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Spastic tetraplegia

MedGen UID:
98433
Concept ID:
C0426970
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Slowly progressive spastic quadriparesis; Spastic quadriplegia
SNOMED CT: Spastic quadriplegia (192965001); Spastic tetraplegia (192965001)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Unknown inheritance
MedGen UID:
989040
Concept ID:
CN307042
Finding
Source: Orphanet
Hereditary clinical entity whose mode of inheritance is unknown.
 
HPO: HP:0002510
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0016215
Orphanet: ORPHA210141

Definition

Spastic paralysis affecting all four limbs. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSpastic tetraplegia

Conditions with this feature

Fucosidosis
MedGen UID:
5288
Concept ID:
C0016788
Disease or Syndrome
Fucosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by defective alpha-L-fucosidase with accumulation of fucose in the tissues. Clinical features include angiokeratoma, progressive psychomotor retardation, neurologic signs, coarse facial features, and dysostosis multiplex. Fucosidosis has been classified into 2 major types. Type 1 is characterized by rapid psychomotor regression and severe neurologic deterioration beginning at about 6 months of age, elevated sweat sodium chloride, and death within the first decade of life. Type 2 is characterized by milder psychomotor retardation and neurologic signs, the development of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, normal sweat salinity, and longer survival (Kousseff et al., 1976).
Metachromatic leukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
6071
Concept ID:
C0023522
Disease or Syndrome
Arylsulfatase A deficiency (also known as metachromatic leukodystrophy or MLD) is characterized by three clinical subtypes: late-infantile MLD, juvenile MLD, and adult MLD. Age of onset within a family is usually similar. The disease course may be from several years in the late-infantile-onset form to decades in the juvenile- and adult-onset forms. Late-infantile MLD. Onset is before age 30 months. Typical presenting findings include weakness, hypotonia, clumsiness, frequent falls, toe walking, and dysarthria. As the disease progresses, language, cognitive, and gross and fine motor skills regress. Later signs include spasticity, pain, seizures, and compromised vision and hearing. In the final stages, children have tonic spasms, decerebrate posturing, and general unawareness of their surroundings. Juvenile MLD. Onset is between age 30 months and 16 years. Initial manifestations include decline in school performance and emergence of behavioral problems, followed by gait disturbances. Progression is similar to but slower than in the late-infantile form. Adult MLD. Onset occurs after age 16 years, sometimes not until the fourth or fifth decade. Initial signs can include problems in school or job performance, personality changes, emotional lability, or psychosis; in others, neurologic symptoms (weakness and loss of coordination progressing to spasticity and incontinence) or seizures initially predominate. Peripheral neuropathy is common. Disease course is variable – with periods of stability interspersed with periods of decline – and may extend over two to three decades. The final stage is similar to earlier-onset forms.
Mucolipidosis type IV
MedGen UID:
68663
Concept ID:
C0238286
Disease or Syndrome
Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV) is an ultra-rare lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe psychomotor delay, progressive visual impairment, and achlorhydria. Individuals with MLIV typically present by the end of the first year of life with delayed developmental milestones (due to a developmental brain abnormality) and impaired vision (resulting from a combination of corneal clouding and retinal degeneration). By adolescence, all individuals with MLIV have severe visual impairment. A neurodegenerative component of MLIV has become more widely appreciated, with the majority of individuals demonstrating progressive spastic quadriparesis and loss of psychomotor skills starting in the second decade of life. About 5% of individuals have atypical MLIV, manifesting with less severe psychomotor impairment, but still exhibiting progressive retinal degeneration and achlorhydria.
GM1 gangliosidosis type 2
MedGen UID:
120625
Concept ID:
C0268272
Disease or Syndrome
GLB1-related disorders comprise two phenotypically distinct lysosomal storage disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB (MPS IVB). The phenotype of GM1 gangliosidosis constitutes a spectrum ranging from severe (infantile) to intermediate (late-infantile and juvenile) to mild (chronic/adult). Type I (infantile) GM1 gangliosidosis begins before age 12 months. Prenatal manifestations may include nonimmune hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental vacuolization; congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spots) may be observed. Macular cherry-red spot is detected on eye exam. Progressive central nervous system dysfunction leads to spasticity and rapid regression; blindness, deafness, decerebrate rigidity, seizures, feeding difficulties, and oral secretions are observed. Life expectancy is two to three years. Type II can be subdivided into the late-infantile (onset age 1-3 years) and juvenile (onset age 3-10 years) phenotypes. Central nervous system dysfunction manifests as progressive cognitive, motor, and speech decline as measured by psychometric testing. There may be mild corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or cardiomyopathy; the typical course is characterized by progressive neurologic decline, progressive skeletal disease in some individuals (including kyphosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral heads), and progressive feeding difficulties leading to aspiration risk. Type III begins in late childhood to the third decade with generalized dystonia leading to unsteady gait and speech disturbance followed by extrapyramidal signs including akinetic-rigid parkinsonism. Cardiomyopathy develops in some and skeletal involvement occurs in most. Intellectual impairment is common late in the disease with prognosis directly related to the degree of neurologic impairment. MPS IVB is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with specific findings of axial and appendicular dysostosis multiplex, short stature (below 15th centile in adults), kyphoscoliosis, coxa/genu valga, joint laxity, platyspondyly, and odontoid hypoplasia. First signs and symptoms may be apparent at birth. Bony involvement is progressive, with more than 84% of adults requiring ambulation aids; life span does not appear to be limited. Corneal clouding is detected in some individuals and cardiac valvular disease may develop.
Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
82852
Concept ID:
C0270724
Disease or Syndrome
PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) comprises a continuum of three phenotypes with overlapping clinical and radiologic features: Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). Atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy (atypical NAD). PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism. INAD usually begins between ages six months and three years with psychomotor regression or delay, hypotonia, and progressive spastic tetraparesis. Many affected children never learn to walk or lose the ability shortly after attaining it. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Disease progression is rapid, resulting in severe spasticity, progressive cognitive decline, and visual impairment. Many affected children do not survive beyond their first decade. Atypical NAD shows more phenotypic variability than INAD. In general, onset is in early childhood but can be as late as the end of the second decade. The presenting signs may be gait instability, ataxia, or speech delay and autistic features, which are sometimes the only evidence of disease for a year or more. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Neuropsychiatric disturbances including impulsivity, poor attention span, hyperactivity, and emotional lability are also common. The course is fairly stable during early childhood and resembles static encephalopathy but is followed by neurologic deterioration between ages seven and 12 years. PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism has a variable age of onset, but most individuals present in early adulthood with gait disturbance or neuropsychiatric changes. Affected individuals consistently develop dystonia and parkinsonism (which may be accompanied by rapid cognitive decline) in their late teens to early twenties. Dystonia is most common in the hands and feet but may be more generalized. The most common features of parkinsonism in these individuals are bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability.
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 1
MedGen UID:
90994
Concept ID:
C0342727
Disease or Syndrome
3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency is an inherited condition that causes neurological problems. Beginning in infancy to early childhood, children with this condition often have delayed development of mental and motor skills (psychomotor delay), speech delay, involuntary muscle cramping (dystonia), and spasms and weakness of the arms and legs (spastic quadriparesis). Affected individuals can also have optic atrophy, which is the breakdown (atrophy) of nerve cells that carry visual information from the eyes to the brain.\n\nIn some cases, signs and symptoms of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency begin in adulthood, often in a person's twenties or thirties. These individuals have damage to a type of brain tissue called white matter (leukoencephalopathy). This damage likely contributes to progressive problems with speech (dysarthria), difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia), stiffness (spasticity), optic atrophy, and a decline in intellectual function (dementia).\n\nAffected individuals who show symptoms of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency in childhood often go on to develop leukoencephalopathy and other neurological problems in adulthood.\n\nAll people with 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency accumulate large amounts of a substance called 3-methylglutaconic acid in their body fluids. As a result, they have elevated levels of acid in their blood (metabolic acidosis) and excrete large amounts of acid in their urine (aciduria). 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency is one of a group of metabolic disorders that can be diagnosed by the presence of increased levels 3-methylglutaconic acid in urine (3-methylglutaconic aciduria). People with 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency also have high urine levels of another acid called 3-methylglutaric acid.
D-Glyceric aciduria
MedGen UID:
452447
Concept ID:
C0342765
Disease or Syndrome
D-glyceric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients have an encephalopathic presentation, with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, and sometimes early death, whereas others have a mild phenotype with only mild speech delay or even normal development (summary by Sass et al., 2010).
Opticocochleodentate degeneration
MedGen UID:
101046
Concept ID:
C0520711
Disease or Syndrome
Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome
MedGen UID:
208645
Concept ID:
C0795889
Disease or Syndrome
Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked disorder, is characterized in males by neurologic findings (hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy, developmental delay / intellectual disability ranging from mild to profound) and later-onset pyramidal signs, extrapyramidal findings (dystonia, choreoathetosis, paroxysmal movement disorder, hypokinesia, masked facies), and seizures, often with drug resistance. Additional findings can include dysthyroidism (manifest as poor weight gain, reduced muscle mass, and variable cold intolerance, sweating, elevated heart rate, and irritability) and pathognomonic thyroid test results. Most heterozygous females are not clinically affected but may have minor thyroid test abnormalities.
Corpus callosum agenesis-abnormal genitalia syndrome
MedGen UID:
163217
Concept ID:
C0796124
Disease or Syndrome
Proud syndrome is an X-linked developmental disorder characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, severe mental retardation, seizures, and spasticity. Males are severely affected, whereas females may be unaffected or have a milder phenotype (Proud et al., 1992). Proud syndrome is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from lissencephaly (LISX2; 300215) to Proud syndrome to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE1; 308350) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008).
X-linked intellectual disability-psychosis-macroorchidism syndrome
MedGen UID:
163232
Concept ID:
C0796222
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of MECP2-related phenotypes in females ranges from classic Rett syndrome to variant Rett syndrome with a broader clinical phenotype (either milder or more severe than classic Rett syndrome) to mild learning disabilities; the spectrum in males ranges from severe neonatal encephalopathy to pyramidal signs, parkinsonism, and macroorchidism (PPM-X) syndrome to severe syndromic/nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Females: Classic Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is characterized by apparently normal psychomotor development during the first six to 18 months of life, followed by a short period of developmental stagnation, then rapid regression in language and motor skills, followed by long-term stability. During the phase of rapid regression, repetitive, stereotypic hand movements replace purposeful hand use. Additional findings include fits of screaming and inconsolable crying, autistic features, panic-like attacks, bruxism, episodic apnea and/or hyperpnea, gait ataxia and apraxia, tremors, seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Males: Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, the most common phenotype in affected males, is characterized by a relentless clinical course that follows a metabolic-degenerative type of pattern, abnormal tone, involuntary movements, severe seizures, and breathing abnormalities. Death often occurs before age two years.
PCWH syndrome
MedGen UID:
373160
Concept ID:
C1836727
Disease or Syndrome
PCWH syndrome is a complex neurocristopathy that includes features of 4 distinct syndromes: peripheral demyelinating neuropathy (see 118200), central dysmyelination, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease (see 142623) (Inoue et al., 2004). Inoue et al. (2004) proposed the acronym PCWH for this disorder.
Spastic tetraplegia-retinitis pigmentosa-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
376519
Concept ID:
C1849112
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, syndromic intellectual disability disorder characterized by the association of nonprogressive spastic quadriparesis, retinitis pigmentosa, intellectual disability, and variable deafness. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1976.
Sulfite oxidase deficiency due to molybdenum cofactor deficiency type A
MedGen UID:
381530
Concept ID:
C1854988
Disease or Syndrome
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) represents a spectrum, with some individuals experiencing significant signs and symptoms in the neonatal period and early infancy (termed early-onset or severe MoCD) and others developing signs and symptoms in childhood or adulthood (termed late-onset or mild MoCD). Individuals with early-onset MoCD typically present in the first days of life with severe encephalopathy, including refractory seizures, opisthotonos, axial and appendicular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and apnea. Head imaging may demonstrate loss of gray and white matter differentiation, gyral swelling, sulci injury (typically assessed by evaluating the depth of focal lesional injury within the sulci), diffusely elevated T2-weighted signal, and panlobar diffusion restriction throughout the forebrain and midbrain with relative sparring of the brain stem. Prognosis for early-onset MoCD is poor, with about 75% succumbing in infancy to secondary complications of their neurologic disability (i.e., pneumonia). Late-onset MoCD is typically characterized by milder symptoms, such as acute neurologic decompensation in the setting of infection. Episodes vary in nature but commonly consist of altered mental status, dystonia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, nystagmus, and fluctuating hypotonia and hypertonia. These features may improve after resolution of the inciting infection or progress in a gradual or stochastic manner over the lifetime. Brain imaging may be normal or may demonstrate T2-weighted hyperintense or cystic lesions in the globus pallidus, thinning of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy.
Sulfite oxidase deficiency due to molybdenum cofactor deficiency type B
MedGen UID:
340760
Concept ID:
C1854989
Disease or Syndrome
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) represents a spectrum, with some individuals experiencing significant signs and symptoms in the neonatal period and early infancy (termed early-onset or severe MoCD) and others developing signs and symptoms in childhood or adulthood (termed late-onset or mild MoCD). Individuals with early-onset MoCD typically present in the first days of life with severe encephalopathy, including refractory seizures, opisthotonos, axial and appendicular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and apnea. Head imaging may demonstrate loss of gray and white matter differentiation, gyral swelling, sulci injury (typically assessed by evaluating the depth of focal lesional injury within the sulci), diffusely elevated T2-weighted signal, and panlobar diffusion restriction throughout the forebrain and midbrain with relative sparring of the brain stem. Prognosis for early-onset MoCD is poor, with about 75% succumbing in infancy to secondary complications of their neurologic disability (i.e., pneumonia). Late-onset MoCD is typically characterized by milder symptoms, such as acute neurologic decompensation in the setting of infection. Episodes vary in nature but commonly consist of altered mental status, dystonia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, nystagmus, and fluctuating hypotonia and hypertonia. These features may improve after resolution of the inciting infection or progress in a gradual or stochastic manner over the lifetime. Brain imaging may be normal or may demonstrate T2-weighted hyperintense or cystic lesions in the globus pallidus, thinning of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E3-binding protein deficiency
MedGen UID:
343383
Concept ID:
C1855553
Disease or Syndrome
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of neurological problems. Signs and symptoms of this condition usually first appear shortly after birth, and they can vary widely among affected individuals. The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, vomiting, severe breathing problems, and an abnormal heartbeat. People with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency usually have neurological problems as well. Most have delayed development of mental abilities and motor skills such as sitting and walking. Other neurological problems can include intellectual disability, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), poor coordination, and difficulty walking. Some affected individuals have abnormal brain structures, such as underdevelopment of the tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain (corpus callosum), wasting away (atrophy) of the exterior part of the brain known as the cerebral cortex, or patches of damaged tissue (lesions) on some parts of the brain. Because of the severe health effects, many individuals with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency do not survive past childhood, although some may live into adolescence or adulthood.
NDE1-related microhydranencephaly
MedGen UID:
341899
Concept ID:
C1857977
Disease or Syndrome
Microhydranencephaly (MHAC) is a severe neurodevelopmental defect characterized by extreme microcephaly, profound motor and mental retardation, spasticity, and incomplete cerebral formation. Radiologic studies show gross dilation of the ventricles resulting from the absence of cerebral hemispheres or severe delay in their development, as well as hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellum, and brainstem (summary by Guven et al., 2012).
Anophthalmia/microphthalmia-esophageal atresia syndrome
MedGen UID:
347232
Concept ID:
C1859773
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of SOX2 disorder includes anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia, brain malformations, developmental delay / intellectual disability, esophageal atresia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (manifest as cryptorchidism and micropenis in males, gonadal dysgenesis infrequently in females, and delayed puberty in both sexes), pituitary hypoplasia, postnatal growth delay, hypotonia, seizures, and spastic or dystonic movements.
PHGDH deficiency
MedGen UID:
400935
Concept ID:
C1866174
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency (PHGDHD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of L-serine biosynthesis that is characterized by congenital microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, and seizures (summary by Jaeken et al., 1996).
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 5
MedGen UID:
409627
Concept ID:
C1968603
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis-5 is a form of infantile malignant osteopetrosis, characterized by defective osteoclast function resulting in decreased bone resorption and generalized osteosclerosis. Defective resorption causes development of densely sclerotic fragile bones and progressive obliteration of the marrow spaces and cranial foramina. Marrow obliteration is associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis and hepatosplenomegaly, and results in anemia and thrombocytopenia, whereas nerve entrapment accounts for progressive blindness and hearing loss. Other major manifestations include failure to thrive, pathologic fractures, and increased infection rate. Most affected children succumb to severe bone marrow failure and overwhelming infection in the first few years of life (Quarello et al., 2004).
Hypotonia with lactic acidemia and hyperammonemia
MedGen UID:
