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Blindness

MedGen UID:
99138
Concept ID:
C0456909
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Legal blindness; Total vision loss
 
HPO: HP:0000618

Definition

Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception defined as visual perception below 3/60 and/or a visual field of no greater than 10 degrees in radius around central fixation. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Ornithine aminotransferase deficiency
MedGen UID:
6695
Concept ID:
C0018425
Disease or Syndrome
Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina (GACR) due to deficiency of ornithine aminotransferase is clinically characterized by a triad of progressive chorioretinal degeneration, early cataract formation, and type II muscle fiber atrophy. Characteristic chorioretinal atrophy with progressive constriction of the visual fields leads to blindness at the latest during the sixth decade of life. Patients generally have normal intelligence (summary by Peltola et al., 2002). See 238970 for another hyperornithinemia syndrome.
Galactosylceramide beta-galactosidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
44131
Concept ID:
C0023521
Disease or Syndrome
Krabbe disease comprises a spectrum ranging from infantile-onset disease (i.e., onset of extreme irritability, spasticity, and developmental delay before age 12 months) to later-onset disease (i.e., onset of manifestations after age 12 months and as late as the seventh decade). Although historically 85%-90% of symptomatic individuals with Krabbe disease diagnosed by enzyme activity alone have infantile-onset Krabbe disease and 10%-15% have later-onset Krabbe disease, the experience with newborn screening (NBS) suggests that the proportion of individuals with possible later-onset Krabbe disease is higher than previously thought. Infantile-onset Krabbe disease is characterized by normal development in the first few months followed by rapid severe neurologic deterioration; the average age of death is 24 months (range 8 months to 9 years). Later-onset Krabbe disease is much more variable in its presentation and disease course.
Sandhoff disease
MedGen UID:
11313
Concept ID:
C0036161
Disease or Syndrome
Sandhoff disease comprises a phenotypic continuum encompassing acute infantile, subacute juvenile, and late-onset disease. Although classification into these phenotypes is somewhat arbitrary, it is helpful in understanding the variation observed in the timing of disease onset, presenting manifestations, rate of progression, and life span. Acute infantile Sandhoff disease (onset age <6 months). Infants are generally normal at birth followed by progressive weakness and slowing of developmental progress, then developmental regression and severe neurologic impairment. Seizures are common. Death usually occurs between ages two and three years. Subacute juvenile Sandhoff disease (onset age 2-5 years). After attaining normal developmental milestones, developmental progress slows, followed by developmental regression and neurologic impairment (abnormal gait, dysarthria, and cognitive decline). Death (usually from aspiration) typically occurs in the early to late teens. Late-onset Sandhoff disease (onset older teen years or young adulthood). Nearly normal psychomotor development is followed by a range of neurologic findings (e.g., weakness, spasticity, dysarthria, and deficits in cerebellar function) and psychiatric findings (e.g., deficits in executive function and memory). Life expectancy is not necessarily decreased.
Tay-Sachs disease
MedGen UID:
11713
Concept ID:
C0039373
Disease or Syndrome
HEXA disorders are best considered as a disease continuum based on the amount of residual beta-hexosaminidase A (HEX A) enzyme activity. This, in turn, depends on the molecular characteristics and biological impact of the HEXA pathogenic variants. HEX A is necessary for degradation of GM2 ganglioside; without well-functioning enzymes, GM2 ganglioside builds up in the lysosomes of brain and nerve cells. The classic clinical phenotype is known as Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), characterized by progressive weakness, loss of motor skills beginning between ages three and six months, decreased visual attentiveness, and increased or exaggerated startle response with a cherry-red spot observable on the retina followed by developmental plateau and loss of skills after eight to ten months. Seizures are common by 12 months with further deterioration in the second year of life and death occurring between ages two and three years with some survival to five to seven years. Subacute juvenile TSD is associated with normal developmental milestones until age two years, when the emergence of abnormal gait or dysarthria is noted followed by loss of previously acquired skills and cognitive decline. Spasticity, dysphagia, and seizures are present by the end of the first decade of life, with death within the second decade of life, usually by aspiration. Late-onset TSD presents in older teens or young adults with a slowly progressive spectrum of neurologic symptoms including lower-extremity weakness with muscle atrophy, dysarthria, incoordination, tremor, mild spasticity and/or dystonia, and psychiatric manifestations including acute psychosis. Clinical variability even among affected members of the same family is observed in both the subacute juvenile and the late-onset TSD phenotypes.
Adrenoleukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
57667
Concept ID:
C0162309
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) affects the nervous system white matter and the adrenal cortex. Three main phenotypes are seen in affected males: The childhood cerebral form manifests most commonly between ages four and eight years. It initially resembles attention-deficit disorder or hyperactivity; progressive impairment of cognition, behavior, vision, hearing, and motor function follow the initial symptoms and often lead to total disability within six months to two years. Most individuals have impaired adrenocortical function at the time that neurologic disturbances are first noted. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) manifests most commonly in an individual in his twenties or middle age as progressive stiffness and weakness of the legs, sphincter disturbances, sexual dysfunction, and often, impaired adrenocortical function; all symptoms are progressive over decades. "Addison disease only" presents with primary adrenocortical insufficiency between age two years and adulthood and most commonly by age 7.5 years, without evidence of neurologic abnormality; however, some degree of neurologic disability (most commonly AMN) usually develops by middle age. More than 20% of female carriers develop mild-to-moderate spastic paraparesis in middle age or later. Adrenal function is usually normal.
Spongy degeneration of central nervous system
MedGen UID:
61565
Concept ID:
C0206307
Disease or Syndrome
Most individuals with Canavan disease have the neonatal/infantile form. Although such infants appear normal early in life, by age three to five months, hypotonia, head lag, macrocephaly, and developmental delays become apparent. With age, children with neonatal/infantile-onset Canavan disease often become irritable and experience sleep disturbance, seizures, and feeding difficulties. Swallowing deteriorates, and some children require nasogastric feeding or permanent feeding gastrostomies. Joint stiffness increases, so that these children resemble individuals with cerebral palsy. Children with mild/juvenile Canavan disease may have normal or mildly delayed speech or motor development early in life without regression. In spite of developmental delay most of these children can be educated in typical classroom settings and may benefit from speech therapy or tutoring as needed. Most children with mild forms of Canavan disease have normal head size, although macrocephaly, retinitis pigmentosa, and seizures have been reported in a few individuals.
Abortive cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
66358
Concept ID:
C0221061
Disease or Syndrome
'Behr syndrome' is a clinical term that refers to the constellation of early-onset optic atrophy accompanied by neurologic features, including ataxia, pyramidal signs, spasticity, and mental retardation (Behr, 1909; Thomas et al., 1984). Patients with mutations in genes other than OPA1 can present with clinical features reminiscent of Behr syndrome. Mutations in one of these genes, OPA3 (606580), result in type III 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (MGCA3; 258501). Lerman-Sagie (1995) noted that the abnormal urinary pattern in MGCA3 may not be picked up by routine organic acid analysis, suggesting that early reports of Behr syndrome with normal metabolic features may actually have been 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III.
