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Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 42(MRD42)

MedGen UID:
934741
Concept ID:
C4310774
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT 42; MRD42
 
Gene (location): GNB1 (1p36.33)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014855
OMIM®: 616973

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: GNB1 Encephalopathy
GNB1 encephalopathy (GNB1-E) is characterized by moderate-to-severe developmental delay / intellectual disability, structural brain abnormalities, and often infantile hypotonia and seizures. Other less common findings include dystonia, reduced vision, behavior issues, growth delay, gastrointestinal (GI) problems, genitourinary (GU) abnormalities in males, and cutaneous mastocytosis. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Anya Revah-Politi  |  Tristan T Sands  |  Sophie Colombo, et. al.   view full author information

Additional description

From OMIM
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-42 (MRD42) is characterized by global developmental delay and impaired intellectual development. More variable features include hypotonia, often later associated with limb hypertonia, seizures of various types, and poor overall growth. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment, and autistic features may also be present (summary by Petrovski et al., 2016).  http://www.omim.org/entry/616973

Clinical features

From HPO
Neurogenic bladder
MedGen UID:
595
Concept ID:
C0005697
Disease or Syndrome
A type of bladder dysfunction caused by neurologic damage. Neurogenic bladder can be flaccid or spastic. Common manifestatios of neurogenic bladder are overflow incontinence, frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, and retention.
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Severe distention of the kidney with dilation of the renal pelvis and calices.
Ureteropelvic junction obstruction
MedGen UID:
105482
Concept ID:
C0521619
Anatomical Abnormality
Blockage of urine flow from the renal pelvis to the proximal ureter.
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Hand clenching
MedGen UID:
65994
Concept ID:
C0239815
Finding
An abnormal hand posture in which the hands are clenched to fists. All digits held completely flexed at the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. In prenatal sonography of the fetal clenched hand, the index finger overlaps a clenched fist formed by the other digits. The proximal interphalangeal articulation of the index finger is flexed and ulnarly deviated, and the thumb is adducted.
Tapered finger
MedGen UID:
98098
Concept ID:
C0426886
Finding
The gradual reduction in girth of the finger from proximal to distal.
Thumbs, congenital Clasped
MedGen UID:
98140
Concept ID:
C0431886
Congenital Abnormality
In the resting position, the tip of the thumb is on, or near, the palm, close to the base of the fourth or fifth finger.
Lower limb muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
324478
Concept ID:
C1836296
Finding
Weakness of the muscles of the legs.
Limb hypertonia
MedGen UID:
333083
Concept ID:
C1838391
Finding
Narrow palm
MedGen UID:
346628
Concept ID:
C1857632
Finding
For children from birth to 4 years of age, the palm width is more than 2 SD below the mean; for children from 4 to 16 years of age the palm width is below the 5th centile; or, the width of the palm appears disproportionately narrow for its length.
Limited elbow extension
MedGen UID:
401158
Concept ID:
C1867103
Finding
Limited ability to straighten the arm at the elbow joint.
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
99124
Concept ID:
C0456070
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Sensorineural hearing loss disorder
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Overfolded helix
MedGen UID:
325239
Concept ID:
C1837731
Finding
A condition in which the helix is folded over to a greater degree than normal. That is, excessive curling of the helix edge, whereby the free edge is parallel to the plane of the ear.
Aggressive behavior
MedGen UID:
1375
Concept ID:
C0001807
Individual Behavior
Behavior or an act aimed at harming a person, animal, or physical property (e.g., acts of physical violence; shouting, swearing, and using harsh language; slashing someone's tires).
Anxiety
MedGen UID:
1613
Concept ID:
C0003467
Finding
Intense feelings of nervousness, tension, or panic often arise in response to interpersonal stresses. There is worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative possibilities. Individuals may feel fearful, apprehensive, or threatened by uncertainty, and they may also have fears of falling apart or losing control.
Autism
MedGen UID:
13966
Concept ID:
C0004352
