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1.

Ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome

Classic ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia beginning between ages one and four years, oculomotor apraxia, choreoathetosis, telangiectasias of the conjunctivae, immunodeficiency, frequent infections, and an increased risk for malignancy, particularly leukemia and lymphoma. Individuals with A-T are unusually sensitive to ionizing radiation. Non-classic forms of A-T have included adult-onset A-T and A-T with early-onset dystonia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
439
Concept ID:
C0004135
Disease or Syndrome
2.

PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation

PMM2-CDG, the most common of a group of disorders of abnormal glycosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides, is divided into three clinical stages: infantile multisystem, late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability, and adult stable disability. The clinical manifestations and course are highly variable, ranging from infants who die in the first year of life to mildly affected adults. Clinical findings tend to be similar in sibs. In the infantile multisystem presentation, infants show axial hypotonia, hyporeflexia, esotropia, and developmental delay. Feeding problems, vomiting, faltering growth, and developmental delay are frequently seen. Subcutaneous fat may be excessive over the buttocks and suprapubic region. Two distinct clinical courses are observed: (1) a nonfatal neurologic course with faltering growth, strabismus, developmental delay, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hepatopathy in infancy followed by neuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa in the first or second decade; and (2) a more severe neurologic-multivisceral course with approximately 20% mortality in the first year of life. The late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability stage, which begins between ages three and ten years, is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, severely delayed language and motor development, inability to walk, and IQ of 40 to 70; other findings include seizures, stroke-like episodes or transient unilateral loss of function, coagulopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, joint contractures, and skeletal deformities. In the adult stable disability stage, intellectual ability is stable; peripheral neuropathy is variable, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and myopia are seen, thoracic and spinal deformities with osteoporosis worsen, and premature aging is observed; females may lack secondary sexual development and males may exhibit decreased testicular volume. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and coagulopathy may occur. The risk for deep venous thrombosis is increased. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
138111
Concept ID:
C0349653
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Friedreich ataxia 1

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is characterized by slowly progressive ataxia with onset usually before age 25 years (mean age at onset: 10-15 yrs). FRDA is typically associated with dysarthria, muscle weakness, spasticity particularly in the lower limbs, scoliosis, bladder dysfunction, absent lower-limb reflexes, and loss of position and vibration sense. Approximately two thirds of individuals with FRDA have cardiomyopathy, up to 30% have diabetes mellitus, and approximately 25% have an "atypical" presentation with later onset or retained tendon reflexes. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
383962
Concept ID:
C1856689
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome

FMR1 disorders include fragile X syndrome (FXS), fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function variant and is nearly always characterized in affected males by developmental delay and intellectual disability along with a variety of behavioral issues. Autism spectrum disorder is present in 50%-70% of individuals with FXS. Affected males may have characteristic craniofacial features (which become more obvious with age) and medical problems including hypotonia, gastroesophageal reflux, strabismus, seizures, sleep disorders, joint laxity, pes planus, scoliosis, and recurrent otitis media. Adults may have mitral valve prolapse or aortic root dilatation. The physical and behavioral features seen in males with FXS have been reported in females heterozygous for the FMR1 full mutation, but with lower frequency and milder involvement. FXTAS occurs in individuals who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor followed by cognitive impairment. Psychiatric disorders are common. Age of onset is typically between 60 and 65 years and is more common among males who are hemizygous for the premutation (40%) than among females who are heterozygous for the premutation (16%-20%). FXPOI, defined as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before age 40 years, has been observed in 20% of women who carry a premutation allele compared to 1% in the general population. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
333403
Concept ID:
C1839780
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease

PLP1 disorders of central nervous system myelin formation include a range of phenotypes from Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) to spastic paraplegia 2 (SPG2). PMD typically manifests in infancy or early childhood with nystagmus, hypotonia, and cognitive impairment; the findings progress to severe spasticity and ataxia. Life span is shortened. SPG2 manifests as spastic paraparesis with or without CNS involvement and usually normal life span. Intrafamilial variation of phenotypes can be observed, but the signs are usually fairly consistent within families. Heterozygous females may manifest mild-to-moderate signs of the disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61440
Concept ID:
C0205711
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of motor neurons in the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord, resulting in fatal paralysis. ALS usually begins with asymmetric involvement of the muscles in middle adult life. Approximately 10% of ALS cases are familial (Siddique and Deng, 1996). ALS is sometimes referred to as 'Lou Gehrig disease' after the famous American baseball player who was diagnosed with the disorder. Rowland and Shneider (2001) and Kunst (2004) provided extensive reviews of ALS. Some forms of ALS occur with frontotemporal dementia (FTD); see 105500. Ranganathan et al. (2020) provided a detailed review of the genes involved in different forms of ALS with FTD, noting that common disease pathways involve disturbances in RNA processing, autophagy, the ubiquitin proteasome system, the unfolded protein response, and intracellular trafficking. The current understanding of ALS and FTD is that some forms of these disorders represent a spectrum of disease with converging mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Familial ALS is distinct from a form of ALS with dementia reported in cases on Guam (105500) (Espinosa et al., 1962; Husquinet and Franck, 1980), in which the histology is different and dementia and parkinsonism complicate the clinical picture. Genetic Heterogeneity of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ALS is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, with several causative genes and mapped loci. ALS6 (608030) is caused by mutation in the FUS gene (137070) on chromosome 16p11; ALS8 (608627) is caused by mutation in the VAPB gene (605704) on chromosome 13; ALS9 (611895) is caused by mutation in the ANG gene (105850) on chromosome 14q11; ALS10 (612069) is caused by mutation in the TARDBP gene (605078) on 1p36; ALS11 (612577) is caused by mutation in the FIG4 gene (609390) on chromosome 6q21; ALS12 (613435) is caused by mutation in the OPTN gene (602432) on chromosome 10p13; ALS15 (300857) is caused by mutation in the UBQLN2 gene (300264) on chromosome Xp11; ALS18 (614808) is caused by mutation in the PFN1 gene (176610) on chromosome 17p13; ALS19 (615515) is caused by mutation in the ERBB4 gene (600543) on chromosome 2q34; ALS20 (615426) is caused by mutation in the HNRNPA1 gene (164017) on chromosome 12q13; ALS21 (606070) is caused by mutation in the MATR3 gene (164015) on chromosome 5q31; ALS22 (616208) is caused by mutation in the TUBA4A gene (191110) on chromosome 2q35; ALS23 (617839) is caused by mutation in the ANXA11 gene (602572) on chromosome 10q23; ALS26 (619133) is caused by mutation in the TIA1 gene (603518) on chromosome 2p13; ALS27 (620285) is caused by mutation in the SPTLC1 gene (605712) on chromosome 9q22; and ALS28 (620452) is caused by mutation in the LRP12 gene (618299) on chromosome 8q22. Loci associated with ALS have been found on chromosomes 18q21 (ALS3; 606640) and 20p13 (ALS7; 608031). Intermediate-length polyglutamine repeat expansions in the ATXN2 gene (601517) contribute to susceptibility to ALS (ALS13; 183090). Susceptibility to ALS24 (617892) is conferred by mutation in the NEK1 gene (604588) on chromosome 4q33, and susceptibility to ALS25 (617921) is conferred by mutation in the KIF5A gene (602821) on chromosome 12q13. Susceptibility to ALS has been associated with mutations in other genes, including deletions or insertions in the gene encoding the heavy neurofilament subunit (NEFH; 162230); deletions in the gene encoding peripherin (PRPH; 170710); and mutations in the dynactin gene (DCTN1; 601143). Some forms of ALS show juvenile onset. See juvenile-onset ALS2 (205100), caused by mutation in the alsin (606352) gene on 2q33; ALS4 (602433), caused by mutation in the senataxin gene (SETX; 608465) on 9q34; ALS5 (602099), caused by mutation in the SPG11 gene (610844) on 15q21; and ALS16 (614373), caused by mutation in the SIGMAR1 gene (601978) on 9p13. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
400169
Concept ID:
C1862939
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Deficiency of alpha-mannosidase

Alpha-mannosidosis encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from mild to severe. Three major clinical subtypes have been suggested: A mild form recognized after age ten years with absence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 1). A moderate form recognized before age ten years with presence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 2). A severe form manifested as prenatal loss or early death from progressive central nervous system involvement or infection (type 3). Individuals with a milder phenotype have mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, impaired hearing, characteristic coarse features, clinical or radiographic skeletal abnormalities, immunodeficiency, and primary central nervous system disease – mainly cerebellar involvement causing ataxia. Periods of psychiatric symptoms are common. Associated medical problems can include corneal opacities, hepatosplenomegaly, aseptic destructive arthritis, and metabolic myopathy. Alpha-mannosidosis is insidiously progressive; some individuals may live into the sixth decade. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
7467
Concept ID:
C0024748
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Leigh syndrome