McCune-Albright syndrome
MedGen UID:
69164
Concept ID:
C0242292
Disease or Syndrome
Fibrous dysplasia / McCune-Albright syndrome (FD/MAS), the result of an early embryonic postzygotic somatic activating pathogenic variant in GNAS (encoding the cAMP pathway-associated G-protein, Gsa), is characterized by involvement of the skin, skeleton, and certain endocrine organs. However, because Gsa signaling is ubiquitous, additional tissues may be affected. Café au lait skin macules are common and are usually the first manifestation of the disease, apparent at or shortly after birth. Fibrous dysplasia (FD), which can involve any part and combination of the craniofacial, axial, and/or appendicular skeleton, can range from an isolated, asymptomatic monostotic lesion discovered incidentally to severe disabling polyostotic disease involving practically the entire skeleton and leading to progressive scoliosis, facial deformity, and loss of mobility, vision, and/or hearing. Endocrinopathies include: Gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty resulting from recurrent ovarian cysts in girls and autonomous testosterone production in boys; Testicular lesions with or without associated gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty; Thyroid lesions with or without non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism; Growth hormone excess; FGF23-mediated phosphate wasting with or without hypophosphatemia in association with fibrous dysplasia; and Neonatal hypercortisolism. The prognosis for individuals with FD/MAS is based on disease location and severity.
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy
MedGen UID:
66167
Concept ID:
C0242852
Disease or Syndrome
Vitreoretinal membrane shrinkage or contraction secondary to the proliferation of primarily retinal pigment epithelial cells and glial cells, particularly fibrous astrocytes, followed by membrane formation. The formation of fibrillar collagen and cellular proliferation appear to be the basis for the contractile properties of the epiretinal and vitreous membranes.
Autosomal dominant keratitis-ichthyosis-hearing loss syndrome
MedGen UID:
120536
Concept ID:
C0265336
Disease or Syndrome
Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare ectodermal dysplasia characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, photophobia and corneal vascularization, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, erythrokeratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, and recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. A subset of patients with KID may develop multiple cystic pilar tumors, which are prone to malignant transformation and metastasis (Nyquist et al., 2007). Vohwinkel syndrome (124500) is an allelic disorder involving congenital deafness with keratopachydermia and constrictions of fingers and toes. Another similar disorder caused by mutation in GJB2 is palmoplantar keratoderma with deafness (148350). Genetic Heterogeneity of Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness Syndrome An autosomal recessive form of KID syndrome (KIDAR; 242150) is caused by mutation in the AP1B1 gene (600157) on chromosome 22q12.
Atrophia bulborum hereditaria
MedGen UID:
75615
Concept ID:
C0266526
Congenital Abnormality
Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by very early childhood blindness due to degenerative and proliferative changes of the neuroretina. Approximately 50% of patients show some form of progressive mental disorder, often with psychotic features, and about one-third of patients develop sensorineural deafness in the second decade. In addition, some patients have more complex phenotypes, including growth failure and seizures (Berger et al., 1992). Warburg (1966) noted confusion of the terms 'pseudoglioma' and microphthalmia with Norrie disease in the literature. 'Pseudoglioma' is a nonspecific term for any condition resembling retinoblastoma and can have diverse causes, including inflammation, hemorrhage, trauma, neoplasia, or congenital malformation, and often shows unilateral involvement. Thus, 'pseudoglioma' is not an acceptable clinical or pathologic diagnosis (Duke-Elder, 1958).
Tay-Sachs disease, variant AB
MedGen UID:
78657
Concept ID:
C0268275
Disease or Syndrome
Acute infantile GM2 activator deficiency is a neurodegenerative disorder in which infants, who are generally normal at birth, have progressive weakness and slowing of developmental progress between ages four and 12 months. An ensuing developmental plateau is followed by progressively rapid developmental regression. By the second year of life decerebrate posturing, difficulty in swallowing, and worsening seizures lead to an unresponsive vegetative state. Death usually occurs between ages two and three years.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliotic type 1
MedGen UID:
75672
Concept ID:
C0268342
Disease or Syndrome
PLOD1-related kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (kEDS) is an autosomal recessive generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by hypotonia, early-onset kyphoscoliosis, and generalized joint hypermobility in association with skin fragility and ocular abnormality. Intelligence is normal. Life span may be normal, but affected individuals are at risk for rupture of medium-sized arteries. Adults with severe kyphoscoliosis are at risk for complications from restrictive lung disease, recurrent pneumonia, and cardiac failure.
Alstrom syndrome
MedGen UID:
78675
Concept ID:
C0268425
Disease or Syndrome
Alström syndrome is characterized by cone-rod dystrophy, obesity, progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, acute infantile-onset cardiomyopathy and/or adolescent- or adult-onset restrictive cardiomyopathy, insulin resistance / type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and chronic progressive kidney disease. Cone-rod dystrophy presents as progressive visual impairment, photophobia, and nystagmus usually starting between birth and age 15 months. Many individuals lose all perception of light by the end of the second decade, but a minority retain the ability to read large print into the third decade. Children usually have normal birth weight but develop truncal obesity during their first year. Sensorineural hearing loss presents in the first decade in as many as 70% of individuals and may progress to the severe or moderately severe range (40-70 db) by the end of the first to second decade. Insulin resistance is typically accompanied by the skin changes of acanthosis nigricans, and proceeds to T2DM in the majority by the third decade. Nearly all demonstrate hypertriglyceridemia. Other findings can include endocrine abnormalities (hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in males, and hyperandrogenism in females), urologic dysfunction / detrusor instability, progressive decrease in renal function, and hepatic disease (ranging from elevated transaminases to steatohepatitis/NAFLD). Approximately 20% of affected individuals have delay in early developmental milestones, most commonly in gross and fine motor skills. About 30% have a learning disability. Cognitive impairment (IQ <70) is very rare. Wide clinical variability is observed among affected individuals, even within the same family.
Osteoporosis with pseudoglioma
MedGen UID:
98480
Concept ID:
C0432252
Disease or Syndrome
Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome is a rare condition characterized by severe thinning of the bones (osteoporosis) and eye abnormalities that lead to vision loss. In people with this condition, osteoporosis is usually recognized in early childhood. It is caused by a shortage of minerals, such as calcium, in bones (decreased bone mineral density), which makes the bones brittle and prone to fracture. Affected individuals often have multiple bone fractures, including in the bones that form the spine (vertebrae). Multiple fractures can cause collapse of the affected vertebrae (compressed vertebrae), abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis), short stature, and limb deformities. Decreased bone mineral density can also cause softening or thinning of the skull (craniotabes).\n\nMost affected individuals have impaired vision at birth or by early infancy and are blind by young adulthood. Vision problems are usually caused by one of several eye conditions, grouped together as pseudoglioma, that affect the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina), although other eye conditions have been identified in affected individuals. Pseudogliomas are so named because, on examination, the conditions resemble an eye tumor known as a retinal glioma.\n\nRarely, people with osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome have additional signs or symptoms such as mild intellectual disability, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), abnormally flexible joints, or seizures.
Dysosteosclerosis
MedGen UID:
98150
Concept ID:
C0432262
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic primary bone dysplasia disease characterized by progressive osteosclerosis and platyspondyly.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 3
MedGen UID:
155549
Concept ID:
C0751383
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). The hallmark of CLN3 is the ultrastructural pattern of lipopigment with a 'fingerprint' profile, which can have 3 different appearances: pure within a lysosomal residual body; in conjunction with curvilinear or rectilinear profiles; and as a small component within large membrane-bound lysosomal vacuoles. The combination of fingerprint profiles within lysosomal vacuoles is a regular feature of blood lymphocytes from patients with CLN3 (Mole et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
DOORS syndrome
MedGen UID:
208648
Concept ID:
C0795934
Disease or Syndrome
TBC1D24-related disorders comprise a continuum of features that were originally described as distinct, recognized phenotypes: DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures). Profound sensorineural hearing loss, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, intellectual disability / developmental delay, and seizures. Familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME). Early-onset myoclonic seizures, focal epilepsy, dysarthria, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, progressive neurologic decline, and ataxia. Early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy 16 (EIEE16). Epileptiform EEG abnormalities which themselves are believed to contribute to progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNB86. Profound prelingual deafness. Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNA65. Slowly progressive deafness with onset in the third decade, initially affecting the high frequencies.