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). Levy et al. (2009) provided a general review of autism and autism spectrum disorder, including epidemiology, characteristics of the disorder, diagnosis, neurobiologic hypotheses for the etiology, genetics, and treatment options. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autism Autism is considered to be a complex multifactorial disorder involving many genes. Accordingly, several loci have been identified, some or all of which may contribute to the phenotype. Included in this entry is AUTS1, which has been mapped to chromosome 7q22. Other susceptibility loci include AUTS3 (608049), which maps to chromosome 13q14; AUTS4 (608636), which maps to chromosome 15q11; AUTS6 (609378), which maps to chromosome 17q11; AUTS7 (610676), which maps to chromosome 17q21; AUTS8 (607373), which maps to chromosome 3q25-q27; AUTS9 (611015), which maps to chromosome 7q31; AUTS10 (611016), which maps to chromosome 7q36; AUTS11 (610836), which maps to chromosome 1q41; AUTS12 (610838), which maps to chromosome 21p13-q11; AUTS13 (610908), which maps to chromosome 12q14; AUTS14A (611913), which has been found in patients with a deletion of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS14B (614671), which has been found in patients with a duplication of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS15 (612100), associated with mutation in the CNTNAP2 gene (604569) on chromosome 7q35-q36; AUTS16 (613410), associated with mutation in the SLC9A9 gene (608396) on chromosome 3q24; AUTS17 (613436), associated with mutation in the SHANK2 gene (603290) on chromosome 11q13; AUTS18 (615032), associated with mutation in the CHD8 gene (610528) on chromosome 14q11; AUTS19 (615091), associated with mutation in the EIF4E gene (133440) on chromosome 4q23; and AUTS20 (618830), associated with mutation in the NLGN1 gene (600568) on chromosome 3q26. (NOTE: the symbol 'AUTS2' has been used to refer to a gene on chromosome 7q11 (KIAA0442; 607270) and therefore is not used as a part of this autism locus series.) There are several X-linked forms of autism susceptibility: AUTSX1 (300425), associated with mutations in the NLGN3 gene (300336); AUTSX2 (300495), associated with mutations in NLGN4 (300427); AUTSX3 (300496), associated with mutations in MECP2 (300005); AUTSX4 (300830), associated with variation in the region on chromosome Xp22.11 containing the PTCHD1 gene (300828); AUTSX5 (300847), associated with mutations in the RPL10 gene (312173); and AUTSX6 (300872), associated with mutation in the TMLHE gene (300777). A locus on chromosome 2q (606053) associated with a phenotype including intellectual disability and speech deficits was formerly designated AUTS5. Folstein and Rosen-Sheidley (2001) reviewed the genetics of autism.
Cerebral palsy
MedGen UID:
854
Concept ID:
C0007789
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral palsy describes a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to nonprogressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behaviour, by epilepsy, and by secondary musculoskeletal problems.
Febrile seizure (within the age range of 3 months to 6 years)
MedGen UID:
3232
Concept ID:
C0009952
Disease or Syndrome
A febrile seizure is any type of seizure (most often a generalized tonic-clonic seizure) occurring with fever (at least 38 degrees Celsius) but in the absence of central nervous system infection, severe metabolic disturbance or other alternative precipitant in children between the ages of 3 months and 6 years.
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Hemiplegia
MedGen UID:
9196
Concept ID:
C0018991
Sign or Symptom
Paralysis (complete loss of muscle function) in the arm, leg, and in some cases the face on one side of the body.
Myoclonus
MedGen UID:
10234
Concept ID:
C0027066
Finding
Very brief, involuntary random muscular contractions occurring at rest, in response to sensory stimuli, or accompanying voluntary movements.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Status epilepticus
MedGen UID:
11586
Concept ID:
C0038220
Disease or Syndrome
Status epilepticus is a type of prolonged seizure resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms which lead to abnormally prolonged seizures (after time point t1). It is a condition that can have long-term consequences (after time point t2), including neuronal death, neuronal injury, and alteration of neuronal networks, depending on the type and duration of seizures.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Atypical behavior
MedGen UID:
535345
Concept ID:
C0233514
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Atypical behavior is an abnormality in a person's actions, which can be controlled or modulated by the will of the individual. While abnormal behaviors can be difficult to control, they are distinct from other abnormal actions that cannot be affected by the individual's will.
