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Achondroplasia(ACH)

MedGen UID:
1289
Concept ID:
C0001080
Congenital Abnormality
Synonyms: ACH; Achondroplastic dwarfism
SNOMED CT: Achondroplasia (86268005); Chondrodystrophia fetalis (86268005); Achondroplastic dwarf (86268005); Osteosclerosis congenita (86268005); Congenital osteosclerosis (86268005); Achondroplastic dwarfism (86268005)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Gene (location): FGFR3 (4p16.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0007037
OMIM®: 100800
Orphanet: ORPHA15

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Achondroplasia
Achondroplasia is the most common cause of disproportionate short stature. Affected individuals have rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, macrocephaly, and characteristic facial features with frontal bossing and midface retrusion. In infancy, hypotonia is typical, and acquisition of developmental motor milestones is often both aberrant in pattern and delayed. Intelligence and life span are usually near normal, although craniocervical junction compression increases the risk of death in infancy. Additional complications include obstructive sleep apnea, middle ear dysfunction, kyphosis, and spinal stenosis. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Janet M Legare   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Achondroplasia is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and midface hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, genu varum, and trident hand (summary by Bellus et al., 1995).  http://www.omim.org/entry/100800
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Achondroplasia is the most common form of short-limbed dwarfism. The word achondroplasia means "without cartilage formation." Cartilage is a tough but flexible tissue that makes up much of the skeleton during early development. However, in people with achondroplasia the problem is not  forming cartilage but  converting it to bone (a process called ossification), particularly in the long bones of the arms and legs. Achondroplasia is similar to another skeletal disorder called hypochondroplasia, but the features of achondroplasia tend to be more severe.

All people with achondroplasia have short stature. Without treatment, the average height of an adult male with achondroplasia is 131 centimeters (4 feet, 4 inches), and the average height for adult females is 124 centimeters (4 feet, 1 inch). Characteristic features of achondroplasia include an average-size trunk, short arms and legs with particularly short upper arms and thighs, limited range of motion at the elbows, and an enlarged head (macrocephaly) with a prominent forehead. Fingers are typically short and the ring finger and middle finger may diverge, giving the hand a three-pronged (trident) appearance. 

Health problems commonly associated with achondroplasia include obesity and recurrent ear infections. People with achondroplasia are generally of normal intelligence. In childhood, individuals with the condition usually develop a pronounced and permanent sway of the lower back (lordosis) and bowed legs. Some affected people also develop abnormal front-to-back curvature of the spine (kyphosis) and back pain. 

As affected individuals age, they may experience a potentially serious complication of achondroplasia called spinal stenosis. Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal that can pinch (compress) the upper part of the spinal cord. Spinal stenosis causes with pain, tingling, and weakness in the legs that can make walking difficult. An uncommon but serious complication of achondroplasia in early childhood is stenosis of the hole at the base of the skull where the spinal cord comes out of brain (foramen magnum). This complication can cause compression of the brain stem, which can lead to pauses in breathing during sleep (sleep apnea) or a condition known as hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus is a buildup of fluid in the brain that can lead to increased head size and related brain abnormalities.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/achondroplasia