435972
Concept ID:
C2673642
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is characterized by severe hypotonia, lactic acidemia and congenital hyperammonemia. It has been described in three newborns born to consanguineous parents. Ultrasound examination during the 36th week of pregnancy revealed generalized edema. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and tubulopathy developed within the first week of life and the infants died within the first month. The activities of enzymes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain were reduced in the muscles of the patients. Mutations were identified in the MRPS22 gene on chromosome 3q23, encoding a mitochondrial ribosomal protein
Familial acute necrotizing encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
382634
Concept ID:
C2675556
Finding
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1, also known as susceptibility to infection-induced acute encephalopathy 3 or IIAE3, is a rare type of brain disease (encephalopathy) that occurs following a viral infection such as the flu.\n\nAcute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1 typically appears in infancy or early childhood, although some people do not develop the condition until adolescence or adulthood. People with this condition usually show typical symptoms of an infection, such as fever, cough, congestion, vomiting, and diarrhea, for a few days. Following these flu-like symptoms, affected individuals develop neurological problems, such as seizures, hallucinations, difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia), or abnormal muscle tone. Eventually, most affected individuals go into a coma, which usually lasts for a number of weeks. The condition is described as "acute" because the episodes of illness are time-limited.\n\nPeople with acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1 develop areas of damage (lesions) in certain regions of the brain. As the condition progresses, these brain regions develop swelling (edema), bleeding (hemorrhage), and then tissue death (necrosis). The progressive brain damage and tissue loss results in encephalopathy.\n\nApproximately one-third of individuals with acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1 do not survive their illness and subsequent neurological decline. Of those who do survive, about half have permanent brain damage due to tissue necrosis, resulting in impairments in walking, speech, and other basic functions. Over time, many of these skills may be regained, but the loss of brain tissue is permanent. Other individuals who survive their illness appear to recover completely.\n\nIt is estimated that half of individuals with acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1 are susceptible to recurrent episodes and will have another infection that results in neurological decline; some people may have numerous episodes throughout their lives. Neurological function worsens following each episode as more brain tissue is damaged.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 4
MedGen UID:
436917
Concept ID:
C2677326
Disease or Syndrome
STXBP1 encephalopathy with epilepsy is characterized by early-onset encephalopathy with epilepsy (i.e., moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, refractory seizures, and ongoing epileptiform activity). The median age of onset of seizures is six weeks (range 1 day to 13 years). Seizure types can include infantile spasms; generalized tonic-clonic, clonic, or tonic seizures; and myoclonic, focal, atonic, and absence seizures. Epilepsy syndromes can include Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome, and Dravet syndrome (not SCN1A-related), classic Rett syndrome (not MECP2-related), and atypical Rett syndrome (not CDKL5-related). The EEG is characterized by focal epileptic activity, burst suppression, hypsarrhythmia, or generalized spike-and-slow waves. Other findings can include abnormal tone, movement disorders (especially ataxia and dystonia), and behavior disorders (including autism spectrum disorder). Feeding difficulties are common.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 50
MedGen UID:
442869
Concept ID:
C2752008
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Cerebral palsy, spastic quadriplegic, 2
MedGen UID:
442880
Concept ID:
C2752061
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral palsy (CP) is defined as a nonprogressive but not unchanging disorder of posture or movement, caused by an abnormality of the brain and first evident at the stage of rapid brain development (Hughes and Newton, 1992). Cerebral palsy can be classified according to the type of movement disorder: spastic cerebral palsy accounts for approximately 60% of cases and can be subdivided into hemiplegic, diplegic, quadriplegic, and monoplegic types, whereas other forms include athetoid/dyskinetic, ataxic (605388), and mixed (Gustavson et al., 1969). Genetic Heterogeneity of Spastic Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy See also CPSQ3 (617008), caused by mutation in the ADD3 gene (601568) on 10q24. Related phenotypes that were formerly classified in the CPSQ series include spastic paraplegia-47 (SPG47; 614066), spastic paraplegia-50 (SPG50; 612936), spastic paraplegia-51 (SPG51; 613744), spastic paraplegia-52 (SPG52; 614067), and neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive spasticity and brain white matter abnormalities (NEDSWMA; 619026).
Infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis
MedGen UID:
419413
Concept ID:
C2931441
Disease or Syndrome
ALS2-related disorder involves retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprises a clinical continuum of the following three phenotypes: Infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP), characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome caused by progressive cranial nerve involvement. Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), characterized by upper motor neuron findings of pseudobulbar palsy and spastic quadriplegia without dementia or cerebellar, extrapyramidal, or sensory signs. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS or ALS2), characterized by onset between ages three and 20 years. All affected individuals show a spastic pseudobulbar syndrome (spasticity of speech and swallowing) together with spastic paraplegia. Some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 5
MedGen UID:
462081
Concept ID:
C3150731
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-5 (DEE5) is a neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay and the onset of tonic seizures or infantile spasms in the first months of life. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment, and EEG shows hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals have severely impaired psychomotor development with lack of visual attention, poor head control, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, and spastic quadriplegia. Brain imaging may show cerebral atrophy and hypomyelination (summary by Saitsu et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 11
MedGen UID:
462337
Concept ID:
C3150987
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-11 (DEE11) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the first days, weeks, or months of life. Some patients may have later onset. Seizures comprise multiple types, including tonic, generalized, and myoclonic, and tend to be refractory to medication. However, some patients with onset of seizures before 3 months of age may respond to sodium channel blockers, particularly phenytoin. About half of patients become seizure-free in childhood. Affected individuals have global developmental delay, usually with severely impaired intellectual development, although some may be less severely affected and show autism spectrum disorder. Additional common features include microcephaly, hypotonia, and abnormal movements, such as dystonia, dyskinesias, and choreoathetotic movements. Brain imaging may show white matter defects. The phenotype is highly variable, even in patients with the same mutation (summary by Ogiwara et al., 2009; Howell et al., 2015; Wolff et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 51
MedGen UID:
462406
Concept ID:
C3151056
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2D
MedGen UID:
462490
Concept ID:
C3151140
Disease or Syndrome
PCH2D is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly, postnatal onset of progressive atrophy of the cerebrum and cerebellum, profound mental retardation, spasticity, and variable seizures (summary by Ben-Zeev et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2, see PCH2A (277470).
HSD10 mitochondrial disease
MedGen UID:
781653
Concept ID:
C3266731
Disease or Syndrome
HSD10 mitochondrial disease (HSD10MD) most commonly presents as an X-linked neurodegenerative disorder with highly variable severity and age at onset ranging from the neonatal period to early childhood. The features are usually multisystemic, consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. Some affected males have a severe infantile form associated with cardiomyopathy that may result in death in early childhood, whereas other rare patients may have juvenile onset or even atypical presentations with normal neurologic development. More severely affected males show developmental regression in infancy or early childhood, often associated with early-onset intractable seizures, progressive choreoathetosis and spastic tetraplegia, optic atrophy or retinal degeneration resulting in visual loss, and mental retardation. Heterozygous females may show non-progressive developmental delay and intellectual disability, but may also be clinically normal. Although the diagnosis can be aided by the observation of increased urinary levels of metabolites of isoleucine breakdown (2-methyl-3 hydroxybutyrate and tiglylglycine), there is not a correlation between these laboratory features and the phenotype. In addition, patients do not develop severe metabolic crises in the neonatal period as observed in other organic acidurias, but may show persistent lactic acidosis, most likely reflecting mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Rauschenberger et al., 2010; Zschocke, 2012). In a review of this disorder, Zschocke (2012) noted that although it was originally thought to be an inborn error of branched-chain fatty acid and isoleucine metabolism resulting from decreased HSD17B10 dehydrogenase activity (HSD17B10 'deficiency'), subsequent studies have shown that the HSD17B10 gene product has additional functions and also acts as a component of the mitochondrial RNase P holoenzyme, which is involved in mitochondrial tRNA processing and maturation and ultimately mitochondrial protein synthesis. The multisystemic features of HSD10MD most likely result from the adverse effect of HSD17B10 mutations on mitochondrial function, rather than from the effects on the dehydrogenase activity (see PATHOGENESIS).
Warburg micro syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
481833
Concept ID:
C3280203
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper-limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
Congenital ichthyosis-intellectual disability-spastic quadriplegia syndrome
MedGen UID:
482486
Concept ID:
C3280856
Disease or Syndrome