Leigh syndrome is a clinical diagnosis based primarily on characteristic brain imaging findings associated with progressive and severe neurodegenerative features with onset within the first months or years of life, sometimes resulting in early death. Affected individuals usually show global developmental delay or developmental regression, hypotonia, ataxia, dystonia, and ophthalmologic abnormalities, such as nystagmus or optic atrophy. The neurologic features are associated with the classic findings of T2-weighted hyperintensities in the basal ganglia and/or brainstem on brain imaging. Leigh syndrome can also have detrimental multisystemic affects on the cardiac, hepatic, gastrointestinal, and renal organs. Biochemical studies in patients with Leigh syndrome tend to show increased lactate and abnormalities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (summary by Lake et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Nuclear Leigh Syndrome Leigh syndrome is a presentation of numerous genetic disorders resulting from defects in the mitochondrial OXPHOS complex. Accordingly, the genes implicated in Leigh syndrome most commonly encode structural subunits of the OXPHOS complex or proteins required for their assembly, stability, and activity. Mutations in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes have been identified. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial Leigh syndrome, see MILS (500017). Nuclear Leigh syndrome can be caused by mutations in nuclear-encoded genes involved in any of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes: complex I deficiency (see 252010), complex II deficiency (see 252011), complex III deficiency (see 124000), complex IV deficiency (cytochrome c oxidase; see 220110), and complex V deficiency (see 604273) (summary by Lake et al., 2015). Some forms of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency (COXPD) can present as Leigh syndrome (see, e.g., 617664). Leigh syndrome may also be caused by mutations in components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (e.g., DLD, 238331 and PDHA1, 300502). Deficiency of coenzyme Q10 (607426) can present as Leigh syndrome. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
44095
Concept ID:
C0023264
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Azorean disease

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and variable findings including pyramidal signs, a dystonic-rigid extrapyramidal syndrome, significant peripheral amyotrophy and generalized areflexia, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, action-induced facial and lingual fasciculations, and bulging eyes. Neurologic findings tend to evolve as the disorder progresses. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
9841
Concept ID:
C0024408
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Metachromatic leukodystrophy

Arylsulfatase A deficiency (also known as metachromatic leukodystrophy or MLD) is characterized by three clinical subtypes: late-infantile MLD, juvenile MLD, and adult MLD. Age of onset within a family is usually similar. The disease course may be from several years in the late-infantile-onset form to decades in the juvenile- and adult-onset forms. Late-infantile MLD. Onset is before age 30 months. Typical presenting findings include weakness, hypotonia, clumsiness, frequent falls, toe walking, and dysarthria. As the disease progresses, language, cognitive, and gross and fine motor skills regress. Later signs include spasticity, pain, seizures, and compromised vision and hearing. In the final stages, children have tonic spasms, decerebrate posturing, and general unawareness of their surroundings. Juvenile MLD. Onset is between age 30 months and 16 years. Initial manifestations include decline in school performance and emergence of behavioral problems, followed by gait disturbances. Progression is similar to but slower than in the late-infantile form. Adult MLD. Onset occurs after age 16 years, sometimes not until the fourth or fifth decade. Initial signs can include problems in school or job performance, personality changes, emotional lability, or psychosis; in others, neurologic symptoms (weakness and loss of coordination progressing to spasticity and incontinence) or seizures initially predominate. Peripheral neuropathy is common. Disease course is variable – with periods of stability interspersed with periods of decline – and may extend over two to three decades. The final stage is similar to earlier-onset forms. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
6071
Concept ID:
C0023522
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, susceptibility to, 24

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-24 (ALS24) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by adult-onset loss of motor neurons (Brenner et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1632999
Concept ID:
C4693523
Finding
12.

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

HPRT1 disorders, caused by deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt), are typically associated with clinical evidence for overproduction of uric acid (hyperuricemia, nephrolithiasis, and/or gouty arthritis) and varying degrees of neurologic and/or behavioral problems. Historically, three phenotypes were identified in the spectrum of HPRT1 disorders: Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) at the most severe end with motor dysfunction resembling severe cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, and self-injurious behavior; HPRT1-related neurologic dysfunction (HND) in the intermediate range with similar but fewer severe neurologic findings than LND and no self-injurious behavior; and HPRT1-related hyperuricemia (HRH) at the mild end without overt neurologic deficits. It is now recognized that these neurobehavioral phenotypes cluster along a continuum from severe to mild. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
9721
Concept ID:
C0023374
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Parkinson disease, late-onset

Generally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.

Often the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.

Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
463618
Concept ID:
C3160718
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease X-linked dominant 1

GJB1 disorders are typically characterized by peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy with or without fixed CNS abnormalities and/or acute, self-limited episodes of transient neurologic dysfunction (especially weakness and dysarthria). Peripheral neuropathy typically manifests in affected males between ages five and 25 years. Although both men and women are affected, manifestations tend to be less severe in women, some of whom may remain asymptomatic. Less commonly, initial manifestations in some affected individuals are stroke-like episodes (acute fulminant episodes of reversible CNS dysfunction). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
98290
Concept ID:
C0393808
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Familial amyloid neuropathy

Hereditary transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis is characterized by a slowly progressive peripheral sensorimotor and/or autonomic neuropathy as well as non-neuropathic changes of cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, vitreous opacities, and CNS amyloidosis. The disease usually begins in the third to fifth decade in persons from endemic foci in Portugal and Japan; onset is later in persons from other areas. Typically, sensory neuropathy starts in the lower extremities with paresthesias and hypesthesias of the feet, followed within a few years by motor neuropathy. In some persons, particularly those with early-onset disease, autonomic neuropathy is the first manifestation of the condition; findings can include: orthostatic hypotension, constipation alternating with diarrhea, attacks of nausea and vomiting, delayed gastric emptying, sexual impotence, anhidrosis, and urinary retention or incontinence. Cardiac amyloidosis is mainly characterized by progressive cardiomyopathy. Individuals with leptomeningeal amyloidosis may have the following CNS findings: dementia, psychosis, visual impairment, headache, seizures, motor paresis, ataxia, myelopathy, hydrocephalus, or intracranial hemorrhage. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
414031
Concept ID:
C2751492
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Spinocerebellar ataxia 7

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) comprises a phenotypic spectrum ranging from adolescent- or adult-onset progressive cerebellar ataxia and cone-rod retinal dystrophy to infantile or early-childhood onset with multiorgan failure, an accelerated course, and early death. Anticipation in this nucleotide repeat disorder may be so dramatic that within a family a child with infantile or early-childhood onset may be diagnosed with what is thought to be an unrelated neurodegenerative disorder years before a parent or grandparent with a CAG repeat expansion becomes symptomatic. In adolescent-onset SCA7, the initial manifestation is typically impaired vision, followed by cerebellar ataxia. In those with adult onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia usually precedes the onset of visual manifestations. While the rate of progression varies in these two age groups, the eventual result for almost all affected individuals is loss of vision, severe dysarthria and dysphagia, and a bedridden state with loss of motor control. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
156006
Concept ID:
C0752125
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Niemann-Pick disease, type C1

Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a slowly progressive lysosomal disorder whose principal manifestations are age dependent. The manifestations in the perinatal period and infancy are predominantly visceral, with hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, and (in some instances) pulmonary infiltrates. From late infancy onward, the presentation is dominated by neurologic manifestations. The youngest children may present with hypotonia and developmental delay, with the subsequent emergence of ataxia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and, in some individuals, epileptic seizures, dystonia, and gelastic cataplexy. Although cognitive impairment may be subtle at first, it eventually becomes apparent that affected individuals have a progressive dementia. Older teenagers and young adults may present predominantly with apparent early-onset dementia or psychiatric manifestations; however, careful examination usually identifies typical neurologic signs. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
465922
Concept ID:
C3179455
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, including nystagmus, slow saccadic eye movements, and in some individuals, ophthalmoparesis or parkinsonism. Pyramidal findings are present; deep tendon reflexes are brisk early on and absent later in the course. Age of onset is typically in the fourth decade with a ten- to 15-year disease duration. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155704
Concept ID:
C0752121
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and eventual deterioration of bulbar functions. Early in the disease, affected individuals may have gait disturbance, slurred speech, difficulty with balance, brisk deep tendon reflexes, hypermetric saccades, nystagmus, and mild dysphagia. Later signs include slowing of saccadic velocity, development of up-gaze palsy, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, and hypotonia. In advanced stages, muscle atrophy, decreased deep tendon reflexes, loss of proprioception, cognitive impairment (e.g., frontal executive dysfunction, impaired verbal memory), chorea, dystonia, and bulbar dysfunction are seen. Onset is typically in the third or fourth decade, although childhood onset and late-adult onset have been reported. Those with onset after age 60 years may manifest a pure cerebellar phenotype. Interval from onset to death varies from ten to 30 years; individuals with juvenile onset show more rapid progression and more severe disease. Anticipation is observed. An axonal sensory neuropathy detected by electrophysiologic testing is common; brain imaging typically shows cerebellar and brain stem atrophy. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155703
Concept ID:
C0752120
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Unverricht-Lundborg syndrome

Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1(EPM1) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset from age six to 15 years, stimulus-sensitive myoclonus, and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. Some years after the onset, ataxia, incoordination, intentional tremor, and dysarthria develop. Individuals with EPM1 are cognitively mostly within the normal range, but show emotional lability and depression. The epileptic seizures are usually well controlled by anti-seizure medication, but the myoclonic jerks are progressive, action activated, and treatment resistant, and can be severely disabling. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155923
Concept ID:
C0751785
Disease or Syndrome
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