Severe X-linked intellectual disability, Gustavson type
MedGen UID:
167088
Concept ID:
C0795965
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, X-linked syndromic intellectual disability disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability, microcephaly, post-natal growth retardation, severe visual impairment or blindness (due to optic atrophy), severe hearing defect, spasticity, epileptic seizures, restricted large-joint movements and early death (in infancy or early childhood). Facial dysmorphic features (large dysplastic ears and short broad nose) are additionally observed. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1993.
Microphthalmia, syndromic 1
MedGen UID:
162898
Concept ID:
C0796016
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia-ankyloblepharon-intellectual disability syndrome is characterized by microphthalmia, ankyloblepharon and intellectual deficit. It has been described in seven male patients from two generations of a Northern Ireland family. The causative gene is localized to the Xq27-q28 region. The syndrome is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait.
Renpenning syndrome
MedGen UID:
208670
Concept ID:
C0796135
Disease or Syndrome
Renpenning syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome with clinically recognizable features. Affected individuals have microcephaly, short stature, small testes, and dysmorphic facies, including tall narrow face, upslanting palpebral fissures, abnormal nasal configuration, cupped ears, and short philtrum. The nose may appear long or bulbous, with overhanging columella. Less consistent manifestations include ocular colobomas, cardiac malformations, cleft palate, and anal anomalies. Stevenson et al. (2005) proposed that the various X-linked mental retardation syndromes due to PQBP1 mutations be combined under the name of Renpenning syndrome.
Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia
MedGen UID:
220887
Concept ID:
C1274795
Congenital Abnormality
Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia (HMD) is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by onset in infancy of a panepithelial defect involving the oral, nasal, conjunctival, vaginal, cervical, perineal, urethral, and bladder mucosa. Patients develop cataracts, blindness, nonscarring alopecia, perineal psoriasiform lesions, and follicular keratoses (Witkop et al., 1982). Although 1 family was reported to have progressive severe interstitial lung disease (Witkop et al., 1979), this feature has not been reported in other families and is not considered a criterion for diagnosis. However, the clinical triad of nonscarring alopecia, well-demarcated fiery red mucosa, and psoriasiform perineal involvement has been consistently observed (review by Boralevi et al., 2005).
NARP syndrome
MedGen UID:
231285
Concept ID:
C1328349
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-associated Leigh syndrome and NARP (neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa) are part of a continuum of progressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by abnormalities of mitochondrial energy generation. Leigh syndrome (or subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy) is characterized by onset of symptoms typically between ages three and 12 months, often following a viral infection. Decompensation (often with elevated lactate levels in blood and/or CSF) during an intercurrent illness is typically associated with psychomotor retardation or regression. Neurologic features include hypotonia, spasticity, movement disorders (including chorea), cerebellar ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy. Extraneurologic manifestations may include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. About 50% of affected individuals die by age three years, most often as a result of respiratory or cardiac failure. NARP is characterized by proximal neurogenic muscle weakness with sensory neuropathy, ataxia, and pigmentary retinopathy. Onset of symptoms, particularly ataxia and learning difficulties, is often in early childhood. Individuals with NARP can be relatively stable for many years, but may suffer episodic deterioration, often in association with viral illnesses.
Congenital hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
316921
Concept ID:
C1832162
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis with juvenile macular degeneration (HJMD) is a very rare syndrome characterized by sparse and short hair from birth followed by progressive macular degeneration leading to blindness.
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
316937
Concept ID:
C1832229
Disease or Syndrome
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is a disorder of morphogenesis that results in abnormal development of the anterior segment of the eye, which results in blindness from glaucoma in approximately 50% of affected individuals. Systemic abnormalities, including cardiac and dental anomalies, are associated. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity and nomenclature of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, see RIEG1 (180500).
Cerebellar ataxia-areflexia-pes cavus-optic atrophy-sensorineural hearing loss syndrome
MedGen UID:
318633
Concept ID:
C1832466
Disease or Syndrome
ATP1A3-related neurologic disorders represent a clinical continuum in which at least three distinct phenotypes have been delineated: rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP); alternating hemiplegia of childhood (ACH); and cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS). However, some affected individuals have intermediate phenotypes or only a few features that do not fit well into one of these major phenotypes. RDP has been characterized by: abrupt onset of dystonia over days to weeks with parkinsonism (primarily bradykinesia and postural instability); common bulbar involvement; and absence or minimal response to an adequate trial of L-dopa therapy, with few exceptions. Often fever, physiologic stress, or alcoholic binges trigger the onset of symptoms. After their initial appearance, symptoms often stabilize with little improvement; occasionally second episodes occur with abrupt worsening of symptoms. Rarely, affected individuals have reported a more gradual onset of symptoms over weeks to months. Anxiety, depression, and seizures have been reported. Age of onset ranges from four to 55 years, although a childhood variation of RDP with onset between ages nine and 14 months has been reported. AHC is a complex neurodevelopmental syndrome most frequently manifesting in infancy or early childhood with paroxysmal episodic neurologic dysfunction including alternating hemiparesis or dystonia, quadriparesis, seizure-like episodes, and oculomotor abnormalities. Episodes can last for minutes, hours, days, or even weeks. Remission of symptoms occurs with sleep and immediately after awakening. Over time, persistent neurologic deficits including oculomotor apraxia, ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, parkinsonism, and cognitive and behavioral dysfunction develop in the majority of those affected; more than 50% develop epilepsy in addition to their episodic movement disorder phenotype. CAPOS (cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss) syndrome is characterized by episodes of ataxic encephalopathy and/or weakness during and after a febrile illness. Onset is between ages six months and four years. Some acute symptoms resolve; progression of sensory losses and severity vary.
Ophthalmomandibulomelic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
331604
Concept ID:
C1833872
Disease or Syndrome
Complete blindness due to corneal opacities, difficult mastication due to temporomandibular fusion and anomalies of the arms. Micrognathia, shortening and bowing of the forearm, ulnar deviation and bowed radius, short fibula, genu valgum and coxa vara have been reported. Intelligence is normal. The causative gene has not yet been identified. Autosomal dominant inheritance has been suggested.
Retinitis pigmentosa 27
MedGen UID:
320323
Concept ID:
C1834329
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NRL gene.
MOMO syndrome
MedGen UID:
371897
Concept ID:
C1834759
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare genetic overgrowth/obesity syndrome with characteristics of macrocephaly, obesity, mental (intellectual) disability and ocular abnormalities. Other frequent clinical signs include macrosomia, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, broad nasal root, high and broad forehead and delay in bone maturation, in association with normal thyroid function and karyotype.
Pierson syndrome
MedGen UID:
373199
Concept ID:
C1836876
Disease or Syndrome
Pierson syndrome (PIERS) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising congenital nephrotic syndrome with diffuse mesangial sclerosis and distinct ocular abnormalities, including microcoria and hypoplasia of the ciliary and pupillary muscles, as well as other anomalies. Many patients die early, and those who survive tend to show neurodevelopmental delay and visual loss (summary by Zenker et al., 2004). Mutations in the LAMB2 gene also cause nephrotic syndrome type 5 with or without mild ocular anomalies (NPHS5; 614199).
Posterior column ataxia-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome
MedGen UID:
324636
Concept ID:
C1836916
Disease or Syndrome
Posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by childhood-onset retinitis pigmentosa and later onset of gait ataxia due to sensory loss (summary by Ishiura et al., 2011).