Clinical features

From HPO
Brachydactyly
MedGen UID:
67454
Concept ID:
C0221357
Congenital Abnormality
Digits that appear disproportionately short compared to the hand/foot. The word brachydactyly is used here to describe a series distinct patterns of shortened digits (brachydactyly types A-E). This is the sense used here.
Short femur
MedGen UID:
87499
Concept ID:
C0345375
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormal shortening of the femur.
Trident hand
MedGen UID:
98430
Concept ID:
C0426874
Finding
A hand in which the fingers are of nearly equal length and deflected at the first interphalangeal joint, so as to give a forklike shape consisting of separation of the first and second as well as the third and fourth digits.
Genu varum
MedGen UID:
154257
Concept ID:
C0544755
Finding
A positional abnormality marked by outward bowing of the legs in which the knees stay wide apart when a person stands with the feet and ankles together.
Radial bowing
MedGen UID:
347136
Concept ID:
C1859399
Anatomical Abnormality
A bending or abnormal curvature of the radius.
Ulnar bowing
MedGen UID:
356099
Concept ID:
C1865847
Finding
Bending of the diaphysis (shaft) of the ulna.
Rhizomelia
MedGen UID:
357122
Concept ID:
C1866730
Congenital Abnormality
Disproportionate shortening of the proximal segment of limbs (i.e. the femur and humerus).
Limited elbow extension
MedGen UID:
401158
Concept ID:
C1867103
Finding
Limited ability to straighten the arm at the elbow joint.
Neonatal short-limb short stature
MedGen UID:
337984
Concept ID:
C1850171
Finding
A type of short-limbed dwarfism that is manifest beginning in the neonatal period.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Conductive hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
9163
Concept ID:
C0018777
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of vibrational conductance of sound to the inner ear leading to impairment of sensory perception of sound.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation.
Megalencephaly
MedGen UID:
65141
Concept ID:
C0221355
Congenital Abnormality
Diffuse enlargement of the entire cerebral hemispheres leading to macrocephaly (with or without overlying cortical dysplasia).
Brain stem compression
MedGen UID:
82849
Concept ID:
C0270680
Disease or Syndrome
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Short ribs
MedGen UID:
98094
Concept ID:
C0426817
Finding
Reduced rib length.
Narrow greater sciatic notch
MedGen UID:
154353
Concept ID:
C0566888
Finding
A narrowing of the sacrosciatic notch, i.e., the deep indentation in the posterior border of the hip bone at the point of union of the ilium and ischium.
Lumbar hyperlordosis
MedGen UID:
263149
Concept ID:
C1184923
Finding
An abnormal accentuation of the inward curvature of the spine in the lumbar region.
Narrow vertebral interpedicular distance
MedGen UID:
318662
Concept ID:
C1832598
Finding
A reduction of the distance between vertebral pedicles, which are the two short, thick processes, which project backward, one on either side, from the upper part of the vertebral body, at the junction of its posterior and lateral surfaces.
Short femoral neck
MedGen UID:
373033
Concept ID:
C1836184
Finding
An abnormally short femoral neck (which is the process of bone, connecting the femoral head with the femoral shaft).
Generalized joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
322888
Concept ID:
C1836308
Finding
Joint hypermobility (ability of a joint to move beyond its normal range of motion) affecting many or all joints of the body. In individuals with Joint hypermobility at multiple sites (usually five or more), the term generalized joint hypermobility is preferred.
Thoracic hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
373339
Concept ID:
C1837482
Congenital Abnormality
Flared metaphysis
MedGen UID:
337976
Concept ID:
C1850135
Finding
The presence of a splayed (i.e.,flared) metaphyseal segment of one or more long bones.
Severe platyspondyly
MedGen UID:
338014
Concept ID:
C1850293
Finding
Malar flattening
MedGen UID:
347616
Concept ID:
C1858085
Finding
Underdevelopment of the malar prominence of the jugal bone (zygomatic bone in mammals), appreciated in profile, frontal view, and/or by palpation.
Femoral bowing
MedGen UID:
347888
Concept ID:
C1859461
Finding
Bowing (abnormal curvature) of the femur.
Infantile muscular hypotonia
MedGen UID:
395993
Concept ID:
C1860834
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) manifesting in infancy.
Small foramen magnum
MedGen UID:
348813
Concept ID:
C1861217
Finding
An abnormal narrowing of the foramen magnum.
Lumbar kyphosis in infancy
MedGen UID:
354980
Concept ID:
C1863423
Finding
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Limited hip extension
MedGen UID:
766282
Concept ID:
C3553368
Finding
Limitation of the extension of the hip, i.e., decreased ability to straighten the hip joint and thereby increase the angle between torso and thigh; moving the thigh or top of the pelvis backward.
Spinal stenosis with reduced interpedicular distance
MedGen UID:
867265
Concept ID:
C4021625
Finding
An abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal related to a reduction in the interpedicular distance (i.e., the distance measured between the pedicles on frontal [coronal] imaging).
Bowing of the legs
MedGen UID:
1807399
Concept ID:
C5574706
Finding
A bending or abnormal curvature affecting a long bone of the leg.
Pulmonary hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
78574
Concept ID:
C0265783
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality in which the lung parenchyma is not fully developed. It may be associated with other congenital abnormalities.
Respiratory distress
MedGen UID:
96907
Concept ID:
C0476273
Sign or Symptom
Respiratory distress is objectively observable as the physical or emotional consequences from the experience of dyspnea. The physical presentation of respiratory distress is generally referred to as labored breathing, while the sensation of respiratory distress is called shortness of breath or dyspnea.
Upper airway obstruction
MedGen UID:
149266
Concept ID:
C0740852
Finding
Increased resistance to the passage of air in the upper airway.
Recurrent otitis media
MedGen UID:
155436
Concept ID:
C0747085
Disease or Syndrome
Increased susceptibility to otitis media, as manifested by recurrent episodes of otitis media.
Choanal stenosis
MedGen UID:
108427
Concept ID:
C0584837
Finding
Abnormal narrowing of the choana (the posterior nasal aperture).
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
339938
Concept ID:
C1853242
Anatomical Abnormality
Posterior positions and/or vertical shortening of the infraorbital and perialar regions, or increased concavity of the face and/or reduced nasolabial angle.
Premature rupture of membranes
MedGen UID:
8826
Concept ID:
C0015944
Pathologic Function
Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a condition which occurs in pregnancy when the amniotic sac ruptures more than an hour before the onset of labor.
Polyhydramnios
MedGen UID:
6936
Concept ID:
C0020224
Pathologic Function
The presence of excess amniotic fluid in the uterus during pregnancy.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVAchondroplasia
Follow this link to review classifications for Achondroplasia in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Leiva-Gea A, Martos Lirio MF, Barreda Bonis AC, Marín Del Barrio S, Heath KE, Marín Reina P, Guillén-Navarro E, Santos Simarro F, Riaño Galán I, Yeste Fernández D, Leiva-Gea I
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) 2022 Dec;97(6):423.e1-423.e11. Epub 2022 Nov 5 doi: 10.1016/j.anpede.2022.10.004. PMID: 36347803
Savarirayan R, Ireland P, Irving M, Thompson D, Alves I, Baratela WAR, Betts J, Bober MB, Boero S, Briddell J, Campbell J, Campeau PM, Carl-Innig P, Cheung MS, Cobourne M, Cormier-Daire V, Deladure-Molla M, Del Pino M, Elphick H, Fano V, Fauroux B, Gibbins J, Groves ML, Hagenäs L, Hannon T, Hoover-Fong J, Kaisermann M, Leiva-Gea A, Llerena J, Mackenzie W, Martin K, Mazzoleni F, McDonnell S, Meazzini MC, Milerad J, Mohnike K, Mortier GR, Offiah A, Ozono K, Phillips JA 3rd, Powell S, Prasad Y, Raggio C, Rosselli P, Rossiter J, Selicorni A, Sessa M, Theroux M, Thomas M, Trespedi L, Tunkel D, Wallis C, Wright M, Yasui N, Fredwall SO
Nat Rev Endocrinol 2022 Mar;18(3):173-189. Epub 2021 Nov 26 doi: 10.1038/s41574-021-00595-x. PMID: 34837063
Hoover-Fong J, Scott CI, Jones MC; COMMITTEE ON GENETICS
Pediatrics 2020 Jun;145(6) doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-1010. PMID: 32457214