ISQMR is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ichthyosis apparent from birth, profound psychomotor retardation with essentially no development, spastic quadriplegia, and seizures (summary by Aldahmesh et al., 2011).
Lipoic acid synthetase deficiency
MedGen UID:
482517
Concept ID:
C3280887
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperglycinemia, lactic acidosis, and seizures (HGCLAS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of hypotonia and seizures associated with increased serum glycine and lactate in the first days of life. Affected individuals develop an encephalopathy or severely delayed psychomotor development, which may result in death in childhood. The disorder represents a form of 'variant' nonketotic hyperglycinemia and is distinct from classic nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH, or GCE; 605899), which is characterized by significantly increased CSF glycine. Several forms of 'variant' NKH, including HGCLAS, appear to result from defects of mitochondrial lipoate biosynthesis (summary by Baker et al., 2014).
Porencephaly 2
MedGen UID:
482600
Concept ID:
C3280970
Disease or Syndrome
Brain small vessel disease-2 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by variable neurologic impairment resulting from disturbed vascular supply that leads to cerebral degeneration. The disorder is often associated with 'porencephaly' on brain imaging. Affected individuals typically have hemiplegia, seizures, and intellectual disability, although the severity is variable (summary by Yoneda et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of brain small vessel disease, see BSVD1 (175780).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 13
MedGen UID:
482832
Concept ID:
C3281202
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-13 (CDCBM13) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development. Brain imaging shows variable neuronal migration defects resulting in cortical malformations, including pachygyria. More variable features include early-onset seizures and dysmorphic features. Some patients may also show signs of peripheral neuropathy, such as abnormal gait, hyporeflexia, and foot deformities (summary by Willemsen et al., 2012 and Poirier et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
X-linked intellectual disability-cardiomegaly-congestive heart failure syndrome
MedGen UID:
763827
Concept ID:
C3550913
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual disability-cardiomegaly-congestive heart failure syndrome is a rare X-linked syndromic intellectual disability disorder characterized by profound intellectual disability, global developmental delay with absent speech, seizures, large joint contractures, abnormal position of thumbs and middle-age onset of cardiomegaly and atrioventricular valve abnormalities, resulting in subsequent congestive heart failure. Additional features include variable facial dysmorphism (notably large ears with overfolded helix) and large testes.
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations 2
MedGen UID:
815343
Concept ID:
C3809013
Disease or Syndrome
Any complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the KIF5C gene.
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
815495
Concept ID:
C3809165
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome-3 (MMDS3) is an autosomal recessive severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of previously acquired developmental milestones in the first months or years of life. Some affected patients have normal development in early infancy before the onset of symptoms, whereas others show delays from birth. Features included loss of motor function, spasticity, pyramidal signs, loss of speech, and cognitive impairment. The disease course is highly variable: some patients die of respiratory failure early in childhood, whereas some survive but may be bedridden with a feeding tube. Less commonly, some patients may survive and have a stable course with motor deficits and mild or even absent cognitive impairment, although there may be fluctuating symptoms, often in response to infection. Other variable features include visual problems and seizures. Brain imaging shows diffuse leukodystrophy in the subcortical region, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Laboratory studies tend to show increased lactate and CSF glycine, and decreased activity of mitochondrial complexes I and II, although these findings are also variable. There may be additional biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Liu et al., 2018). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome, see MMDS1 (605711).
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations 3
MedGen UID:
815744
Concept ID:
C3809414
Disease or Syndrome
Any complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the KIF2A gene.
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations 4
MedGen UID:
815750
Concept ID:
C3809420
Disease or Syndrome
Any complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TUBG1 gene.
Hypotonia, infantile, with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 1
MedGen UID:
815784
Concept ID:
C3809454
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies (IHPRF) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with onset at birth or in early infancy. Affected individuals show very poor, if any, normal cognitive development. Some patients are never learn to sit or walk independently (summary by Al-Sayed et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Infantile Hypotonia with Psychomotor Retardation and Characteristic Facies See also IHPRF2 (616801), caused by mutation in the UNC80 gene (612636) on chromosome 2q34; and IHPRF3 (616900), caused by mutation in the TBCK gene (616899) on chromosome 4q24.
Aldosterone-producing adenoma with seizures and neurological abnormalities
MedGen UID:
815939
Concept ID:
C3809609
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, neurologic disease characterized by primary hyperaldosteronism presenting with early-onset, severe hypertension, hypokalemia and neurological manifestations (including seizures, severe hypotonia, spasticity, cerebral palsy and profound developmental delay/intellectual disability).
Congenital microcephaly - severe encephalopathy - progressive cerebral atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
816301
Concept ID:
C3809971
Disease or Syndrome
Asparagine synthetase deficiency (ASD) mainly presents as a triad of congenital microcephaly, severe developmental delay, and axial hypotonia followed by spastic quadriplegia. Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) asparagine level can help the clinician in differentiating this disorder from others. In most cases age of onset of apnea, excessive irritability, and seizures is soon after birth. Affected individuals typically do not acquire any developmental milestones. Spastic quadriplegia can lead to severe contractures of the limbs and neurogenic scoliosis. Feeding difficulties (gastroesophageal reflux disease, frequent vomiting, swallowing dysfunction, and gastroesophageal incoordination) are a significant problem in most affected individuals. A majority have cortical blindness. MRI findings are nonspecific but may include generalized atrophy and simplified gyral pattern.
Warburg micro syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
816595
Concept ID:
C3810265
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper-limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2E
MedGen UID:
862925
Concept ID:
C4014488
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2E is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by profound mental retardation, progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and early-onset epilepsy (summary by Feinstein et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2, see PCH2A (277470).
Microcephaly 16, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
898705
Concept ID:
C4225249
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic tetraplegia-thin corpus callosum-progressive postnatal microcephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
900192
Concept ID:
C4225254
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic tetraplegia, thin corpus callosum, and progressive microcephaly is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of those features and severely impaired global development in early infancy. Most patients are unable to achieve independent walking or speech; some patients have seizures (summary by Srour et al., 2015 and Heimer et al., 2015).
Early-onset Lafora body disease
MedGen UID:
907932
Concept ID:
C4225258
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive myoclonic epilepsy-10 (EPM10) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of progressive myoclonus, ataxia, spasticity, dysarthria, and cognitive decline in the first decade of life. The severity is variable, but some patients may become mute and bedridden with psychosis (summary by Turnbull et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800).
Lissencephaly due to TUBA1A mutation
MedGen UID:
930822
Concept ID:
C4305153
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital cortical development anomaly due to abnormal neuronal migration involving neocortical and hippocampal lamination, corpus callosum, cerebellum and brainstem. A large clinical spectrum can be observed, from children with severe epilepsy and intellectual and motor deficit to cases with severe cerebral dysgenesis in the antenatal period leading to pregnancy termination due to the severity of the prognosis.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 49
MedGen UID:
934602
Concept ID:
C4310635
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-49 (DEE49) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the neonatal period, global developmental delay with intellectual disability and lack of speech, hypotonia, spasticity, and coarse facial features. Some patients may have brain calcifications on imaging (summary by Han et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Immunodeficiency 49
MedGen UID:
934623
Concept ID:
C4310656
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary immunodeficiency disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BCL11B gene.
Encephalopathy, progressive, with amyotrophy and optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
934634
Concept ID:
C4310667
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive encephalopathy with amyotrophy and optic atrophy (PEAMO) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by delayed development with hypotonia apparent in infancy and subsequent motor regression. Most affected individuals are unable to or lose the ability to sit and show distal amyotrophy and weakness of all 4 limbs. The patients are cognitively impaired and unable to speak or have severe dysarthria. Additional features include optic atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy (Sferra et al., 2016).
Cerebral palsy, spastic quadriplegic, 3
MedGen UID:
934734
Concept ID:
C4310767
Disease or Syndrome
Any spastic quadriplegia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ADD3 gene.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 53
MedGen UID:
1374886
Concept ID:
C4479313
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-53 (DEE53) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of intractable seizures in infancy. Affected individuals show hypotonia and very poor or absent global development, resulting in severe intellectual disability and spastic quadriplegia. Some patients may die in childhood (summary by Hardies et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIq
MedGen UID:
1390458
Concept ID:
C4479353
Disease or Syndrome
A rare congenital disorder of glycosylation caused by mutations in the COG2 gene and with characteristics of normal presentation at birth, followed by progressive deterioration with postnatal microcephaly, developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, spastic quadriplegia, liver dysfunction, hypocupremia and hypoceruloplasminemia in the first year of life. Diffuse cerebral atrophy and thin corpus callosum may be observed on brain MRI.
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, seizures, and distal limb anomalies
MedGen UID:
1375601
Concept ID:
C4479520
Disease or Syndrome
IDDFSDA is an autosomal recessive severe multisystem disorder characterized by poor overall growth, developmental delay, early-onset seizures, intellectual disability, and dysmorphic features. There is phenotypic variability. The most severely affected patients have a neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, absent speech, and inability to walk, and they require feeding tubes. Some patients have congenital heart defects or nonspecific abnormalities on brain imaging. Less severely affected individuals have mild to moderate intellectual disability with normal speech and motor development (summary by Santiago-Sim et al., 2017).
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 6
MedGen UID:
1387791
Concept ID:
C4517377
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation refers to a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive motor and cognitive dysfunction beginning in childhood or young adulthood. Patients show extrapyramidal motor signs, such as spasticity, dystonia, and parkinsonism. Brain imaging shows iron accumulation in the basal ganglia (summary by Dusi et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of NBIA, see NBIA1 (234200).
Diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1615973
Concept ID:
C4538630
Disease or Syndrome
Diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia syndrome-1 (DMJDS1) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly, severely delayed or even absent psychomotor development with profound intellectual disability, and spasticity or dystonia. Some patients may have seizures and/or visual impairment. Brain imaging shows a characteristic developmental malformation of the midbrain; subtle intracranial calcifications may also be present (summary by Aran et al., 2016 and Guemez-Gamboa et al., 2018). Genetic Heterogeneity of Diencephalic-Mesencephalic Junction Dysplasia Syndrome See also DMJDS2 (618646), caused by mutation in the GSX2 gene (616253) on chromosome 4q12.
Neurodevelopmental disorder, mitochondrial, with abnormal movements and lactic acidosis, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1619876
Concept ID:
C4540192
Disease or Syndrome
NEMMLAS is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and abnormal motor function, including hypotonia, dystonia, ataxia, and spasticity. Patient tissues may show deficiencies in one or more of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes, but this is not a constant finding (summary by Wortmann et al., 2017).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1634188
Concept ID:
C4551772
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without seizures and gait abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1645968
Concept ID:
C4693391
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without seizures and gait abnormalities (NEDSGA) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood, resulting in variably impaired intellectual development that can range from profound with absent speech to mild with an ability to attend special schools. Most affected individuals show irritability, stiffness, and hypertonia early in life, which progresses to spasticity and impaired gait later. Some patients may develop seizures of variable severity early in life (summary by Martin et al., 2017).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 60
MedGen UID:
1638894
Concept ID:
C4693663
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-60 (DEE60) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of infantile spasms, seizures, or myoclonus in the first months of life. EEG typically shows hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals have severe global developmental delay with inability to sit, walk, or speak. Brain imaging may show brain atrophy and hippocampal malrotation (summary by Mutoh et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 62
MedGen UID:
1631233
Concept ID:
C4693699
Disease or Syndrome
SCN3A-related neurodevelopmental disorder (SCN3A-ND) encompasses a spectrum of clinical severity associated with epilepsy and/or brain malformation. Affected individuals may have (a) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (i.e., intractable seizures with developmental delays associated with ongoing epileptiform EEG activity) with or without malformations of cortical development; or (b) malformations of cortical development with or without mild focal epilepsy. Some degree of early childhood developmental delay is seen in all affected individuals; the severity varies widely, ranging from isolated speech delay to severe developmental delay. Infantile hypotonia is common but may be mild or absent in those without DEE. In those with DEE, seizure onset is typically in the first six to 12 months of life. A variety of seizure types have been described. Seizures remain intractable to multiple anti-seizure medications in approximately 50% of individuals with DEE without malformations of cortical development (MCD) and in 90% of individuals with DEE and MCD. Seizures may be absent or infrequent in those without DEE. Brain MRI findings range from normal to showing thinning or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, to various malformations of cortical development. Autonomic dysregulation, oromotor dysfunction leading to the need for gastrostomy tube placement, progressive microcephaly, hyperkinetic movement disorder, and cortical visual impairment can also be seen in those with DEE.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spastic quadriplegia and brain abnormalities with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1633724
Concept ID:
C4693816
Disease or Syndrome
El-Hattab-Alkuraya syndrome is characterized by microcephaly (often early onset and progressive); severe-to-profound developmental delay; refractory and early-onset seizures; spastic quadriplegia with axial hypotonia; and growth deficiency with poor weight gain and short stature. Characteristic findings on brain imaging include cerebral atrophy that is disproportionately most prominent in the frontal lobes; ex vacuo ventricular dilatation with notable posterior horn predominance; brain stem volume loss with flattening of the belly of the pons; and symmetric under-opercularization. Neurologic involvement is progressive, with significant morbidity and mortality.
Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 9
MedGen UID:
1648399
Concept ID:
C4748540
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-9 is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by profoundly impaired motor and cognitive development apparent from early infancy. Affected individuals develop intractable seizures and are unable to speak or ambulate. Brain imaging shows pachygyria as well as hypogenesis of the corpus callosum and other variable brain abnormalities. The phenotype results from impaired cortical neuronal migration (summary by Schaffer et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 15
MedGen UID:
1648320
Concept ID:
C4748778
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 16
MedGen UID:
1648351
Concept ID:
C4748785
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 27
MedGen UID:
1648481
Concept ID:
C4748826
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 69
MedGen UID:
1648381
Concept ID:
C4748988
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-69 (DEE69) is an autosomal dominant severe neurodevelopmental encephalopathic disorder characterized by early-onset refractory seizures, hypotonia, and profoundly impaired development often associated with macrocephaly, hyperkinetic movements, and contractures. The disorder can sometimes result in early death. Some patients may have a favorable seizure response to topiramate medication (summary by Helbig et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
NAD(P)HX dehydratase deficiency
MedGen UID:
1681210
Concept ID:
C5193026
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset progressive encephalopathy with brain edema and/or leukoencephalopathy-2 (PEBEL2) is an autosomal recessive severe neurometabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration that is usually associated with a febrile illness. Affected infants tend to show normal early development followed by acute psychomotor regression with ataxia, hypotonia, and sometimes seizures, resulting in death in the first years of life. Brain imaging shows multiple abnormalities, including brain edema and signal abnormalities in the cortical and subcortical regions (summary by Van Bergen et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PEBEL, see PEBEL1 (617186).
Brain small vessel disease 3
MedGen UID:
1677948
Concept ID:
C5193053
Disease or Syndrome
Brain small vessel disease-3 (BSVD3) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from fragility of cerebral vessels causing an increased risk of intracranial bleeding. The resultant phenotype is highly variable depending on timing and location of the intracranial bleed. Some patients may have onset in utero or early infancy, with subsequent global developmental delay, spasticity, and porencephaly on brain imaging. Other patients may have normal or mildly delayed development with sudden onset of intracranial hemorrhage causing acute neurologic deterioration (summary by Miyatake et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of brain small vessel disease, see BSVD1 (175780).
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 18
MedGen UID:
1680067
Concept ID:
C5193078
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-18 (HLD18) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of global developmental delay usually in early infancy. Affected individuals have very poor psychomotor development, including inability to sit or walk independently in the more severe cases, as well as poor or absent speech, dystonia, and spasticity. A subset of patients may develop seizures. Brain imaging shows hypomyelinating leukodystrophy affecting various brain regions; some patients may also have progressive atrophy of the corpus callosum, thalami, and cerebellum (summary by Pant et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, see 312080.
Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis
MedGen UID:
1678789
Concept ID:
C5193117
Disease or Syndrome
Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis (BANDDOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brain abnormalities, progressive neurologic deterioration, and sclerotic bone dysplasia similar to dysosteosclerosis (DOS). The age at onset is highly variable: some patients may present in infancy with hydrocephalus, global developmental delay, and hypotonia, whereas others may have onset of symptoms in the late teens or early twenties after normal development. Neurologic features include loss of previous motor and language skills, cognitive impairment, spasticity, and focal seizures. Brain imaging shows periventricular white matter abnormalities and calcifications, large cisterna magna or Dandy-Walker malformation, and sometimes agenesis of the corpus callosum (summary by Guo et al., 2019).
Diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1684846
Concept ID:
C5231440
Disease or Syndrome
Diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia syndrome-2 (DMJDS2) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and hypotonia apparent from infancy. Affected individuals develop severe progressive hyperkinetic movements, including spastic tetraplegia, dystonia, and bulbar dysphagia necessitating tube feeding. Patients are unable to walk and have severely impaired intellectual development with absent speech. Brain imaging shows a unique malformation reflecting abnormal embryonic development of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction (DMJ), with agenesis of the basal ganglia and olfactory bulb, hypoplasia of the thalamus, and abnormal course of the corticospinal tracts (summary by De Mori et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DMJDS, see DMJDS1 (251280).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spastic quadriplegia, optic atrophy, seizures, and structural brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684884
Concept ID:
C5231442
Disease or Syndrome
Halperin-Birk syndrome (HLBKS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by structural brain defects, spastic quadriplegia with multiple contractures, profound developmental delay, seizures, dysmorphism, cataract, and optic nerve atrophy. Death occurs in early childhood (Halperin et al., 2019).
Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 10
MedGen UID:
1684859
Concept ID:
C5231458
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-10 (CDCBM10) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely impaired global development associated with abnormalities on brain imaging, including lissencephaly, cortical dysplasia, subcortical heterotopia, and paucity of white matter. The disorder results from defective neuronal migration during brain development. Affected individuals often develop seizures, are unable to walk, and do not acquire language (summary by Lee et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 82
MedGen UID:
1684694
Concept ID:
C5231473
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-82 (DEE82) is an autosomal recessive mitochondriopathy manifest as early-onset metabolic epileptic encephalopathy. Soon after birth, affected individuals exhibit hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and global developmental delay even before the onset of seizures in the first year of life. The severity is variable, but all patients have severely impaired intellectual development with absent speech and spastic tetraplegia. Other features include poor overall growth with microcephaly and recurrent infections. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy, thin corpus callosum, cerebellar hypoplasia, and white matter abnormalities. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and ammonia. Importantly, treatment with combined pyridoxine and serine can result in significant improvement in seizures as well as some mild developmental progress (summary by van Karnebeek et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, cortical malformations, and spasticity
MedGen UID:
1684695
Concept ID:
C5231480
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, cortical malformations, and spasticity (NEDMCMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe to profound global developmental delay, early-onset seizures, microcephaly, and polymicrogyria and/or cerebral atrophy on brain imaging. Most affected individuals are unable to walk or speak and have profoundly impaired intellectual development, as well as axial hypotonia and peripheral spasticity. Rare individuals may be less severely affected (summary by Vandervore et al., 2019).
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 12
MedGen UID:
1745691
Concept ID:
C5436695
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 12 (MC4DN12) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of neurologic dysfunction in early infancy. Affected individuals demonstrate hypotonia with poor head control, profoundly delayed global development with inability to fix and follow, poor overall growth, abnormal spasms or myoclonus, and seizures. Most patients die in the first years of life; those that survive have spastic quadriplegia, feeding difficulties necessitating tube feeding, and profoundly impaired intellectual development with poor or absent communication. More variable features include cortical blindness, nystagmus, scoliosis, and hearing impairment. Brain imaging shows abnormalities consistent with Leigh syndrome (see 256000), as well as cystic cavitation. Laboratory studies show lactic acidosis, increased serum creatine kinase, and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Lim et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 20
MedGen UID:
1765130
Concept ID:
C5436730
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-20 (HLD20) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of developmental milestones at about 12 to 16 months of age after normal early development. Patients lose motor, language, and cognitive skills and show poor overall growth with microcephaly. The disorder is progressive, resulting in feeding difficulties and spastic quadriplegia. Some patients may have seizures. Brain imaging shows subcortical white matter abnormalities and a thin corpus callosum, suggesting a myelination defect. Death usually occurs in childhood (Al-Abdi et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiomyopathy, spasticity, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1750805
Concept ID:
C5436848
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiomyopathy, spasticity, and brain abnormalities (NEDCASB) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder characterized by global neurodevelopmental delay, severely impaired intellectual development, poor overall growth, and spasticity of the lower limbs resulting in gait difficulties. Most affected individuals also develop progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in childhood or have cardiac developmental anomalies. Additional more variable features include dysmorphic facies and axonal sensory peripheral neuropathy. Brain imaging tends to show thin corpus callosum and polymicrogyria (summary by Garcia-Cazorla et al., 2020).
Kaya-Barakat-Masson syndrome
MedGen UID:
1725501
Concept ID:
C5436856
Disease or Syndrome
Kaya-Barakat-Masson syndrome (KABAMAS) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by profoundly impaired global development with variable motor abnormalities, such as axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, dystonia, and poor coordination, resulting in the inability to sit or walk. Affected individuals have impaired intellectual development with absent speech, poor eye contact, and feeding difficulties, resulting in poor overall growth, sometimes with microcephaly. Dysmorphic features are generally not present. Additional more variable features include early-onset seizures, ocular anomalies, foot deformities, and nonspecific brain imaging findings, such as thin corpus callosum and cerebral, cerebellar, or pontine atrophy. Some patients may die in infancy or early childhood (summary by AlMuhaizea et al., 2020 and Diaz et al., 2020).
Mitochondrial complex 2 deficiency, nuclear type 2
MedGen UID:
1742371
Concept ID:
C5436933
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex II deficiency nuclear type 2 (MC2DN2) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic metabolic disorder with variable severity and features. Most patients present with neurologic deterioration in infancy or early childhood after normal early development. Features include loss of motor skills, spastic paresis, dystonia, and loss of speech associated with increased serum and CSF lactate. Some patients may have mental decline or visual loss. Skeletal muscle samples show isolated complex II deficiency, and proton MRS shows increased succinate levels in the CSF and brain white matter. Brain imaging usually shows progressive leukoencephalopathy. Although the pattern of brain involvement may not be characteristic of Leigh syndrome (see 256000), postmortem examination in 1 patient showed multifocal spongiform encephalomyelopathy consistent with a diagnosis of Leigh syndrome. The most severely affected patients die of multiorgan failure and lactic acidosis, whereas others who survive may stabilize and regain some skills. Treatment with riboflavin may offer clinical improvement (summary by Brockmann et al., 2002 and Bugiani et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MC2DN, see MC2DN1 (252011).
Leukoencephalopathy, progressive, infantile-onset, with or without deafness
MedGen UID:
1779519
Concept ID:
C5542996
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset progressive leukoencephalopathy with or without deafness (LEPID) is an autosomal recessive complex neurodegenerative disorder with onset of symptoms in infancy or early childhood. Most patients present with sensorineural deafness or hypoacousia and global developmental delay. Affected individuals show episodic regression with progressive motor deterioration resulting in spastic tetraplegia and loss of ambulation, as well as impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Additional more variable features may include poor overall growth with microcephaly, seizures, visual loss, microcytic anemia, and hepatic enlargement or abnormal liver enzymes. Brain imaging shows deep white matter abnormalities consistent with a progressive leukoencephalopathy. The brain and spinal cord are usually both involved; calcifications of these regions are often observed. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, consistent with global mitochondrial dysfunction. Early death often occurs (summary by Itoh et al., 2019).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 14
MedGen UID:
1778516
Concept ID:
C5543322
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 14 (PCH14) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by congenital onset of progressive microcephaly and poor or absent psychomotor development with severely impaired intellectual development apparent from birth. Other features may include hypotonia, spastic quadriplegia, and early-onset seizures. Brain imaging shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia, agenesis or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and sometimes a simplified gyral pattern. Early death may occur (summary by et al., 2021). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 15
MedGen UID:
1781311
Concept ID:
C5543326
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 15 (PCH15) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by congenital onset of progressive microcephaly and poor or absent psychomotor development with severely impaired intellectual development apparent from birth. Other features may include spastic quadriplegia, early-onset seizures, and chronic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Brain imaging shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (summary by et al., 2021). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
1786150
Concept ID:
C5543332
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and cerebellar hypoplasia (NEDFACH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and intellectual disability. The phenotype is variable: more severely affected individuals have poor overall growth with microcephaly, delayed walking, spasticity, and poor or absent speech, whereas others may achieve more significant developmental milestones and even attend special schooling. Brain imaging shows abnormalities of the cerebellum, most commonly cerebellar hypoplasia, although other features, such as thin corpus callosum and delayed myelination, may also be present. Dysmorphic facial features include sloping forehead, upslanting palpebral fissures, and hypertelorism. Additional more variable manifestations may include cardiac ventricular septal defect, spasticity, cataracts, optic nerve hypoplasia, seizures, and joint contractures (summary by Van Bergen et al., 2020).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
1794176
Concept ID:
C5561966
Disease or Syndrome
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome-9 (AGS9) is a type I interferonopathy characterized by severe developmental delay and progressive neurologic deterioration. Patients present in infancy with irritability and spasticity. Brain imaging shows diffusely abnormal white matter, cerebral atrophy, and intracranial calcification. Premature death has been associated with renal and/or hepatic failure (Uggenti et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, see AGS1 (225750).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 16
MedGen UID:
1794197
Concept ID:
C5561987
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 16 (PCH16) is an autosomal recessive severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hypotonia and severe global developmental delay apparent from early infancy. Although the severity of the disorder is variable, most affected individuals achieve only a few, if any, developmental milestones. Most are unable to walk or speak, have eye abnormalities with poor visual contact, and develop early-onset epilepsy. Other features may include stereotypic movements, spasticity, and progressive microcephaly. Brain imaging shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia, often with thin corpus callosum, atrophy of the thalamus and basal ganglia, enlarged ventricles, and white matter abnormalities (summary by Ucuncu et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hearing loss and spasticity
MedGen UID:
1794234
Concept ID:
C5562024
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hearing loss and spasticity (NEDHLS) is characterized by hearing loss, global developmental delay/impaired intellectual development, spastic-dystonic cerebral palsy, focal or generalized epilepsy, and microcephaly. Some children present with hypotonia (Richard et al., 2021).
Recurrent metabolic encephalomyopathic crises-rhabdomyolysis-cardiac arrhythmia-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
1798947
Concept ID:
C5567524
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with TANGO2-related metabolic encephalopathy and arrhythmias can present in acute metabolic crisis (hypoglycemia, elevated lactate, mild hyperammonemia) or with developmental delay, regression, and/or seizures. The acute presentation varies from profound muscle weakness, ataxia, and/or disorientation to a comatose state. Individuals can present with intermittent acute episodes of rhabdomyolysis. The first episode of myoglobinuria has been known to occur as early as age five months. Acute renal tubular damage due to myoglobinuria can result in acute kidney injury and renal failure. During acute illness, transient electrocardiogram changes can be seen; the most common is QT prolongation. Life-threatening recurrent ventricular tachycardia or torsade de pointes occurs primarily during times of acute illness. Individuals who do not present in metabolic crises may present with gait incoordination, progressively unsteady gait, difficulty with speech, or clumsiness. Intellectual disability of variable severity is observed in almost all individuals. Seizures are observed outside the periods of crises in more than 75% of individuals. Hypothyroidism has been reported in more than one third of individuals.
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia type 78
MedGen UID:
1799316
Concept ID:
C5567893
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-78 is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized predominantly by spasticity and muscle weakness of the lower limbs, resulting in gait difficulties and loss of ambulation in some patients. Affected individuals also have cerebellar signs, such as dysarthria, oculomotor disturbances, and limb and gait ataxia; brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy. Some patients may have mild cognitive impairment or frank dementia. The phenotype is highly variable (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017). Biallelic mutation in the ATP13A2 gene also causes Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS; 606693), a neurodegenerative disorder with overlapping features. Patients with KRS have earlier onset and prominent parkinsonism. Loss of ATP13A2 function results in a multidimensional spectrum of neurologic features reflecting various regions of the brain and nervous system, including cortical, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, brainstem, cerebellar, and peripheral (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017).
Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with progressive microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1801540
Concept ID:
C5676972
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with progressive microcephaly (CONPM) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: the most severely affected individuals have severe and progressive microcephaly, early-onset seizures, lack of visual tracking, and almost no developmental milestones, resulting in early death. Less severely affected individuals have a small head circumference and severely impaired intellectual development with poor speech and motor delay. Additional features may include poor overall growth, axial hypotonia, limb hypertonia with spasticity, undescended testes, and cerebral atrophy with neuronal loss (Lam et al., 2019 and Vanoevelen et al., 2022).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, IIA 17
MedGen UID:
1809583
Concept ID:
C5676999
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 17 (PCH17) is a severe autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, severe feeding difficulties, and respiratory insufficiency. Brain imaging shows cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia. Most affected individuals die in infancy. Those who survive show variable developmental delay. Other features of the disorder include distal hypertonia, poor overall growth, visual defects, autonomic problems, dysmorphic features, and seizures (Coolen et al., 2022). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 103
MedGen UID:
1809962
Concept ID:
C5677002
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-103 (DEE103) is characterized by onset of various types of seizures in the first year of life, most of which are refractory to treatment. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development ranging from mild to severe. Additional features may include hypotonia, ataxia, and behavioral abnormalities, including autism and hyperactivity (Schwarz et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dystonia and seizures
MedGen UID:
1804461
Concept ID:
C5677004
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dystonia and seizures (NEDDS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypotonia and dystonic posturing apparent from early infancy. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with inability to walk or speak and have profoundly impaired intellectual development, often with behavioral abnormalities. Additional features may include other extrapyramidal movements, seizures or seizure-like activity, and cerebellar hypoplasia on brain imaging (Sleiman et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1823957
Concept ID:
C5774184
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy and brain atrophy (NEDEBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset progressive myoclonus epilepsy with ataxia (summary by Bott et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, microcephaly, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1823982
Concept ID:
C5774209
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, microcephaly, and brain abnormalities (NEDSMBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a core phenotype of moderate to profound developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, epilepsy, and periventricular calcifications (summary by Rosenhahn et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with short stature, prominent forehead, and feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
1824001
Concept ID:
C5774228
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with short stature, prominent forehead, and feeding difficulties (NEDSFF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by distinct craniofacial features, multisystem dysfunction, profound neurodevelopmental delays, and neonatal death (Shankar et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth, spastic tetraplegia, and hearing loss
MedGen UID:
1824002
Concept ID:
C5774229
Disease or Syndrome
Birk-Aharoni syndrome (BKAH) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, absent speech, spastic tetraplegia with central hypotonia, chorea, inability to walk, hearing loss, micropenis, undescended testes, and mildly elevated liver enzymes (Aharoni et al., 2022).
Tessadori-Van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824083
Concept ID:
C5774310
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-3 (TEBIVANED3) is characterized by global developmental delay with poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, and speech difficulties. More variable features include hypotonia, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facies. The severity and manifestations of the disorder are highly variable (Tessadori et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental disorder, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Beheshtian M, Akhtarkhavari T, Mehvari S, Mohseni M, Fattahi Z, Abedini SS, Arzhangi S, Fadaee M, Jamali P, Najafipour R, Kalscheuer VM, Hu H, Ropers HH, Najmabadi H, Kahrizi K
Clin Genet 2021 Jan;99(1):187-192. Epub 2020 Sep 14 doi: 10.1111/cge.13845. PMID: 32895917
Chrysagis N, Skordilis EK, Koutsouki D
Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2014 Feb;95(2):369-74. Epub 2013 Nov 12 doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.10.025. PMID: 24239880
Olafsson Y, Saraste H, Al-Dabbagh Z
J Pediatr Orthop 1999 May-Jun;19(3):376-9. PMID: 10344323

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Cabrita JP, Quaresma MC, Bizarra MF
Spec Care Dentist 2022 Mar;42(2):155-159. Epub 2021 Sep 21 doi: 10.1111/scd.12650. PMID: 34547111
de Souza PVS, Pinto WBVR, Farias IB, Badia BML, Pinto IFN, Costa GC, Marin CM, Dos Santos Jorge AC, Souto EC, Serrano PL, Machado RIL, Chieia MAT, Bertini E, Oliveira ASB
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Aug 11;16(1):360. doi: 10.1186/s13023-021-01993-0. PMID: 34380534Free PMC Article
Jonsson U, Eek MN, Sunnerhagen KS, Himmelmann K
Dev Med Child Neurol 2019 Oct;61(10):1162-1167. Epub 2019 Apr 5 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.14229. PMID: 30950519
Sienkiewicz D, Paszko-Patej G, Okurowska-Zawada B, Kułak W
Arch Med Res 2018 Feb;49(2):114-118. Epub 2018 May 24 doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2018.05.001. PMID: 29803546
Hadjipanayis A, Hadjichristodoulou C, Youroukos S
Dev Med Child Neurol 1997 Oct;39(10):659-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1997.tb07359.x. PMID: 9352726

Diagnosis

Cabrita JP, Quaresma MC, Bizarra MF
Spec Care Dentist 2022 Mar;42(2):155-159. Epub 2021 Sep 21 doi: 10.1111/scd.12650. PMID: 34547111
Kishima H, Yanagisawa T, Goto Y, Oshino S, Maruo T, Tani N, Khoo HM, Hosomi K, Hirata M, Yoshimine T
Neuromodulation 2016 Aug;19(6):650-4. Epub 2016 Feb 2 doi: 10.1111/ner.12394. PMID: 26833715
Wolf B
Mol Genet Metab 2015 Nov;116(3):113-8. Epub 2015 Sep 3 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2015.08.012. PMID: 26358973
Tüysüz B, Bilguvar K, Koçer N, Yalçınkaya C, Çağlayan O, Gül E, Sahin S, Çomu S, Günel M
Am J Med Genet A 2014 Jul;164A(7):1677-85. Epub 2014 Apr 3 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36514. PMID: 24700674
Kułak W, Okurowska-Zawada B, Gościk E, Sienkiewicz D, Paszko-Patej G, Kubas B
Adv Med Sci 2011;56(1):64-70. doi: 10.2478/v10039-011-0006-2. PMID: 21444273

Therapy

Tonomura H, Nagae M, Ishibashi H, Hosoi K, Ikeda T, Mikami Y, Takahashi K
Medicina (Kaunas) 2024 May 1;60(5) doi: 10.3390/medicina60050755. PMID: 38792938Free PMC Article
Kvascevicius R, Lapteva O, Kesiene J, Vaitkus A, Mikulenaite L, Raugalas R, Sipylaite J, Rocka S, Juocevicius A
J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2017 May;78(3):281-285. Epub 2016 Nov 30 doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1593973. PMID: 27903018
Kishima H, Yanagisawa T, Goto Y, Oshino S, Maruo T, Tani N, Khoo HM, Hosomi K, Hirata M, Yoshimine T
Neuromodulation 2016 Aug;19(6):650-4. Epub 2016 Feb 2 doi: 10.1111/ner.12394. PMID: 26833715
Brvar M, Vrtovec M, Kovac D, Kozelj G, Pezdir T, Bunc M
Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2007 Dec;63(12):1143-6. Epub 2007 Sep 2 doi: 10.1007/s00228-007-0371-8. PMID: 17764008
Hadjipanayis A, Hadjichristodoulou C, Youroukos S
Dev Med Child Neurol 1997 Oct;39(10):659-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1997.tb07359.x. PMID: 9352726

Prognosis

Sienkiewicz D, Paszko-Patej G, Okurowska-Zawada B, Kułak W
Arch Med Res 2018 Feb;49(2):114-118. Epub 2018 May 24 doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2018.05.001. PMID: 29803546
Kułak W, Okurowska-Zawada B, Gościk E, Sienkiewicz D, Paszko-Patej G, Kubas B
Adv Med Sci 2011;56(1):64-70. doi: 10.2478/v10039-011-0006-2. PMID: 21444273
Kulak W, Sobaniec W, Smigielska-Kuzia J, Kubas B, Walecki J
Pediatr Neurol 2005 May;32(5):311-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2005.01.006. PMID: 15866431
Kwong KL, Wong SN, So KT
Pediatr Neurol 1998 Jul;19(1):31-6. doi: 10.1016/s0887-8994(98)00011-3. PMID: 9682882
Hadjipanayis A, Hadjichristodoulou C, Youroukos S
Dev Med Child Neurol 1997 Oct;39(10):659-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1997.tb07359.x. PMID: 9352726

Clinical prediction guides

Ratz-Mitchem ML, Leary G, Grindeland A, Silvius D, Guter J, Kavanaugh MP, Gunn TM
Mamm Genome 2023 Dec;34(4):572-585. Epub 2023 Aug 29 doi: 10.1007/s00335-023-10013-4. PMID: 37642681Free PMC Article
Cabrita JP, Quaresma MC, Bizarra MF
Spec Care Dentist 2022 Mar;42(2):155-159. Epub 2021 Sep 21 doi: 10.1111/scd.12650. PMID: 34547111
Sienkiewicz D, Paszko-Patej G, Okurowska-Zawada B, Kułak W
Arch Med Res 2018 Feb;49(2):114-118. Epub 2018 May 24 doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2018.05.001. PMID: 29803546
Chrysagis N, Skordilis EK, Koutsouki D
Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2014 Feb;95(2):369-74. Epub 2013 Nov 12 doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.10.025. PMID: 24239880
Kułak W, Sobaniec W, Gościk M, Oleński J, Okurowska-Zawada B
Adv Med Sci 2008;53(1):42-8. doi: 10.2478/v10039-008-0006-z. PMID: 18467267

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