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 7
MedGen UID:
325457
Concept ID:
C1838571
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL, or CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally (summary by Mole et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Retinitis pigmentosa 11
MedGen UID:
325055
Concept ID:
C1838601
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of retinal dystrophies characterized by a progressive degeneration of photoreceptors, eventually resulting in severe visual impairment. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of RP, see 268000.
Wolfram syndrome, mitochondrial form
MedGen UID:
325511
Concept ID:
C1838782
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex I deficiency
MedGen UID:
374101
Concept ID:
C1838979
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated complex I deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism due to mutations in nuclear or mitochondrial genes encoding subunits or assembly factors of the human mitochondrial complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) and is characterized by a wide range of manifestations including marked and often fatal lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy, leukoencephalopathy, pure myopathy and hepatopathy with tubulopathy. Among the numerous clinical phenotypes observed are Leigh syndrome, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and MELAS syndrome (see these terms).
Cataract, congenital, with mental impairment and dentate gyrus atrophy
MedGen UID:
334365
Concept ID:
C1843257
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral sclerosis, diffuse, scholz type
MedGen UID:
335049
Concept ID:
C1844884
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual disability-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome
MedGen UID:
336862
Concept ID:
C1845136
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual disability-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome is characterized by moderate intellectual deficit and severe, early-onset retinitis pigmentosa. It has been described in five males spanning three generations of one family. Some patients also had microcephaly. It is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait.
Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia-blindness-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
338611
Concept ID:
C1849094
Disease or Syndrome
A rare autosomal recessive syndromic cerebellar ataxia with the association of early-onset cerebellar ataxia, hearing loss and blindness. Patients may also present demyelinating peripheral motor neuropathy. Cerebral MRI shows alterations of the cerebellar white matter without cerebellar atrophy.
Ectodermal dysplasia-blindness syndrome
MedGen UID:
340297
Concept ID:
C1849332
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, severe visual impairment due to ocular malformations (microphthalmos and microcornea with sclerocornea), short stature, hypotrichosis, dental anomalies, and dysmorphic facial features (such as a narrow nasal bridge with marked distal flaring and low-set, protruding ears). There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1992.
Retinitis pigmentosa inversa with deafness
MedGen UID:
341447
Concept ID:
C1849405
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 2
MedGen UID:
342420
Concept ID:
C1850126
Disease or Syndrome
Osteopetrosis is a bone disease that makes bone tissue abnormally compact and dense and also prone to breakage (fracture). Researchers have described several major types of osteopetrosis, which are usually distinguished by their pattern of inheritance: autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. The different types of the disorder can also be distinguished by the severity of their signs and symptoms.\n\nAutosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO), which is also called Albers-Schönberg disease, is typically the mildest type of the disorder. Some affected individuals have no symptoms. In affected people with no symptoms, the unusually dense bones may be discovered by accident when an x-ray is done for another reason. \n\nIn individuals with ADO who develop signs and symptoms, the major features of the condition include multiple bone fractures after minor injury, abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis) or other spinal abnormalities, arthritis in the hips, and a bone infection called osteomyelitis. These problems usually become apparent in late childhood or adolescence.\n\nAutosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) is a more severe form of the disorder that becomes apparent in early infancy. Affected individuals have a high risk of bone fracture resulting from seemingly minor bumps and falls. Their abnormally dense skull bones pinch nerves in the head and face (cranial nerves), often resulting in vision loss, hearing loss, and paralysis of facial muscles. Dense bones can also impair the function of bone marrow, preventing it from producing new blood cells and immune system cells. As a result, people with severe osteopetrosis are at risk of abnormal bleeding, a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), and recurrent infections. In the most severe cases, these bone marrow abnormalities can be life-threatening in infancy or early childhood.\n\nA few individuals have been diagnosed with intermediate autosomal osteopetrosis (IAO), a form of the disorder that can have either an autosomal dominant or an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. The signs and symptoms of this condition become noticeable in childhood and include an increased risk of bone fracture and anemia. People with this form of the disorder typically do not have life-threatening bone marrow abnormalities. However, some affected individuals have had abnormal calcium deposits (calcifications) in the brain, intellectual disability, and a form of kidney disease called renal tubular acidosis.\n\nOther features of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis can include slow growth and short stature, dental abnormalities, and an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly). Depending on the genetic changes involved, people with severe osteopetrosis can also have brain abnormalities, intellectual disability, or recurrent seizures (epilepsy).
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 1
MedGen UID:
376708
Concept ID:
C1850127
Disease or Syndrome
Osteopetrosis (OPT) is a life-threatening disease caused by subnormal osteoclast function, with an incidence of 1 in 250,000 births. The disease usually manifests in the first few months of life with macrocephaly and frontal bossing, resulting in a characteristic facial appearance. Defective bone remodeling of the skull results in choanal stenosis with concomitant respiratory problems and feeding difficulties, which are the first clinical manifestation of disease. The expanding bone encroaches on neural foramina, leading to blindness, deafness, and facial palsy. Complete visual loss invariably occurs in all untreated patients, and hearing loss is estimated to affect 78% of patients with OPT. Tooth eruption defects and severe dental caries are common. Calcium feedback hemostasis is impaired, and children with OPT are at risk of developing hypocalcemia with attendant tetanic seizures and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The most severe complication of OPT, limiting survival, is bone marrow insufficiency. The abnormal expansion of cortical and trabecular bone physically limits the availability of medullary space for hematopoietic activity, leading to life-threatening cytopenia and secondary expansion of extramedullary hematopoiesis at sites such as the liver and spleen (summary by Aker et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis Other forms of autosomal recessive infantile malignant osteopetrosis include OPTB4 (611490), which is caused by mutation in the CLCN7 gene (602727) on chromosome 16p13, and OPTB5 (259720), which is caused by mutation in the OSTM1 gene (607649) on chromosome 6q21. A milder, osteoclast-poor form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (OPTB2; 259710) is caused by mutation in the TNFSF11 gene (602642) on chromosome 13q14, an intermediate form (OPTB6; 611497) is caused by mutation in the PLEKHM1 gene (611466) on chromosome 17q21, and a severe osteoclast-poor form associated with hypogammaglobulinemia (OPTB7; 612301) is caused by mutation in the TNFRSF11A gene (603499) on chromosome 18q22. Another form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (OPTB8; 615085) is caused by mutation in the SNX10 gene (614780) on chromosome 7p15. A form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis associated with renal tubular acidosis (OPTB3; 259730) is caused by mutation in the CA2 gene (611492) on chromosome 8q21. OPTB9 (620366) is caused by mutation in the SLC4A2 gene (109280) on chromosome 7q36. Autosomal dominant forms of osteopetrosis are more benign (see OPTA1, 607634).
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 1
MedGen UID:
340540
Concept ID:
C1850451
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The lipopigment pattern seen most often in CLN1 is referred to as granular osmiophilic deposits (GROD). The patterns most often observed in CLN2 and CLN3 are 'curvilinear' and 'fingerprint' profiles, respectively. CLN4, CLN5, CLN6, CLN7, and CLN8 show mixed combinations of granular, curvilinear, fingerprint, and rectilinear profiles. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). Zeman and Dyken (1969) referred to these conditions as the 'neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses.' Goebel (1995) provided a comprehensive review of the NCLs and noted that they are possibly the most common group of neurodegenerative diseases in children. Mole et al. (2005) provided a detailed clinical and genetic review of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Genetic Heterogeneity of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis See also CLN2 (204500), caused by mutation in the TPP1 gene (607998) on chromosome 11p15; CLN3 (204200), caused by mutation in the CLN3 gene (607042) on 16p12; CLN4 (162350), caused by mutation in the DNAJC5 gene (611203) on 20q13; CLN5 (256731), caused by mutation in the CLN5 gene (608102) on 13q22; CLN6A (601780) and CLN6B (204300), both caused by mutation in the CLN6 gene (606725) on 15q21; CLN7 (610951), caused by mutation in the MFSD8 gene (611124) on 4q28; CLN8 (600143) and the Northern epilepsy variant of CLN8 (610003), both caused by mutation in the CLN8 gene (607837) on 8p23; CLN10 (610127), caused by mutation in the CTSD gene (116840) on 11p15; CLN11 (614706), caused by mutation in the GRN gene (138945) on 17q21; CLN13 (615362), caused by mutation in the CTSF gene (603539) on 11q13; and CLN14 (611726), caused by mutation in the KCTD7 gene (611725) on 7q11. CLN9 (609055) has not been molecularly characterized. A disorder that was formerly designated neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-12 (CLN12) is now considered to be a variable form of Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS; 606693).
Musk, inability to smell
MedGen UID:
342594
Concept ID:
C1850807
Disease or Syndrome
Sorsby fundus dystrophy
MedGen UID:
338164
Concept ID:
C1850938
Disease or Syndrome
Sorsby fundus dystrophy is an autosomal dominant retinal dystrophy characterized by the loss of central vision as a result of macular disease by the fourth to fifth decade and peripheral visual loss in late life (summary by Wijesuriya et al., 1996).
Exudative vitreoretinopathy 1
MedGen UID:
343561
Concept ID:
C1851402
Disease or Syndrome
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is an inherited disorder characterized by the incomplete development of the retinal vasculature. Its clinical appearance varies considerably, even within families, with severely affected patients often registered as blind during infancy, whereas mildly affected patients with few or no visual problems may have such a small area of avascularity in their peripheral retina that it is visible only by fluorescein angiography. It is believed that this peripheral avascularity is the primary anomaly in FEVR and results from defective retinal angiogenesis. The sight-threatening features of the FEVR phenotype are considered secondary to retinal avascularity and develop because of the resulting retinal ischemia; they include the development of hyperpermeable blood vessels, neovascularization, vitreoretinal traction, retinal folds, and retinal detachments (summary by Poulter et al., 2010). In 31 Chinese pedigrees clinically diagnosed with FEVR, Rao et al. (2017) analyzed 6 FEVR-associated genes and identified mutations in 12 of the probands, including 5 (16.1%) in LRP5, 3 (9.7%) in NDP, 2 (6.5%) in FZD4, and 1 (3.2%) in TSPAN12. In addition, a mutation in the KIF11 gene (148760) was identified in a patient who also exhibited microcephaly (MCLMR; 152950). The authors noted that their detection rate did not exceed 50%, suggesting that other FEVR-associated genes remained to be discovered. Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy Also see EVR2 (305390), caused by mutation in the NDP gene (300658) on chromosome Xp11; EVR3 (605750), mapped to 11p13-p12; EVR4 (601813), caused by mutations in the LRP5 gene (603506) on 11q13.4; EVR5 (613310), caused by mutation in the TSPAN12 gene (613138) on 7q31; EVR6 (616468), caused by mutation in the ZNF408 gene (616454) on 11p11; and EVR7 (617572), caused by mutation in the CTNNB1 gene (116806) on chromosome 3p22.
Joubert syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
342805
Concept ID:
C1853153
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Retinitis pigmentosa 35
MedGen UID:
339931
Concept ID:
C1853214
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-35 (RP35) is characterized by night blindness with progressive loss of vision. Pigment deposits and narrowing of vasculature are seen in the retina (Abid et al., 2006). Mutation in SEMA4A can also cause a form of cone-rod dystrophy (CORD10; 610283). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Cone-rod dystrophy 8
MedGen UID:
381360
Concept ID:
C1854180
Disease or Syndrome
A cone-rod dystrophy that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 1q12-q24.
Methylcobalamin deficiency type cblG
MedGen UID:
344426
Concept ID:
C1855128
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of intracellular cobalamin metabolism have a variable phenotype and age of onset that are influenced by the severity and location within the pathway of the defect. The prototype and best understood phenotype is cblC; it is also the most common of these disorders. The age of initial presentation of cblC spans a wide range: In utero with fetal presentation of nonimmune hydrops, cardiomyopathy, and intrauterine growth restriction. Newborns, who can have microcephaly, poor feeding, and encephalopathy. Infants, who can have poor feeding and slow growth, neurologic abnormality, and, rarely, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Toddlers, who can have poor growth, progressive microcephaly, cytopenias (including megaloblastic anemia), global developmental delay, encephalopathy, and neurologic signs such as hypotonia and seizures. Adolescents and adults, who can have neuropsychiatric symptoms, progressive cognitive decline, thromboembolic complications, and/or subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.
Joubert syndrome with oculorenal defect
MedGen UID:
340930
Concept ID:
C1855675
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Methylcobalamin deficiency type cblE
MedGen UID:
344640
Concept ID:
C1856057
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of intracellular cobalamin metabolism have a variable phenotype and age of onset that are influenced by the severity and location within the pathway of the defect. The prototype and best understood phenotype is cblC; it is also the most common of these disorders. The age of initial presentation of cblC spans a wide range: In utero with fetal presentation of nonimmune hydrops, cardiomyopathy, and intrauterine growth restriction. Newborns, who can have microcephaly, poor feeding, and encephalopathy. Infants, who can have poor feeding and slow growth, neurologic abnormality, and, rarely, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Toddlers, who can have poor growth, progressive microcephaly, cytopenias (including megaloblastic anemia), global developmental delay, encephalopathy, and neurologic signs such as hypotonia and seizures. Adolescents and adults, who can have neuropsychiatric symptoms, progressive cognitive decline, thromboembolic complications, and/or subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.
Leber congenital amaurosis 4
MedGen UID:
346808
Concept ID:
C1858386
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting rod and cone photoreceptors simultaneously. The most severe cases are termed Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), whereas the less aggressive forms are usually considered juvenile retinitis pigmentosa (Gu et al., 1997). Various intermediate phenotypes between LCA and retinitis pigmentosa are known and are sometimes described as 'early-onset severe rod-cone dystrophy' or 'early-onset retinal degeneration' (Booij et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Leber congenital amaurosis, see LCA1 (204000); for retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000; for cone-rod dystrophy, see 120970.
Amyloidosis of gingiva and conjunctiva, with intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
347240
Concept ID:
C1859815
Disease or Syndrome
Leber congenital amaurosis 2
MedGen UID:
348473
Concept ID:
C1859844
Disease or Syndrome
RPE65-related Leber congenital amaurosis / early-onset severe retinal dystrophy (RPE65-LCA/EOSRD) is a severe inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) with a typical presentation between birth and age five years. While central vision varies, the hallmark of this disorder is the presence of severe visual impairment with a deceptively preserved retinal structure. Vision is relatively stable in the first decade of life, but begins to decline in adolescence. Most affected individuals are legally blind (visual acuity 20/200 and/or visual fields extending <20 degrees from fixation) by age 20 years. After age 20 years, visual acuity declines further and by the fourth decade all affected individuals are legally blind and many have complete loss of vision (i.e., no light perception). Milder disease phenotypes have been described in individuals with hypomorphic alleles.
Cataract 11 multiple types
MedGen UID:
351162
Concept ID:
C1864567
Disease or Syndrome
Mutations in the PITX3 gene have been found to cause multiple types of cataract, which have been described as congenital total and posterior polar. The preferred title/symbol for this entry was formerly 'Cataract, Posterior Polar, 4; CTPP4.'