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Savarirayan R, Irving M, Harmatz P, Delgado B, Wilcox WR, Philips J, Owen N, Bacino CA, Tofts L, Charrow J, Polgreen LE, Hoover-Fong J, Arundel P, Ginebreda I, Saal HM, Basel D, Font RU, Ozono K, Bober MB, Cormier-Daire V, Le Quan Sang KH, Baujat G, Alanay Y, Rutsch F, Hoernschemeyer D, Mohnike K, Mochizuki H, Tajima A, Kotani Y, Weaver DD, White KK, Army C, Larrimore K, Gregg K, Jeha G, Milligan C, Fisheleva E, Huntsman-Labed A, Day J
Genet Med 2022 Dec;24(12):2444-2452. Epub 2022 Sep 16 doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2022.08.015. PMID: 36107167
Savarirayan R, Ireland P, Irving M, Thompson D, Alves I, Baratela WAR, Betts J, Bober MB, Boero S, Briddell J, Campbell J, Campeau PM, Carl-Innig P, Cheung MS, Cobourne M, Cormier-Daire V, Deladure-Molla M, Del Pino M, Elphick H, Fano V, Fauroux B, Gibbins J, Groves ML, Hagenäs L, Hannon T, Hoover-Fong J, Kaisermann M, Leiva-Gea A, Llerena J, Mackenzie W, Martin K, Mazzoleni F, McDonnell S, Meazzini MC, Milerad J, Mohnike K, Mortier GR, Offiah A, Ozono K, Phillips JA 3rd, Powell S, Prasad Y, Raggio C, Rosselli P, Rossiter J, Selicorni A, Sessa M, Theroux M, Thomas M, Trespedi L, Tunkel D, Wallis C, Wright M, Yasui N, Fredwall SO
Nat Rev Endocrinol 2022 Mar;18(3):173-189. Epub 2021 Nov 26 doi: 10.1038/s41574-021-00595-x. PMID: 34837063
Stembalska A, Dudarewicz L, Śmigiel R
Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 Jun;30(6):641-647. doi: 10.17219/acem/134166. PMID: 34019743
Savarirayan R, Tofts L, Irving M, Wilcox W, Bacino CA, Hoover-Fong J, Ullot Font R, Harmatz P, Rutsch F, Bober MB, Polgreen LE, Ginebreda I, Mohnike K, Charrow J, Hoernschemeyer D, Ozono K, Alanay Y, Arundel P, Kagami S, Yasui N, White KK, Saal HM, Leiva-Gea A, Luna-González F, Mochizuki H, Basel D, Porco DM, Jayaram K, Fisheleva E, Huntsman-Labed A, Day J
Lancet 2020 Sep 5;396(10252):684-692. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31541-5. PMID: 32891212
Hoover-Fong J, Scott CI, Jones MC; COMMITTEE ON GENETICS
Pediatrics 2020 Jun;145(6) doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-1010. PMID: 32457214

