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Trigonocephaly 1(TRIGNO1)

MedGen UID:
98473
Concept ID:
C0432122
Congenital Abnormality
Synonym: TRIGNO1
SNOMED CT: Metopic craniosynostosis (109409003); Interfrontal craniofaciosynostosis (109409003)
 
Gene (location): FGFR1 (8p11.23)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008603
OMIM®: 190440

Definition

Individuals with trigonocephaly have a keel-shaped forehead with wide biparietal diameter, resulting in a triangular shape of the head. Trigonocephaly results from premature closure of the metopic sutures and usually occurs sporadically (summary by Frydman et al., 1984). Genetic Heterogeneity of Isolated Trigonocephaly Also see trigonocephaly-2 (TRIGNO2; 614485), caused by mutation in the FREM1 gene (608944) on chromosome 9p22. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Long penis
MedGen UID:
82837
Concept ID:
C0269011
Finding
Penile length more than 2 SD above the mean for age.
Meckel diverticulum
MedGen UID:
9917
Concept ID:
C0025037
Congenital Abnormality
Meckel's diverticulum is a congenital diverticulum located in the distal ileum.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Craniosynostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
1163
Concept ID:
C0010278
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis refers to the premature closure of the cranial sutures. Primary craniosynostosis refers to the closure of one or more sutures due to abnormalities in skull development, and secondary craniosynostosis results from failure of brain growth.
Trigonocephaly
MedGen UID:
82713
Concept ID:
C0265535
Congenital Abnormality
Wedge-shaped, or triangular head, with the apex of the triangle at the midline of the forehead and the base of the triangle at the occiput.
Lumbar hemivertebrae
MedGen UID:
98474
Concept ID:
C0432149
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of one half of the vertebral body in the lumbar spine.
Congenital omphalocele
MedGen UID:
162756
Concept ID:
C0795690
Congenital Abnormality
An omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect limited to an open umbilical ring, and is characterized by the herniation of membrane-covered internal organs into the open base of the umbilical cord. Omphalocele is distinguished from gastroschisis (230750), in which the abdominal wall defect is located laterally to a normally closed umbilical ring with herniation of organs that are uncovered by membranes (summary by Bugge, 2010). On the basis of clinical manifestations, epidemiologic characteristics, and the presence of additional malformations, Yang et al. (1992) concluded that omphalocele and gastroschisis are casually and pathogenetically distinct abdominal wall defects. Omphalocele can be a feature of genetic disorders, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (130650) and the Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (182210).
Metopic synostosis
MedGen UID:
395990
Concept ID:
C1860819
Congenital Abnormality
Premature fusion of the metopic suture.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
High, narrow palate
MedGen UID:
324787
Concept ID:
C1837404
Finding
The presence of a high and narrow palate.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Short nose
MedGen UID:
343052
Concept ID:
C1854114
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations below the mean, or alternatively, an apparently decreased length from the nasal root to the nasal tip.
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Synophrys
MedGen UID:
98132
Concept ID:
C0431447
Congenital Abnormality
Meeting of the medial eyebrows in the midline.
Preauricular skin tag
MedGen UID:
395989
Concept ID:
C1860816
Finding
A rudimentary tag of skin often containing ear tissue including a core of cartilage and located just anterior to the auricle (outer part of the ear).
Hypotelorism
MedGen UID:
96107
Concept ID:
C0424711
Finding
Interpupillary distance less than 2 SD below the mean (alternatively, the appearance of an decreased interpupillary distance or closely spaced eyes).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Hersh DS, Hughes CD
Neurosurg Clin N Am 2022 Jan;33(1):105-112. Epub 2021 Oct 26 doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2021.09.008. PMID: 34801135
Buers I, Persico I, Schöning L, Nitschke Y, Di Rocco M, Loi A, Sahi PK, Utine GE, Bayraktar-Tanyeri B, Zampino G, Crisponi G, Rutsch F, Crisponi L
Clin Genet 2020 Jan;97(1):209-221. Epub 2019 Sep 16 doi: 10.1111/cge.13639. PMID: 31497877
Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak A, Gos M, Obersztyn E
J Appl Genet 2018 May;59(2):133-147. Epub 2018 Feb 1 doi: 10.1007/s13353-017-0423-4. PMID: 29392564

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Anolik RA, Allori AC, Pourtaheri N, Rogers GF, Marcus JR
Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 May;137(5):1548-1555. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000002052. PMID: 27119927

Prognosis

Anolik RA, Allori AC, Pourtaheri N, Rogers GF, Marcus JR
Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 May;137(5):1548-1555. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000002052. PMID: 27119927

Clinical prediction guides

Anolik RA, Allori AC, Pourtaheri N, Rogers GF, Marcus JR
Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 May;137(5):1548-1555. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000002052. PMID: 27119927

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