutation in the PAX9 gene (167416) on chromosome 14q12; STHAG4 (150400), caused by mutation in the WNT10A gene (606268) on chromosome 2q35; STHAG5 (610926), mapped to chromosome 10q11; STHAG7 (616724), caused by mutation in the LRP6 gene (603507) on chromosome 12p13; STHAG8 (617073), caused by mutation in the WNT10B gene (601906) on chromosome 12q13; STHAG9 (617275), caused by mutation in the GREM2 gene (608832) on chromosome 1q43; STHAG10 (620173), caused by mutation in the TSPEAR gene (612920) on chromosome 21q22; and STHAGX1 (313500), caused by mutation in the EDA gene (300451) on chromosome Xq13. A type of selective tooth agenesis that was formerly designated STHAG6 has been incorporated into the dental anomalies and short stature syndrome (DASS; 601216). Of 34 unrelated patients with nonsyndromic tooth agenesis, van den Boogaard et al. (2012) found that 56% (19 patients) had mutations in the WNT10A gene (STHAG4), whereas only 3% and 9% had mutations in the MSX1 (STHAG1) and PAX9 (STHAG3) genes, respectively. The authors concluded that WNT10A is a major gene in the etiology of isolated hypodontia. Genotype-Phenotype Correlations Yu et al. (2016) observed that the most frequently missing permanent teeth in WNT10B-associated oligodontia were the lateral incisors (83.3%), whereas premolars were missing only 51.4% of the time, which they noted was a pattern 'clearly different' from the oligodontia patterns resulting from WNT10A mutations. They also stated that the selective pattern in WNT10B mutants was different from that associated with mutations in other genes, such as MSX1, in which second premolars are missing, and PAX9, in which there is agenesis of molars.
Oral ulcer
MedGen UID:
57699
Concept ID:
C0149745
Disease or Syndrome
Erosion of the mucous mebrane of the mouth with local excavation of the surface, resulting from the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
Microdontia
MedGen UID:
66008
Concept ID:
C0240340
Congenital Abnormality
Decreased size of the teeth, which can be defined as a mesiodistal tooth diameter (width) more than 2 SD below mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased maximum width of tooth.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Downturned corners of mouth
MedGen UID:
356471
Concept ID:
C1866195
Anatomical Abnormality
A morphological abnormality of the mouth in which the angle of the mouth is downturned. The oral commissures are positioned inferior to the midline labial fissure.
Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the eyebrow
MedGen UID:
892938
Concept ID:
C4021956
Finding
Absence or underdevelopment of the eyebrow.
Nail dystrophy
MedGen UID:
66368
Concept ID:
C0221260
Disease or Syndrome
Onychodystrophy (nail dystrophy) refers to nail changes apart from changes of the color (nail dyschromia) and involves partial or complete disruption of the various keratinous layers of the nail plate.
Small nail
MedGen UID:
537942
Concept ID:
C0263523
Finding
A nail that is diminished in length and width, i.e., underdeveloped nail.
Hyperkeratosis
MedGen UID:
209030
Concept ID:
C0870082
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperkeratosis is thickening of the outer layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, which is composed of large, polyhedral, plate-like envelopes filled with keratin which are the dead cells that have migrated up from the stratum granulosum.
Hypomelanotic macule
MedGen UID:
869790
Concept ID:
C4024220
Finding
Hypomelanotic macules ("ash leaf spots") are white or lighter patches of skin that may appear anywhere on the body and are caused by a lack of melanin. White ash leaf-shaped macules are considered to be characteristic of tuberous sclerosis.
Sparse hair
MedGen UID:
1790211
Concept ID:
C5551005
Finding
Reduced density of hairs.
Astigmatism
MedGen UID:
2473
Concept ID:
C0004106
Disease or Syndrome
Astigmatism (from the Greek 'a' meaning absence and 'stigma' meaning point) is a condition in which the parallel rays of light entering the eye through the refractive media are not focused on a single point. Both corneal and noncorneal factors contribute to refractive astigmatism. Corneal astigmatism is mainly the result of an aspheric anterior surface of the cornea, which can be measured readily by means of a keratometer; in a small fraction of cases (approximately 1 in 10) the effect is neutralized by the back surface. The curvature of the back surface of the cornea is not considered in most studies, because it is more difficult to measure; moreover, in the case of severe corneal astigmatism, there is evidence that both surfaces have the same configuration. Noncorneal factors are errors in the curvature of the 2 surfaces of the crystalline lens, irregularity in the refractive index of the lens, and an eccentric lens position. Since the cornea is the dominant component of the eye's refracting system, a highly astigmatic cornea is likely to result in a similarly astigmatic ocular refraction (summary by Clementi et al., 1998).
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Retinal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
48433
Concept ID:
C0035313
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of developmental dysplasia of the retina.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
473112
Concept ID:
C0423224
Finding
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.
Retinal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
208903
Concept ID:
C0854723
Finding
Retinal dystrophy is an abnormality of the retina associated with a hereditary process. Retinal dystrophies are defined by their predominantly monogenic inheritance and they are frequently associated with loss or dysfunction of photoreceptor cells as a primary or secondary event.
Chromosome breakage
MedGen UID:
91280
Concept ID:
C0376628
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
Elevated rate of chromosomal breakage or interchanges occurring either spontaneously or following exposure to various DNA-damaging agents. This feature may be assayed by treatment of cultured lymphocytes with agents such as chemical mutagens, irradiation, and alkylating agents.
Short telomere length
MedGen UID:
1627435
Concept ID:
C4531138
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal reduction in telomere length. Telomeres are non-coding, repetitive sequences of DNA at the ends of the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells which become shorter as cells divide, and when telomere attrition reaches its limit, cell proliferation arrest, senescence, and apoptosis can occur.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Garcia-Manero G
Am J Hematol 2023 Aug;98(8):1307-1325. Epub 2023 Jun 8 doi: 10.1002/ajh.26984. PMID: 37288607
Schoettler ML, Carreras E, Cho B, Dandoy CE, Ho VT, Jodele S, Moissev I, Sanchez-Ortega I, Srivastava A, Atsuta Y, Carpenter P, Koreth J, Kroger N, Ljungman P, Page K, Popat U, Shaw BE, Sureda A, Soiffer R, Vasu S
Transplant Cell Ther 2023 Mar;29(3):151-163. Epub 2022 Nov 25 doi: 10.1016/j.jtct.2022.11.015. PMID: 36442770Free PMC Article
Stauder R, Valent P, Theurl I
Blood 2018 Feb 1;131(5):505-514. Epub 2017 Nov 15 doi: 10.1182/blood-2017-07-746446. PMID: 29141943

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

McReynolds LJ, Rafati M, Wang Y, Ballew BJ, Kim J, Williams VV, Zhou W, Hendricks RM, Dagnall C, Freedman ND, Carter B, Strollo S, Hicks B, Zhu B, Jones K, Paczesny S, Marsh SGE, Spellman SR, He M, Wang T, Lee SJ, Savage SA, Gadalla SM
Blood 2022 Aug 25;140(8):909-921. doi: 10.1182/blood.2022016508. PMID: 35776903Free PMC Article
ElGohary G, El Fakih R, de Latour R, Risitano A, Marsh J, Schrezenmeier H, Gluckman E, Höchsmann B, Pierri F, Halkes C, Alzahrani H, De la Fuente J, Cesaro S, Alahmari A, Ahmed SO, Passweg J, Dufour C, Bacigalupo A, Aljurf M
Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 Oct;55(10):1906-1917. Epub 2020 Apr 28 doi: 10.1038/s41409-020-0897-2. PMID: 32346079
Kampen KR, Sulima SO, Vereecke S, De Keersmaecker K
Nucleic Acids Res 2020 Feb 20;48(3):1013-1028. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkz637. PMID: 31350888Free PMC Article
Georges GE, Doney K, Storb R
Blood Adv 2018 Aug 14;2(15):2020-2028. doi: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2018021162. PMID: 30108110Free PMC Article
Scheinberg P, Nunez O, Weinstein B, Scheinberg P, Biancotto A, Wu CO, Young NS
N Engl J Med 2011 Aug 4;365(5):430-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1103975. PMID: 21812672Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Yoshimi A, Ishikawa K, Niemeyer C, Grünert SC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 Oct 17;17(1):379. doi: 10.1186/s13023-022-02538-9. PMID: 36253820Free PMC Article
McReynolds LJ, Rafati M, Wang Y, Ballew BJ, Kim J, Williams VV, Zhou W, Hendricks RM, Dagnall C, Freedman ND, Carter B, Strollo S, Hicks B, Zhu B, Jones K, Paczesny S, Marsh SGE, Spellman SR, He M, Wang T, Lee SJ, Savage SA, Gadalla SM
Blood 2022 Aug 25;140(8):909-921. doi: 10.1182/blood.2022016508. PMID: 35776903Free PMC Article
Aluri J, Bach A, Kaviany S, Chiquetto Paracatu L, Kitcharoensakkul M, Walkiewicz MA, Putnam CD, Shinawi M, Saucier N, Rizzi EM, Harmon MT, Keppel MP, Ritter M, Similuk M, Kulm E, Joyce M, de Jesus AA, Goldbach-Mansky R, Lee YS, Cella M, Kendall PL, Dinauer MC, Bednarski JJ, Bemrich-Stolz C, Canna SW, Abraham SM, Demczko MM, Powell J, Jones SM, Scurlock AM, De Ravin SS, Bleesing JJ, Connelly JA, Rao VK, Schuettpelz LG, Cooper MA
Blood 2021 May 6;137(18):2450-2462. doi: 10.1182/blood.2020009620. PMID: 33512449Free PMC Article
Schrezenmeier H, Röth A, Araten DJ, Kanakura Y, Larratt L, Shammo JM, Wilson A, Shayan G, Maciejewski JP
Ann Hematol 2020 Jul;99(7):1505-1514. Epub 2020 May 10 doi: 10.1007/s00277-020-04052-z. PMID: 32390114Free PMC Article
Georges GE, Doney K, Storb R
Blood Adv 2018 Aug 14;2(15):2020-2028. doi: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2018021162. PMID: 30108110Free PMC Article

Therapy

Goronkova O, Novichkova G, Salimova T, Kalinina I, Baidildina D, Petrova U, Antonova K, Sadovskaya M, Suntsova E, Evseev D, Matveev V, Venyov D, Khachatryan L, Litvinov D, Pshonkin A, Ovsyannikova G, Kotskaya N, Gobadze D, Olshanskaya Y, Popov A, Raykina E, Mironenko O, Voronin K, Purbueva B, Boichenko E, Dinikina Y, Guseynova E, Sherstnev D, Kalinina E, Mezentsev S, Streneva O, Yudina N, Plaksina O, Erega E, Maschan M, Maschan A
Blood Adv 2023 Mar 28;7(6):953-962. doi: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2021006716. PMID: 35446936Free PMC Article
DeZern AE, Eapen M, Wu J, Talano JA, Solh M, Dávila Saldaña BJ, Karanes C, Horwitz ME, Mallhi K, Arai S, Farhadfar N, Hexner E, Westervelt P, Antin JH, Deeg HJ, Leifer E, Brodsky RA, Logan BR, Horowitz MM, Jones RJ, Pulsipher MA
Lancet Haematol 2022 Sep;9(9):e660-e669. Epub 2022 Jul 27 doi: 10.1016/S2352-3026(22)00206-X. PMID: 35907408Free PMC Article
McReynolds LJ, Rafati M, Wang Y, Ballew BJ, Kim J, Williams VV, Zhou W, Hendricks RM, Dagnall C, Freedman ND, Carter B, Strollo S, Hicks B, Zhu B, Jones K, Paczesny S, Marsh SGE, Spellman SR, He M, Wang T, Lee SJ, Savage SA, Gadalla SM
Blood 2022 Aug 25;140(8):909-921. doi: 10.1182/blood.2022016508. PMID: 35776903Free PMC Article
Thompson AS, Giri N, Gianferante DM, Jones K, Savage SA, Alter BP, McReynolds LJ
Pediatr Res 2022 Dec;92(6):1671-1680. Epub 2022 Mar 23 doi: 10.1038/s41390-022-02009-8. PMID: 35322185Free PMC Article
Scheinberg P, Nunez O, Weinstein B, Scheinberg P, Biancotto A, Wu CO, Young NS
N Engl J Med 2011 Aug 4;365(5):430-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1103975. PMID: 21812672Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Yoshimi A, Ishikawa K, Niemeyer C, Grünert SC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 Oct 17;17(1):379. doi: 10.1186/s13023-022-02538-9. PMID: 36253820Free PMC Article
McReynolds LJ, Rafati M, Wang Y, Ballew BJ, Kim J, Williams VV, Zhou W, Hendricks RM, Dagnall C, Freedman ND, Carter B, Strollo S, Hicks B, Zhu B, Jones K, Paczesny S, Marsh SGE, Spellman SR, He M, Wang T, Lee SJ, Savage SA, Gadalla SM
Blood 2022 Aug 25;140(8):909-921. doi: 10.1182/blood.2022016508. PMID: 35776903Free PMC Article
Aluri J, Bach A, Kaviany S, Chiquetto Paracatu L, Kitcharoensakkul M, Walkiewicz MA, Putnam CD, Shinawi M, Saucier N, Rizzi EM, Harmon MT, Keppel MP, Ritter M, Similuk M, Kulm E, Joyce M, de Jesus AA, Goldbach-Mansky R, Lee YS, Cella M, Kendall PL, Dinauer MC, Bednarski JJ, Bemrich-Stolz C, Canna SW, Abraham SM, Demczko MM, Powell J, Jones SM, Scurlock AM, De Ravin SS, Bleesing JJ, Connelly JA, Rao VK, Schuettpelz LG, Cooper MA
Blood 2021 May 6;137(18):2450-2462. doi: 10.1182/blood.2020009620. PMID: 33512449Free PMC Article
Karremann M, Neumaier-Probst E, Schlichtenbrede F, Beier F, Brümmendorf TH, Cremer FW, Bader P, Dürken M
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Oct 23;15(1):299. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01553-y. PMID: 33097095Free PMC Article
Scheinberg P, Nunez O, Weinstein B, Scheinberg P, Biancotto A, Wu CO, Young NS
N Engl J Med 2011 Aug 4;365(5):430-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1103975. PMID: 21812672Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

DeZern AE, Eapen M, Wu J, Talano JA, Solh M, Dávila Saldaña BJ, Karanes C, Horwitz ME, Mallhi K, Arai S, Farhadfar N, Hexner E, Westervelt P, Antin JH, Deeg HJ, Leifer E, Brodsky RA, Logan BR, Horowitz MM, Jones RJ, Pulsipher MA
Lancet Haematol 2022 Sep;9(9):e660-e669. Epub 2022 Jul 27 doi: 10.1016/S2352-3026(22)00206-X. PMID: 35907408Free PMC Article
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