Global brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
66840
Concept ID:
C0241816
Pathologic Function
Unlocalized atrophy of the brain with decreased total brain matter volume and increased ventricular size.
Polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
78605
Concept ID:
C0266464
Congenital Abnormality
Polymicrogyria is a congenital malformation of the cerebral cortex characterized by abnormal cortical layering (lamination) and an excessive number of small gyri (folds).
Focal impaired awareness seizure
MedGen UID:
543022
Concept ID:
C0270834
Disease or Syndrome
Focal impaired awareness seizure (or focal seizure with impaired or lost awareness) is a type of focal-onset seizure characterized by some degree (which may be partial) of impairment of the person's awareness of themselves or their surroundings at any point during the seizure.
Tonic seizure
MedGen UID:
82855
Concept ID:
C0270844
Disease or Syndrome
A tonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterised by unilateral or bilateral limb stiffening or elevation, often with neck stiffening.
Atonic seizure
MedGen UID:
78735
Concept ID:
C0270846
Disease or Syndrome
Atonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by a sudden loss or diminution of muscle tone without apparent preceding myoclonic or tonic event lasting about 1 to 2 seconds, involving head, trunk, jaw, or limb musculature.
Expressive language delay
MedGen UID:
141568
Concept ID:
C0454641
Disease or Syndrome
A delay in the acquisition of the ability to use language to communicate needs, wishes, or thoughts.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Inability to walk
MedGen UID:
107860
Concept ID:
C0560046
Finding
Incapability to ambulate.
Hypsarrhythmia
MedGen UID:
195766
Concept ID:
C0684276
Finding
Hypsarrhythmia is abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes. There is continuous (during wakefulness), high-amplitude (>200 Hz), generalized polymorphic slowing with no organized background and multifocal spikes demonstrated by electroencephalography (EEG).
Limb dystonia
MedGen UID:
152944
Concept ID:
C0751093
Sign or Symptom
A type of dystonia (abnormally increased muscular tone causing fixed abnormal postures) that affects muscles of the limbs.
Focal-onset seizure
MedGen UID:
199670
Concept ID:
C0751495
Disease or Syndrome
A focal-onset seizure is a type of seizure originating within networks limited to one hemisphere. They may be discretely localized or more widely distributed, and may originate in subcortical structures.
Motor tics
MedGen UID:
199761
Concept ID:
C0751900
Sign or Symptom
Movement-based tics affecting discrete muscle groups.
Phonic tics
MedGen UID:
155955
Concept ID:
C0751901
Sign or Symptom
Involuntary sounds produced by moving air through the nose, mouth, or throat. The vocal cords are not involved in all tics that produce sound.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.
Delayed myelination
MedGen UID:
224820
Concept ID:
C1277241
Finding
Delayed myelination.
Generalized tonic seizure
MedGen UID:
322935
Concept ID:
C1836508
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized tonic seizure is a type of generalized motor seizure characterised by bilateral limb stiffening or elevation, often with neck stiffening without a subsequent clonic phase. The tonic activity can be a sustained abnormal posture, either in extension or flexion, sometimes accompanied by tremor of the extremities.
Developmental regression
MedGen UID:
324613
Concept ID:
C1836830
Disease or Syndrome
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Focal hemiclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
335477
Concept ID:
C1846620
Disease or Syndrome
A type of focal clonic seizure characterized by sustained rhythmic jerking rapidly involves one side of the body at seizure onset.
EEG with burst suppression
MedGen UID:
369943
Concept ID:
C1969156
Finding
The burst suppression pattern in electroencephalography refers to a characteristic periodic pattern of low voltage (<10 microvolts) suppressed background and a relatively shorter pattern of higher amplitude slow, sharp, and spiking complexes.
Severe receptive language delay
MedGen UID:
504296
Concept ID:
C3532947
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A severe delay in the acquisition of the ability to understand the speech of others.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Infantile spasms
MedGen UID:
854616
Concept ID:
C3887898
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile spasms represent a subset of "epileptic spasms". Infantile Spasms are epileptic spasms starting in the first year of life (infancy).
Multifocal epileptiform discharges
MedGen UID:
866864
Concept ID:
C4021219
Finding
An abnormality in cerebral electrical activity recorded along the scalp by electroencephalography (EEG) and being identified at multiple locations (foci).
EEG with temporal focal spikes
MedGen UID:
868670
Concept ID:
C4023073
Finding
EEG with focal sharp transient waves of a duration less than 80 msec in the temporal region.
EEG with temporal sharp slow waves
MedGen UID:
869010
Concept ID:
C4023427
Finding
EEG with sharp slow waves in the temporal region. Sharp slow waves are focal sharp transient waves of a duration between 80 and 200 msec followed by a slow wave.
EEG with occipital slowing
MedGen UID:
869047
Concept ID:
C4023465
Finding
Slowing in occipital areas of the scalp EEG.
EEG with generalized epileptiform discharges
MedGen UID:
869058
Concept ID:
C4023476
Finding
EEG discharges recorded on the entire scalp typically seen in persons with epilepsy.
Generalized non-motor (absence) seizure
MedGen UID:
1385688
Concept ID:
C4316903
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized non-motor (absence) seizure is a type of a type of dialeptic seizure that is of electrographically generalized onset. It is a generalized seizure characterised by an interruption of activities, a blank stare, and usually the person will be unresponsive when spoken to. Any ictal motor phenomena are minor in comparison to these non-motor features.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterised by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Postnatal macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
340230
Concept ID:
C1854417
Finding
The postnatal development of an abnormally large skull (macrocephaly).
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest ("pectus") a caved-in ("excavatum") appearance.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Infantile axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
812934
Concept ID:
C3806604
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk and with onset in infancy.
Stridor
MedGen UID:
11613
Concept ID:
C0038450
Sign or Symptom
Stridor is a high pitched sound resulting from turbulent air flow in the upper airway.
Asthma
MedGen UID:
2109
Concept ID:
C0004096
Disease or Syndrome
Asthma is characterized by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to multiple stimuli, leading to narrowing of the air passages with resultant dyspnea, cough, and wheezing.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Congenital hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
41344
Concept ID:
C0010308
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hypothyroidism is a partial or complete loss of function of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) that affects infants from birth (congenital). The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped tissue in the lower neck. It makes iodine-containing hormones that play an important role in regulating growth, brain development, and the rate of chemical reactions in the body (metabolism). People with congenital hypothyroidism have lower-than-normal levels of these important hormones.\n\nCongenital hypothyroidism can also occur as part of syndromes that affect other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. Some common forms of syndromic hypothyroidism include Pendred syndrome, Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome, and brain-lung-thyroid syndrome.\n\nCongenital hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland fails to develop or function properly. In 80 to 85 percent of cases, the thyroid gland is absent, severely reduced in size (hypoplastic), or abnormally located. These cases are classified as thyroid dysgenesis. In the remainder of cases, a normal-sized or enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) is present, but production of thyroid hormones is decreased or absent. Most of these cases occur when one of several steps in the hormone synthesis process is impaired; these cases are classified as thyroid dyshormonogenesis. Less commonly, reduction or absence of thyroid hormone production is caused by impaired stimulation of the production process (which is normally done by a structure at the base of the brain called the pituitary gland), even though the process itself is unimpaired. These cases are classified as central (or pituitary) hypothyroidism.\n\nSigns and symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism result from the shortage of thyroid hormones. Affected babies may show no features of the condition, although some babies with congenital hypothyroidism are less active and sleep more than normal. They may have difficulty feeding and experience constipation. If untreated, congenital hypothyroidism can lead to intellectual disability and slow growth. In the United States and many other countries, all hospitals test newborns for congenital hypothyroidism. If treatment begins in the first two weeks after birth, infants usually develop normally.
Esotropia
MedGen UID:
4550
Concept ID:
C0014877
Disease or Syndrome
A form of strabismus with one or both eyes turned inward ('crossed') to a relatively severe degree, usually defined as 10 diopters or more.
Exotropia
MedGen UID:
4613
Concept ID:
C0015310
Disease or Syndrome
A form of strabismus with one or both eyes deviated outward.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Abnormality of ocular smooth pursuit
MedGen UID:
322909
Concept ID:
C1836393
Finding
An abnormality of eye movement characterized by impaired smooth-pursuit eye movements.
Impaired smooth pursuit
MedGen UID:
325176
Concept ID:
C1837458
Finding
An impairment of the ability to track objects with the ocular smooth pursuit system, a class of rather slow eye movements that minimizes retinal target motion.
Cerebral visual impairment
MedGen UID:
890568
Concept ID:
C4048268
Pathologic Function
A form of loss of vision caused by damage to the visual cortex rather than a defect in the eye.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Fagan AM, Henson RL, Li Y, Boerwinkle AH, Xiong C, Bateman RJ, Goate A, Ances BM, Doran E, Christian BT, Lai F, Rosas HD, Schupf N, Krinsky-McHale S, Silverman W, Lee JH, Klunk WE, Handen BL, Allegri RF, Chhatwal JP, Day GS, Graff-Radford NR, Jucker M, Levin J, Martins RN, Masters CL, Mori H, Mummery CJ, Niimi Y, Ringman JM, Salloway S, Schofield PR, Shoji M, Lott IT; Alzheimer's Biomarker Consortium–Down Syndrome; Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network
Lancet Neurol 2021 Aug;20(8):615-626. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00139-3. PMID: 34302786Free PMC Article
Moirangthem A, Mandal K, Saxena D, Srivastava P, Gambhir PS, Agrawal N, Shambhavi A, Nampoothiri S, Phadke SR
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Aug;185(8):2345-2355. Epub 2021 May 4 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62241. PMID: 33942996
Pekeles H, Accogli A, Boudrahem-Addour N, Russell L, Parente F, Srour M
Pediatr Neurol 2019 Mar;92:32-36. Epub 2018 Nov 22 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2018.11.005. PMID: 30581057
Carmona-Iragui M, Balasa M, Benejam B, Alcolea D, Fernández S, Videla L, Sala I, Sánchez-Saudinós MB, Morenas-Rodriguez E, Ribosa-Nogué R, Illán-Gala I, Gonzalez-Ortiz S, Clarimón J, Schmitt F, Powell DK, Bosch B, Lladó A, Rafii MS, Head E, Molinuevo JL, Blesa R, Videla S, Lleó A, Sánchez-Valle R, Fortea J
Alzheimers Dement 2017 Nov;13(11):1251-1260. Epub 2017 Apr 29 doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2017.03.007. PMID: 28463681Free PMC Article
Abreu AP, Macedo DB, Brito VN, Kaiser UB, Latronico AC
J Mol Endocrinol 2015 Jun;54(3):R131-9. doi: 10.1530/JME-14-0315. PMID: 25957321Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Schwartz CE, Louie RJ, Toutain A, Skinner C, Friez MJ, Stevenson RE
Am J Med Genet A 2023 Jan;191(1):144-159. Epub 2022 Oct 27 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63008. PMID: 36300573
Fagan AM, Henson RL, Li Y, Boerwinkle AH, Xiong C, Bateman RJ, Goate A, Ances BM, Doran E, Christian BT, Lai F, Rosas HD, Schupf N, Krinsky-McHale S, Silverman W, Lee JH, Klunk WE, Handen BL, Allegri RF, Chhatwal JP, Day GS, Graff-Radford NR, Jucker M, Levin J, Martins RN, Masters CL, Mori H, Mummery CJ, Niimi Y, Ringman JM, Salloway S, Schofield PR, Shoji M, Lott IT; Alzheimer's Biomarker Consortium–Down Syndrome; Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network
Lancet Neurol 2021 Aug;20(8):615-626. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00139-3. PMID: 34302786Free PMC Article
Moirangthem A, Mandal K, Saxena D, Srivastava P, Gambhir PS, Agrawal N, Shambhavi A, Nampoothiri S, Phadke SR
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Aug;185(8):2345-2355. Epub 2021 May 4 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62241. PMID: 33942996
Fortea J, Vilaplana E, Carmona-Iragui M, Benejam B, Videla L, Barroeta I, Fernández S, Altuna M, Pegueroles J, Montal V, Valldeneu S, Giménez S, González-Ortiz S, Muñoz L, Estellés T, Illán-Gala I, Belbin O, Camacho V, Wilson LR, Annus T, Osorio RS, Videla S, Lehmann S, Holland AJ, Alcolea D, Clarimón J, Zaman SH, Blesa R, Lleó A
Lancet 2020 Jun 27;395(10242):1988-1997. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30689-9. PMID: 32593336Free PMC Article
Pekeles H, Accogli A, Boudrahem-Addour N, Russell L, Parente F, Srour M
Pediatr Neurol 2019 Mar;92:32-36. Epub 2018 Nov 22 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2018.11.005. PMID: 30581057

Therapy

Fortea J, Vilaplana E, Carmona-Iragui M, Benejam B, Videla L, Barroeta I, Fernández S, Altuna M, Pegueroles J, Montal V, Valldeneu S, Giménez S, González-Ortiz S, Muñoz L, Estellés T, Illán-Gala I, Belbin O, Camacho V, Wilson LR, Annus T, Osorio RS, Videla S, Lehmann S, Holland AJ, Alcolea D, Clarimón J, Zaman SH, Blesa R, Lleó A
Lancet 2020 Jun 27;395(10242):1988-1997. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30689-9. PMID: 32593336Free PMC Article
Matevosyan NR
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2016 Jan;293(1):87-99. Epub 2015 Jun 11 doi: 10.1007/s00404-015-3770-6. PMID: 26063342

Prognosis

Rangel YA, Espinosa E
Biomedica 2022 Sep 2;42(3):429-434. doi: 10.7705/biomedica.6296. PMID: 36122281Free PMC Article
Fortea J, Vilaplana E, Carmona-Iragui M, Benejam B, Videla L, Barroeta I, Fernández S, Altuna M, Pegueroles J, Montal V, Valldeneu S, Giménez S, González-Ortiz S, Muñoz L, Estellés T, Illán-Gala I, Belbin O, Camacho V, Wilson LR, Annus T, Osorio RS, Videla S, Lehmann S, Holland AJ, Alcolea D, Clarimón J, Zaman SH, Blesa R, Lleó A
Lancet 2020 Jun 27;395(10242):1988-1997. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30689-9. PMID: 32593336Free PMC Article
Williamson KA, Rainger J, Floyd JA, Ansari M, Meynert A, Aldridge KV, Rainger JK, Anderson CA, Moore AT, Hurles ME, Clarke A, van Heyningen V, Verloes A, Taylor MS, Wilkie AO; UK10K Consortium, Fitzpatrick DR
Am J Hum Genet 2014 Feb 6;94(2):295-302. Epub 2014 Jan 23 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.01.001. PMID: 24462371Free PMC Article
Niida Y, Lawrence-Smith N, Banwell A, Hammer E, Lewis J, Beauchamp RL, Sims K, Ramesh V, Ozelius L
Hum Mutat 1999;14(5):412-22. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(199911)14:5<412::AID-HUMU7>3.0.CO;2-K. PMID: 10533067

Clinical prediction guides

Nagarajan B, Gowda VK, Yoganathan S, Sharawat IK, Srivastava K, Vora N, Badheka R, Danda S, Kalane U, Kaur A, Madaan P, Mehta S, Negi S, Panda PK, Rajadhyaksha S, Saini AG, Saini L, Shah S, Srinivasan VM, Suthar R, Thomas M, Vyas S, Sankhyan N, Sahu JK
Epilepsia Open 2023 Dec;8(4):1383-1404. Epub 2023 Aug 25 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12811. PMID: 37583270Free PMC Article
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Brain 2023 Feb 13;146(2):534-548. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac278. PMID: 35979925Free PMC Article
Sugiura H, Shimada T, Moriya-Ito K, Goto JI, Fujiwara H, Ishii R, Shitara H, Taya C, Fujii S, Kobayashi T, Hino O, Worley PF, Yamagata K
J Neurosci 2022 Mar 23;42(12):2598-2612. Epub 2022 Feb 4 doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0449-21.2022. PMID: 35121635Free PMC Article
Fortea J, Vilaplana E, Carmona-Iragui M, Benejam B, Videla L, Barroeta I, Fernández S, Altuna M, Pegueroles J, Montal V, Valldeneu S, Giménez S, González-Ortiz S, Muñoz L, Estellés T, Illán-Gala I, Belbin O, Camacho V, Wilson LR, Annus T, Osorio RS, Videla S, Lehmann S, Holland AJ, Alcolea D, Clarimón J, Zaman SH, Blesa R, Lleó A
Lancet 2020 Jun 27;395(10242):1988-1997. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30689-9. PMID: 32593336Free PMC Article
Cabrejo L, Guyant-Maréchal L, Laquerrière A, Vercelletto M, De la Fournière F, Thomas-Antérion C, Verny C, Letournel F, Pasquier F, Vital A, Checler F, Frebourg T, Campion D, Hannequin D
Brain 2006 Nov;129(Pt 11):2966-76. Epub 2006 Sep 7 doi: 10.1093/brain/awl237. PMID: 16959815

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