Microphthalmia with brain and digit anomalies
MedGen UID:
355268
Concept ID:
C1864689
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of anophthalmia or microphthalmia, retinal dystrophy, and/or myopia, associated in some cases with cerebral anomalies. It has been described in two families. Polydactyly may also be present. Linkage analysis allowed identification of mutations in the BMP4 gene, which has already been shown to play a role in eye development.
Migraine, familial hemiplegic, 3
MedGen UID:
400655
Concept ID:
C1864987
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) falls within the category of migraine with aura. In migraine with aura (including FHM) the neurologic symptoms of aura are unequivocally localizable to the cerebral cortex or brain stem and include visual disturbance (most common), sensory loss (e.g., numbness or paresthesias of the face or an extremity), and dysphasia (difficulty with speech). FHM must include motor involvement, such as hemiparesis (weakness of an extremity). Hemiparesis occurs with at least one other symptom during FHM aura. Neurologic deficits with FHM attacks can be prolonged for hours to days and may outlast the associated migrainous headache. FHM is often earlier in onset than typical migraine, frequently beginning in the first or second decade; the frequency of attacks tends to decrease with age. Approximately 40%-50% of families with CACNA1A-FHM have cerebellar signs ranging from nystagmus to progressive, usually late-onset mild ataxia.
Exudative vitreoretinopathy 4
MedGen UID:
356171
Concept ID:
C1866176
Disease or Syndrome
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is an inherited disorder characterized by the incomplete development of the retinal vasculature. Its clinical appearance varies considerably, even within families, with severely affected patients often registered as blind during infancy, whereas mildly affected patients with few or no visual problems may have such a small area of avascularity in their peripheral retina that it is visible only by fluorescein angiography. It is believed that this peripheral avascularity is the primary anomaly in FEVR and results from defective retinal angiogenesis. The sight-threatening features of the FEVR phenotype are considered secondary to retinal avascularity and develop because of the resulting retinal ischemia; they include the development of hyperpermeable blood vessels, neovascularization, vitreoretinal traction, retinal folds, and retinal detachments (summary by Poulter et al., 2010). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, see EVR1 (133780).
Dominant pericentral pigmentary retinopathy
MedGen UID:
357237
Concept ID:
C1867261
Disease or Syndrome
A retinitis pigmentosa that is characterized pigmentary retinal degeneration with onset in the teens leading to blindness in the sixth ans seventh decades of life.
Weill-Marchesani syndrome 2, dominant
MedGen UID:
358388
Concept ID:
C1869115
Disease or Syndrome
Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by abnormalities of the lens of the eye, short stature, brachydactyly, joint stiffness, and cardiovascular defects. The ocular problems, typically recognized in childhood, include microspherophakia (small spherical lens), myopia secondary to the abnormal shape of the lens, ectopia lentis (abnormal position of the lens), and glaucoma, which can lead to blindness. Height of adult males is 142-169 cm; height of adult females is 130-157 cm. Autosomal recessive WMS cannot be distinguished from autosomal dominant WMS by clinical findings alone.
Temporal arteritis
MedGen UID:
365495
Concept ID:
C1956391
Disease or Syndrome
A rare large vessel vasculitis (LVV) characterized by vasculitis predominantly involving the arteries originating from the aortic arch and the extracranial branches of the carotid arteries. Clinical manifestations are variable, the predominant cranial phenotype is characterized by headache, jaw claudication, scalp tenderness and visual symptoms and the predominant LVV type by constitutional symptoms, polymyalgia rheumatica and occasionally limb ischemia. Overlaps between these two phenotypes are common.
Plasminogen deficiency, type I
MedGen UID:
369859
Concept ID:
C1968804
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital plasminogen deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by chronic mucosal pseudomembranous lesions consisting of subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common clinical manifestation is ligneous ('wood-like') conjunctivitis, a redness and subsequent formation of pseudomembranes mostly on the palpebral surfaces of the eye that progress to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency that replace the normal mucosa. The lesions may be triggered by local injury and/or infection and often recur after local excision. Pseudomembranous lesions of other mucous membranes often occur in the mouth, nasopharynx, trachea, and female genital tract. Some affected children also have congenital occlusive hydrocephalus. A slightly increased female:male ratio has been observed (1.4:1 to 2:1) (Schuster and Seregard, 2003; Tefs et al., 2006). Type I plasminogen deficiency is characterized by decreased serum plasminogen activity, decreased plasminogen antigen levels, and clinical symptoms, whereas type II plasminogen deficiency, also known as 'dysplasminogenemia,' is characterized by decreased plasminogen activity with normal or slightly reduced antigen levels. Patients with type II deficiency are usually asymptomatic. Ligneous conjunctivitis and pseudomembranous formation has only been associated with type I plasminogen deficiency. Presumably, normal amounts of plasminogen antigen with decreased activity, as seen in type II, is sufficient for normal wound healing (Schuster and Seregard, 2003).
XFE progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
410064
Concept ID:
C1970416
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive condition caused by mutation(s) in the ERCC4 gene, encoding DNA repair endonuclease XPF. it is characterized by characterized by cutaneous photosensitivity and progeroid features in multiple organ systems.
Stickler syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
810955
Concept ID:
C2020284
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Retinitis pigmentosa 29
MedGen UID:
393710
Concept ID:
C2677325
Disease or Syndrome
A retinitis pigmentosa that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 4q32-q34.
Nephropathic cystinosis
MedGen UID:
419735
Concept ID:
C2931187
Disease or Syndrome
Cystinosis comprises three allelic phenotypes: Nephropathic cystinosis in untreated children is characterized by renal Fanconi syndrome, poor growth, hypophosphatemic/calcipenic rickets, impaired glomerular function resulting in complete glomerular failure, and accumulation of cystine in almost all cells, leading to cellular dysfunction with tissue and organ impairment. The typical untreated child has short stature, rickets, and photophobia. Failure to thrive is generally noticed after approximately age six months; signs of renal tubular Fanconi syndrome (polyuria, polydipsia, dehydration, and acidosis) appear as early as age six months; corneal crystals can be present before age one year and are always present after age 16 months. Prior to the use of renal transplantation and cystine-depleting therapy, the life span in nephropathic cystinosis was no longer than ten years. With these interventions, affected individuals can survive at least into the mid-forties or fifties with satisfactory quality of life. Intermediate cystinosis is characterized by all the typical manifestations of nephropathic cystinosis, but onset is at a later age. Renal glomerular failure occurs in all untreated affected individuals, usually between ages 15 and 25 years. The non-nephropathic (ocular) form of cystinosis is characterized clinically only by photophobia resulting from corneal cystine crystal accumulation.
Leber congenital amaurosis 1
MedGen UID:
419026
Concept ID:
C2931258
Disease or Syndrome
Leber congenital amaurosis, also known as LCA, is an eye disorder that is present from birth (congenital). This condition primarily affects the retina, which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this disorder typically have severe visual impairment beginning at birth or shortly afterward. The visual impairment tends to be severe and may worsen over time.\n\nLeber congenital amaurosis is also associated with other vision problems, including an increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus), and extreme farsightedness (hyperopia). The pupils, which usually expand and contract in response to the amount of light entering the eye, do not react normally to light. Instead, they expand and contract more slowly than normal, or they may not respond to light at all.\n\nAt least 20 genetic types of Leber congenital amaurosis have been described. The types are distinguished by their genetic cause, patterns of vision loss, and related eye abnormalities.\n\nA specific behavior called Franceschetti's oculo-digital sign is characteristic of Leber congenital amaurosis. This sign consists of affected individuals poking, pressing, and rubbing their eyes with a knuckle or finger. Poking their eyes often results in the sensation of flashes of light called phosphenes. Researchers suspect that this behavior may contribute to deep-set eyes in affected children.\n\nIn very rare cases, delayed development and intellectual disability have been reported in people with the features of Leber congenital amaurosis. Because of the visual loss, affected children may become isolated. Providing children with opportunities to play, hear, touch, understand and other early educational interventions may prevent developmental delays in children with Leber congenital amaurosis.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
419514
Concept ID:
C2931875
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Retinitis pigmentosa 4
MedGen UID:
462351
Concept ID:
C3151001
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RHO gene.