Diagnosis

Leiva-Gea A, Martos Lirio MF, Barreda Bonis AC, Marín Del Barrio S, Heath KE, Marín Reina P, Guillén-Navarro E, Santos Simarro F, Riaño Galán I, Yeste Fernández D, Leiva-Gea I
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) 2022 Dec;97(6):423.e1-423.e11. Epub 2022 Nov 5 doi: 10.1016/j.anpede.2022.10.004. PMID: 36347803
Savarirayan R, Ireland P, Irving M, Thompson D, Alves I, Baratela WAR, Betts J, Bober MB, Boero S, Briddell J, Campbell J, Campeau PM, Carl-Innig P, Cheung MS, Cobourne M, Cormier-Daire V, Deladure-Molla M, Del Pino M, Elphick H, Fano V, Fauroux B, Gibbins J, Groves ML, Hagenäs L, Hannon T, Hoover-Fong J, Kaisermann M, Leiva-Gea A, Llerena J, Mackenzie W, Martin K, Mazzoleni F, McDonnell S, Meazzini MC, Milerad J, Mohnike K, Mortier GR, Offiah A, Ozono K, Phillips JA 3rd, Powell S, Prasad Y, Raggio C, Rosselli P, Rossiter J, Selicorni A, Sessa M, Theroux M, Thomas M, Trespedi L, Tunkel D, Wallis C, Wright M, Yasui N, Fredwall SO
Nat Rev Endocrinol 2022 Mar;18(3):173-189. Epub 2021 Nov 26 doi: 10.1038/s41574-021-00595-x. PMID: 34837063
Duggan S
Drugs 2021 Nov;81(17):2057-2062. doi: 10.1007/s40265-021-01623-w. PMID: 34694597
Hoover-Fong J, Scott CI, Jones MC; COMMITTEE ON GENETICS
Pediatrics 2020 Jun;145(6) doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-1010. PMID: 32457214
Pauli RM
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2019 Jan 3;14(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s13023-018-0972-6. PMID: 30606190Free PMC Article

Therapy

Murton MC, Drane ELA, Goff-Leggett DM, Shediac R, O'Hara J, Irving M, Butt TJ
Adv Ther 2023 Sep;40(9):3639-3680. Epub 2023 Jun 29 doi: 10.1007/s12325-023-02549-3. PMID: 37382866Free PMC Article
Chan ML, Qi Y, Larimore K, Cherukuri A, Seid L, Jayaram K, Jeha G, Fisheleva E, Day J, Huntsman-Labed A, Savarirayan R, Irving M, Bacino CA, Hoover-Fong J, Ozono K, Mohnike K, Wilcox WR, Horton WA, Henshaw J
Clin Pharmacokinet 2022 Feb;61(2):263-280. Epub 2021 Aug 25 doi: 10.1007/s40262-021-01059-1. PMID: 34431071Free PMC Article
Duggan S
Drugs 2021 Nov;81(17):2057-2062. doi: 10.1007/s40265-021-01623-w. PMID: 34694597
Wrobel W, Pach E, Ben-Skowronek I
Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 25;22(11) doi: 10.3390/ijms22115573. PMID: 34070375Free PMC Article
Horton WA, Hall JG, Hecht JT
Lancet 2007 Jul 14;370(9582):162-172. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61090-3. PMID: 17630040

Prognosis

Armstrong JA, Pacey V, Tofts LJ
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 Aug;64(8):989-997. Epub 2022 Mar 2 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15194. PMID: 35238031Free PMC Article
Bianchi F, Benato A, Frassanito P, Tamburrini G, Massimi L
Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Oct;37(10):3093-3104. Epub 2021 Jun 25 doi: 10.1007/s00381-021-05193-w. PMID: 34169386Free PMC Article
Stembalska A, Dudarewicz L, Śmigiel R
Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 Jun;30(6):641-647. doi: 10.17219/acem/134166. PMID: 34019743
Zhang J, Li J, Saucier JB, Feng Y, Jiang Y, Sinson J, McCombs AK, Schmitt ES, Peacock S, Chen S, Dai H, Ge X, Wang G, Shaw CA, Mei H, Breman A, Xia F, Yang Y, Purgason A, Pourpak A, Chen Z, Wang X, Wang Y, Kulkarni S, Choy KW, Wapner RJ, Van den Veyver IB, Beaudet A, Parmar S, Wong LJ, Eng CM
Nat Med 2019 Mar;25(3):439-447. Epub 2019 Jan 28 doi: 10.1038/s41591-018-0334-x. PMID: 30692697
Zaffanello M, Cantalupo G, Piacentini G, Gasperi E, Nosetti L, Cavarzere P, Ramaroli DA, Mittal A, Antoniazzi F
World J Pediatr 2017 Feb;13(1):8-14. Epub 2016 Oct 15 doi: 10.1007/s12519-016-0051-9. PMID: 27830579

Clinical prediction guides

Savarirayan R, Irving M, Harmatz P, Delgado B, Wilcox WR, Philips J, Owen N, Bacino CA, Tofts L, Charrow J, Polgreen LE, Hoover-Fong J, Arundel P, Ginebreda I, Saal HM, Basel D, Font RU, Ozono K, Bober MB, Cormier-Daire V, Le Quan Sang KH, Baujat G, Alanay Y, Rutsch F, Hoernschemeyer D, Mohnike K, Mochizuki H, Tajima A, Kotani Y, Weaver DD, White KK, Army C, Larrimore K, Gregg K, Jeha G, Milligan C, Fisheleva E, Huntsman-Labed A, Day J
Genet Med 2022 Dec;24(12):2444-2452. Epub 2022 Sep 16 doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2022.08.015. PMID: 36107167
Chan ML, Qi Y, Larimore K, Cherukuri A, Seid L, Jayaram K, Jeha G, Fisheleva E, Day J, Huntsman-Labed A, Savarirayan R, Irving M, Bacino CA, Hoover-Fong J, Ozono K, Mohnike K, Wilcox WR, Horton WA, Henshaw J
Clin Pharmacokinet 2022 Feb;61(2):263-280. Epub 2021 Aug 25 doi: 10.1007/s40262-021-01059-1. PMID: 34431071Free PMC Article
Savarirayan R, Tofts L, Irving M, Wilcox WR, Bacino CA, Hoover-Fong J, Font RU, Harmatz P, Rutsch F, Bober MB, Polgreen LE, Ginebreda I, Mohnike K, Charrow J, Hoernschemeyer D, Ozono K, Alanay Y, Arundel P, Kotani Y, Yasui N, White KK, Saal HM, Leiva-Gea A, Luna-González F, Mochizuki H, Basel D, Porco DM, Jayaram K, Fisheleva E, Huntsman-Labed A, Day JRS
Genet Med 2021 Dec;23(12):2443-2447. Epub 2021 Aug 2 doi: 10.1038/s41436-021-01287-7. PMID: 34341520Free PMC Article
Stembalska A, Dudarewicz L, Śmigiel R
Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 Jun;30(6):641-647. doi: 10.17219/acem/134166. PMID: 34019743
Zhang J, Li J, Saucier JB, Feng Y, Jiang Y, Sinson J, McCombs AK, Schmitt ES, Peacock S, Chen S, Dai H, Ge X, Wang G, Shaw CA, Mei H, Breman A, Xia F, Yang Y, Purgason A, Pourpak A, Chen Z, Wang X, Wang Y, Kulkarni S, Choy KW, Wapner RJ, Van den Veyver IB, Beaudet A, Parmar S, Wong LJ, Eng CM
Nat Med 2019 Mar;25(3):439-447. Epub 2019 Jan 28 doi: 10.1038/s41591-018-0334-x. PMID: 30692697

Recent systematic reviews

Onesimo R, Sforza E, Bedeschi MF, Leoni C, Giorgio V, Rigante D, De Rose C, Kuczynska EM, Romeo DM, Palmacci O, Massimi L, Porro M, Gonfiantini MV, Selicorni A, Allegri A, Maghnie M, Zampino G
Eur J Med Genet 2023 Nov;66(11):104850. Epub 2023 Sep 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2023.104850. PMID: 37758167
Murton MC, Drane ELA, Goff-Leggett DM, Shediac R, O'Hara J, Irving M, Butt TJ
Adv Ther 2023 Sep;40(9):3639-3680. Epub 2023 Jun 29 doi: 10.1007/s12325-023-02549-3. PMID: 37382866Free PMC Article
Byvaltsev VA, Kalinin AA, Hernandez PA, Shepelev VV, Pestryakov YY, Aliyev MA, Giers MB
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Nov 3;23(21) doi: 10.3390/ijms232113479. PMID: 36362274Free PMC Article
Fano V, Kim CA, Rosselli P, Dib RE, Shediac R, Magalhães T, Mesojedovas D, Llerena J Jr
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 Jan 4;17(1):4. doi: 10.1186/s13023-021-02142-3. PMID: 34983594Free PMC Article
Foreman PK, van Kessel F, van Hoorn R, van den Bosch J, Shediac R, Landis S
Am J Med Genet A 2020 Oct;182(10):2297-2316. