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1.

Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum

Fabry disease results from deficient activity of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (a-Gal A) and progressive lysosomal deposition of globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) in cells throughout the body. The classic form, occurring in males with less than 1% a-Gal A enzyme activity, usually has its onset in childhood or adolescence with periodic crises of severe pain in the extremities (acroparesthesia), the appearance of vascular cutaneous lesions (angiokeratomas), sweating abnormalities (anhidrosis, hypohidrosis, and rarely hyperhidrosis), characteristic corneal and lenticular opacities, and proteinuria. Gradual deterioration of renal function to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) usually occurs in men in the third to fifth decade. In middle age, most males successfully treated for ESRD develop cardiac and/or cerebrovascular disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Heterozygous females typically have milder symptoms at a later age of onset than males. Rarely, they may be relatively asymptomatic throughout a normal life span or may have symptoms as severe as those observed in males with the classic phenotype. In contrast, males with greater than 1% a-Gal A activity may have: (1) a cardiac variant phenotype that usually presents in the sixth to eighth decade with left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, and proteinuria, but without ESRD; or (2) a renal variant phenotype, associated with ESRD but without the skin lesions or pain; or (3) cerebrovascular disease presenting as stroke or transient ischemic attack. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
8083
Concept ID:
C0002986
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy

Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy (CDRB) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the superficial corneal stroma that manifests as recurrent corneal erosions in early childhood. Affected individuals develop corneal opacities that result in significant visual impairment. Microscopically, CDRB may be differentiated from other forms of corneal dystrophy by confluent opacities in the Bowman layer and subepithelium, which are the product of extracellular bodies that stain red with Masson trichrome stain and appear as crystalloid rod-shaped bodies on transmission electron microscopy (summary by Tanhehco et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
83284
Concept ID:
C0339278
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Meesmann corneal dystrophy 1

Meesmann corneal dystrophy-1 (MECD1) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by the presence of multitudinous microcysts within the anterior epithelium on slit lamp examination. The disorder can cause foreign body sensation and photophobia but is often asymptomatic and detected in the course of routine eye examination. Microcysts are evident even in asymptomatic individuals. Rarely, a more severe phenotype with corneal erosions and scarring can lead to significant loss of visual acuity requiring treatment by keratoplasty or corneal grafting. A subtle feature is the presence of gray serpiginous lines within the anterior epithelium (summary by Liao et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Meesmann Corneal Dystrophy MECD2 (618767) is caused by mutation in the KRT3 gene (148043) on chromosome 12q13. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1684668
Concept ID:
C5231499
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Macular corneal dystrophy

Macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which progressive punctate opacities in the cornea result in bilateral loss of vision, eventually necessitating corneal transplantation. MCD is classified into 2 subtypes, type I and type II, defined by the respective absence and presence of sulfated keratan sulfate in the patient serum, although both types have clinically indistinguishable phenotypes (summary by Akama et al., 2000). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
351514
Concept ID:
C1636149
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, X-linked

Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans is an uncommon genodermatosis chiefly characterized by widespread keratosis pilaris, progressive cicatricial alopecia of the scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes, and an excess of affected males. Photophobia, blepharitis/conjunctivitis, and corneal dystrophy are characteristic ancillary findings. It is most often inherited as an X-linked trait (summary by Castori et al., 2009). Autosomal dominant inheritance has also been reported (KFSD; 612843). The term 'cum ophiasi' means 'with ophiasis,' i.e., baldness in 1 or more winding streaks about the head, which comes from the Greek for snake. Decalvans refers to the loss of hair. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
854384
Concept ID:
C3887525
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
6.

Corneal dystrophy-perceptive deafness syndrome

Harboyan syndrome, or corneal dystrophy and perceptive deafness (CDPD), consists of congenital corneal endothelial dystrophy and progressive sensorineural deafness, and is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait (summary by Desir et al., 2007). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
387858
Concept ID:
C1857572
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Schnyder crystalline corneal dystrophy

Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCCD), also known as Schnyder crystalline corneal dystrophy, is an autosomal dominant eye disease characterized by abnormal deposition of cholesterol and phospholipids in the cornea. The consequent corneal opacification is progressive and bilateral, resulting in glare and loss of vision that is postulated to be caused by light scattering. Patients demonstrate a characteristic pattern of corneal opacification dependent on age, and only half have crystalline corneal cholesterol deposits. Patients with noncrystalline disease have a more subtle presentation with only corneal haze, which may be difficult to diagnose (summary by Nickerson et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
124391
Concept ID:
C0271287
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Corneal dystrophy, posterior polymorphous, 2

Any posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the COL8A2 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
377757
Concept ID:
C1852795
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Thiel-Behnke corneal dystrophy

Thiel-Behnke corneal dystrophy (CDTB) is characterized by progressive honeycomb-like, subepithelial corneal opacities with recurrent erosions (Thiel and Behnke, 1967). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
287070
Concept ID:
C1562894
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Corneal epithelial dystrophy

Epithelial basement membrane corneal dystrophy (EBMD) is a common bilateral epithelial dystrophy characterized mainly by sheet-like areas of basement membrane originating from the basal epithelial cells of the corneal epithelium and extending superficially into the epithelium. Slit lamp examination may reveal dots, maps, grayish epithelial fingerprint lines, blebs, nets, or any combination of these patterns. Histologic analysis shows abnormal redundant basement membrane and intraepithelial lacunae filled with cellular debris. Most patients are asymptomatic before the age of 30 years; some may have recurrent erosions, the frequency of which declines with age, and a loss of vision due to surface irregularity (summary by Boutboul et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
99275
Concept ID:
C0521723
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy 3