Proximal tubulopathy-diabetes mellitus-cerebellar ataxia syndrome
MedGen UID:
463309
Concept ID:
C3151959
Disease or Syndrome
Proximal tubulopathy-diabetes mellitus-cerebellar ataxia syndrome is characterized by onset of proximal tubulopathy in the first year of life, followed by progressive development during childhood of skin anomalies (erythrocyanosis and abnormal pigmentation), blindness, osteoporosis, cerebellar ataxia, mitochondrial myopathy, deafness and diabetes mellitus.
Thrombophilia due to protein S deficiency, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
482722
Concept ID:
C3281092
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive thrombophilia due to protein S deficiency is a very rare and severe hematologic disorder resulting in thrombosis and secondary hemorrhage usually beginning in early infancy. Some affected individuals develop neonatal purpura fulminans, multifocal thrombosis, or intracranial hemorrhage (Pung-amritt et al., 1999; Fischer et al., 2010), whereas others have recurrent thromboses later in childhood (Comp et al., 1984). See also autosomal dominant thrombophilia due to protein S deficiency (THPH5; 612336), a less severe disorder caused by heterozygous mutation in the PROS1 gene.
Cone-rod dystrophy 2
MedGen UID:
483485
Concept ID:
C3489532
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy (CORD) characteristically leads to early impairment of vision. An initial loss of color vision and of visual acuity is followed by nyctalopia (night blindness) and loss of peripheral visual fields. In extreme cases, these progressive symptoms are accompanied by widespread, advancing retinal pigmentation and chorioretinal atrophy of the central and peripheral retina (Moore, 1992). In many families, perhaps a majority, central and peripheral chorioretinal atrophy is not found (Tzekov, 1998). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Cone-Rod Dystrophy There are several other autosomal forms of CORD for which the molecular basis is known. CORD3 (604116) is caused by mutation in the ABCA4 gene (601691) on chromosome 1p22. CORD5 (600977) is caused by mutation in the PITPNM3 gene (608921) on chromosome 17p13. CORD6 (601777) is caused by mutation in the GUCY2D gene (600179) on chromosome 17p13.1. CORD9 (612775) is caused by mutation in the ADAM9 gene (602713) on chromosome 8p11. CORD10 (610283) is caused by mutation in the SEMA4A gene (607292) on chromosome 1q22. CORD11 (610381) is caused by mutation in the RAXL1 gene (610362) on chromosome 19p13. CORD12 (612657) is caused by mutation in the PROM1 gene (604365) on chromosome 4p15. CORD13 (608194) is caused by mutation in the RPGRIP1 gene (605446) on chromosome 14q11. CORD14 (see 602093) is caused by mutation in the GUCA1A gene (600364) on chromosome 6p21. CORD15 (613660) is caused by mutation in the CDHR1 gene (609502) on chromosome 10q23. CORD16 (614500) is caused by mutation in the C8ORF37 gene (614477) on chromosome 8q22. CORD18 (615374) is caused by mutation in the RAB28 gene (612994) on chromosome 4p15. CORD19 (615860) is caused by mutation in the TTLL5 gene (612268) on chromosome 14q24. CORD20 (615973) is caused by mutation in the POC1B gene (614784) on chromosome 12q21. CORD21 (616502) is caused by mutation in the DRAM2 gene (613360) on chromosome 1p13. CORD22 (619531) is caused by mutation in the TLCD3B gene (615175) on chromosome 16p11. CORD23 (see 613428) is caused by mutation in the C2ORF71 gene (PCARE; 613425) on chromosome 2p23. CORD24 (620342) is caused by mutation in the UNC119 gene (604011) on chromosome 17q11. A diagnosis of CORD was made in an individual with a mutation in the AIPL1 gene (604392.0004) on chromosome 17p13.1, as well as in an individual with a mutation in the UNC119 gene (604011.0001) on chromosome 17q11.2. Other mapped loci for autosomal CORD include CORD1 (600624) on chromosome 18q21.1-q21.3; CORD7 (603649) on chromosome 6q14; CORD8 (605549) on chromosome 1q12-q24; and CORD17 (615163) on chromosome 10q26. For a discussion of X-linked forms of cone-rod dystrophy, see CORDX1 (304020).
Nephronophthisis 15
MedGen UID:
762112
Concept ID:
C3541853
Disease or Syndrome
The nephronophthisis (NPH) phenotype is characterized by reduced renal concentrating ability, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease, and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before age 30 years. Three age-based clinical subtypes are recognized: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent/adult. Infantile NPH can present in utero with oligohydramnios sequence (limb contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, and facial dysmorphisms) or postnatally with renal manifestations that progress to ESRD before age 3 years. Juvenile NPH, the most prevalent subtype, typically presents with polydipsia and polyuria, growth retardation, chronic iron-resistant anemia, or other findings related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is typically absent due to salt wasting. ESRD develops at a median age of 13 years. Ultrasound findings are increased echogenicity, reduced corticomedullary differentiation, and renal cysts (in 50% of affected individuals). Histologic findings include tubulointerstitial fibrosis, thickened and disrupted tubular basement membrane, sporadic corticomedullary cysts, and normal or reduced kidney size. Adolescent/adult NPH is clinically similar to juvenile NPH, but ESRD develops at a median age of 19 years. Within a subtype, inter- and intrafamilial variability in rate of progression to ESRD is considerable. Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with the NPH phenotype have no extrarenal features (i.e., they have isolated NPH); ~10%-20% have extrarenal manifestations that constitute a recognizable syndrome (e.g., Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Jeune syndrome and related skeletal disorders, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Senior-Løken syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, COACH syndrome, and oculomotor apraxia, Cogan type).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type a, 11
MedGen UID:
767552
Concept ID:
C3554638
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is an autosomal recessive disorder with congenital muscular dystrophy resulting in muscle weakness early in life and brain and eye anomalies. It is usually associated with delayed psychomotor development and shortened life expectancy. The phenotype includes the alternative clinical designations Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB). The disorder represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (summary by Stevens et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A13
MedGen UID:
815372
Concept ID:
C3809042
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is a autosomal recessive disorder associated with severe neurologic defects and resulting in early infantile death. The phenotype includes the alternative clinical designations Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB). The disorder represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as dystroglycanopathies (summary by Buysse et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670).
Congenital microcephaly - severe encephalopathy - progressive cerebral atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
816301
Concept ID:
C3809971
Disease or Syndrome
Asparagine synthetase deficiency (ASD) mainly presents as a triad of congenital microcephaly, severe developmental delay, and axial hypotonia followed by spastic quadriplegia. Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) asparagine level can help the clinician in differentiating this disorder from others. In most cases age of onset of apnea, excessive irritability, and seizures is soon after birth. Affected individuals typically do not acquire any developmental milestones. Spastic quadriplegia can lead to severe contractures of the limbs and neurogenic scoliosis. Feeding difficulties (gastroesophageal reflux disease, frequent vomiting, swallowing dysfunction, and gastroesophageal incoordination) are a significant problem in most affected individuals. A majority have cortical blindness. MRI findings are nonspecific but may include generalized atrophy and simplified gyral pattern.
Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy
MedGen UID:
854768
Concept ID:
C3888099
Disease or Syndrome
Bestrophinopathies, the spectrum of ophthalmic disorders caused by pathogenic variants in BEST1, are typically characterized by retinal degeneration. The four recognized phenotypes are the three autosomal dominant disorders: Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD), BEST1 adult-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy (AVMD), and autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC); and autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB). Onset is usually in the first decade (except AVMD in which onset is age 30 to 50 years). Slow visual deterioration is the usual course. Choroidal neovascularization can occur in rare cases. ADVIRC is also associated with panophthalmic involvement including nanophthalmos, microcornea, hyperopia, and narrow anterior chamber angle with angle closure glaucoma.
Megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
861164
Concept ID:
C4012727
Disease or Syndrome
MPPH (megalencephaly-postaxial polydactyly-polymicrogyria-hydrocephalus) syndrome is a developmental brain disorder characterized by megalencephaly (brain overgrowth) with the cortical malformation bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (BPP). At birth the occipital frontal circumference (OFC) ranges from normal to 6 standard deviations (SD) above the mean for age, sex, and gestational age; in older individuals the range is from 3 to 10 SD above the mean. A variable degree of ventriculomegaly is seen in almost all children with MPPH syndrome; nearly 50% of individuals have frank hydrocephalus. Neurologic problems associated with BPP include oromotor dysfunction (100%), epilepsy (50%), and mild-to-severe intellectual disability (100%). Postaxial hexadactyly occurs in 50% of individuals with MPPH syndrome.
Webb-Dattani syndrome
MedGen UID:
863145
Concept ID:
C4014708
Disease or Syndrome
Webb-Dattani syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by frontotemporal hypoplasia, globally delayed development, and pituitary and hypothalamic insufficiency due to hypoplastic development of these brain regions. Patients present soon after birth with multiple pituitary hormonal deficiencies and subsequently develop microcephaly, seizures, and spasticity. Other features include postretinal blindness and renal abnormalities (summary by Webb et al., 2013).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A1
MedGen UID:
924974
Concept ID:
C4284790
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and early death. The phenotype commonly includes cobblestone (type II) lissencephaly, cerebellar malformations, and retinal malformations. More variable features include macrocephaly or microcephaly, hypoplasia of midline brain structures, ventricular dilatation, microphthalmia, cleft lip/palate, and congenital contractures (Dobyns et al., 1989). Those with a more severe phenotype characterized as Walker-Warburg syndrome often die within the first year of life, whereas those characterized as having muscle-eye-brain disease may rarely acquire the ability to walk and to speak a few words. These are part of a group of disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of DAG1 (128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Godfrey et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy-Dystroglycanopathy with Brain and Eye Anomalies (Type A) Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by mutation in other genes involved in DAG1 glycosylation: see MDDGA2 (613150), caused by mutation in the POMT2 gene (607439); MDDGA3 (253280), caused by mutation in the POMGNT1 gene (606822); MDDGA4 (253800), caused by mutation in the FKTN gene (607440); MDDGA5 (613153), caused by mutation in the FKRP gene (606596); MDDGA6 (613154), caused by mutation in the LARGE gene (603590); MDDGA7 (614643), caused by mutation in the ISPD gene (CRPPA; 614631); MDDGA8 (614830) caused by mutation in the GTDC2 gene (POMGNT2; 614828); MDDGA9 (616538), caused by mutation in the DAG1 gene (128239); MDDGA10 (615041), caused by mutation in the TMEM5 gene (RXYLT1; 605862); MDDGA11 (615181), caused by mutation in the B3GALNT2 gene (610194); MDDGA12 (615249), caused by mutation in the SGK196 gene (POMK; 615247); MDDGA13 (615287), caused by mutation in the B3GNT1 gene (B4GAT1; 605517); and MDDGA14 (615350), caused by mutation in the GMPPB gene (615320).
Bardet-biedl syndrome 21
MedGen UID:
1374358
Concept ID:
C4319932
Disease or Syndrome
BBS21 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by obesity, postaxial polydactyly, retinal degeneration, and mild cognitive impairment (Heon et al., 2016; Khan et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Retinitis pigmentosa 80
MedGen UID:
1619674
Concept ID:
C4540439
Disease or Syndrome
Fraser syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639061
Concept ID:
C4551480
Disease or Syndrome
Fraser syndrome is an autosomal recessive malformation disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, and abnormalities of the respiratory and urogenital tract (summary by van Haelst et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Fraser Syndrome Fraser syndrome-2 (FRASRS2) is caused by mutation in the FREM2 gene (608945) on chromosome 13q13, and Fraser syndrome-3 (FRASRS3; 617667) is caused by mutation in the GRIP1 gene (604597) on chromosome 12q14. See Bowen syndrome (211200) for a comparable but probably distinct syndrome of multiple congenital malformations.
Weill-Marchesani syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1637058
Concept ID:
C4552002
Disease or Syndrome
Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by abnormalities of the lens of the eye, short stature, brachydactyly, joint stiffness, and cardiovascular defects. The ocular problems, typically recognized in childhood, include microspherophakia (small spherical lens), myopia secondary to the abnormal shape of the lens, ectopia lentis (abnormal position of the lens), and glaucoma, which can lead to blindness. Height of adult males is 142-169 cm; height of adult females is 130-157 cm. Autosomal recessive WMS cannot be distinguished from autosomal dominant WMS by clinical findings alone.
Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts 1
MedGen UID:
1636142
Concept ID:
C4552029
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 14
MedGen UID:
1635255
Concept ID:
C4693535
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-14 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hypotonia, almost complete lack of motor or cognitive skills, and absent language development. Additional features include spasticity and intractable seizures; many patients also have perceptive hearing loss and/or blindness. Most patients require tube feeding or ventilatory support, and most die in the first years of life. Brain imaging shows hypomyelination, small caudate and putamen, and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy (summary by Hamilton et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, see 312080.
Microcephaly 20, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1641618
Concept ID:
C4693572
Congenital Abnormality
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 4
MedGen UID:
1648324
Concept ID:
C4748753
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1675629
Concept ID:
C5193034
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome-1 (MKHK1) is a congenital disorder characterized by variable impairment of intellectual development and facial dysmorphisms. Feeding difficulties, autistic behavior, recurrent upper airway infections, hearing impairment, short stature, and microcephaly are also frequently seen. Although mutations in the same gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-1 (RSTS1; 180849), patients with MKHK1 do not resemble the striking phenotype of RSTS1. Genetic Heterogeneity of Menke-Hennekam Syndrome Menke-Hennekam syndrome-2 (MKHK2; 618333) is caused by heterozygous mutation in exons 30 or 31 of the EP300 gene (602700). Mutation elsewhere in that gene results in RSTS2 (613684).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with brain anomalies and with or without vertebral or cardiac anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684772
Concept ID:
C5231481
Disease or Syndrome
Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter 1
MedGen UID:
1830482
Concept ID:
C5779972
Disease or Syndrome
Any leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter in which the cause of the disease is a variation in the EIF2B1 gene.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

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Diagnosis

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Therapy

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Clinical prediction guides

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Teo ZL, Tham YC, Yu M, Chee ML, Rim TH, Cheung N, Bikbov MM, Wang YX, Tang Y, Lu Y, Wong IY, Ting DSW, Tan GSW, Jonas JB, Sabanayagam C, Wong TY, Cheng CY
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GBD 2019 Blindness and Vision Impairment Collaborators; Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study
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