Any posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ZEB1 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
322978
Concept ID:
C1836724
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Corneal dystrophy, Fuchs endothelial 1

Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a progressive, bilateral condition characterized by dysfunction of the corneal epithelium, leading to reduced vision. The prevalence of FECD has been estimated at about 5% among persons over the age of 40 years in the United States. The vision loss in patients with FECD results from a loss of corneal transparency associated with irregularity of inner corneal layers in early disease and edema of the cornea in advanced disease. Ultrastructural features of FECD include loss and attenuation of endothelial cells, with thickening and excrescences of the underlying basement membrane. These excrescences, called guttae, are the clinical hallmark of FECD and become more numerous with progression of the disease. As the endothelial layer develops confluent guttae in the central cornea, the cells are no longer able to keep the cornea dehydrated and clear (summary by Baratz et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy More common, late-onset forms of FECD have been shown to be caused by mutation in the SLC4A11 gene (610206) on chromosome 20p13 (FECD4; 613268), in the ZEB1 gene (189909) on chromosome 10p11.2 (FECD6; 613270), and in the AGBL1 gene (615496) on chromosome 15q25 (FECD8; 615523). Other loci for late-onset FECD have been identified on chromosomes 13pter-q12.13 (FECD2; 610158), 18q21.2-q21.32 (FECD3; 613267), 5q33.1-q35.2 (FECD5; 613269), and 9p (FECD7; 613271). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
338172
Concept ID:
C1850959
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Lattice corneal dystrophy Type III

Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe corneal amyloidosis leading to blindness. Clinical manifestations, which appear in the first decade of life, include blurred vision, photophobia, and foreign-body sensation. By the third decade, raised, yellowish-gray, gelatinous masses severely impair visual acuity, and lamellar keratoplasty is required for most patients (summary by Tsujikawa et al., 1999). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
90939
Concept ID:
C0339273
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Corneal dystrophy, Fuchs endothelial, 4

Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the most common genetic disorder of the corneal endothelium. Late-onset FECD is marked by thickening of Descemets membrane and excrescences, called guttae, that typically appear in the fourth or fifth decade. Disease progression results in decreased visual acuity as a result of increasing corneal edema, and end-stage disease is marked by painful epithelial bullae (summary by Riazuddin et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, see FECD1 (136800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
413309
Concept ID:
C2750450
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Corneal dystrophy, Fuchs endothelial, 6

Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the most common genetic disorder of the corneal endothelium. Late-onset FECD is marked by thickening of Descemets membrane and excrescences, called guttae, that typically appear in the fourth or fifth decade. Disease progression results in decreased visual acuity as a result of increasing corneal edema, and end-stage disease is marked by painful epithelial bullae (summary by Riazuddin et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, see FECD1 (136800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
442478
Concept ID:
C2750448
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Corneal dystrophy, endothelial, X-linked

A rare subtype of posterior corneal dystrophy with characteristics of congenital ground glass corneal clouding or a diffuse corneal haze, and blurred vision in male patients. Prevalence of this rare corneal dystrophy is unknown. Males are affected more severely than females. The condition is progressive in males and non-progressive in females. Has been mapped to the long arm of the X-chromosome (Xq25) but the causative gene has not been identified. Transmission is X-linked recessive. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
413518
Concept ID:
C2749049
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Francois syndrome

Dermochondrocorneal dystrophy, or Francois syndrome, is a rare disorder characterized by the development of skin nodules, acquired deformities of the extremities, and a corneal dystrophy. The corneal dystrophy is central and superficial with whitish subepithelial opacities (summary by Bierly et al., 1992). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
98151
Concept ID:
C0432288
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Corneal dystrophy, Fuchs endothelial, 2

Late-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a degenerative disorder affecting roughly 4% of the population older than 40 years. It is distinguished from other corneal disorders by the progressive formation of guttae, which are microscopic refractile excrescences of the Descemet membrane, a collagen-rich basal lamina secreted by the corneal endothelium. From onset, it usually takes 2 decades for FECD to impair endothelial cell function seriously, leading to stromal edema and impaired vision (Sundin et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, see FECD1 (136800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
347552
Concept ID:
C1857800
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Corneal dystrophy, posterior amorphous

A very rare form of stromal corneal dystrophy with characteristics of irregular amorphous sheet-like opacities in the posterior corneal stroma and in the Descemet membrane along with mildly impaired vision. Prevalence of this form of corneal dystrophy is not known. To date cases have been reported primarily in the USA. Patients usually develop corneal abnormalities in infancy or childhood. The condition is non-progressive or slowly progressive. Unlike other corneal dystrophies, non-corneal manifestations have been observed and include abnormalities of the iris including iridocorneal adhesions, corectopia, and pseudopolycoria. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been reported. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
412567
Concept ID:
C2748502
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Corneal dystrophy, Fuchs endothelial, 8

Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the most common genetic disorder of the corneal endothelium. Late-onset FECD is marked by thickening of Descemets membrane and excrescences, called guttae, that typically appear in the fourth or fifth decade. Disease progression results in decreased visual acuity as a result of increasing corneal edema, and end-stage disease is marked by painful epithelial bullae (summary by Riazuddin et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FECD, see FECD1 (136800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
816128
Concept ID:
C3809798
Disease or Syndrome
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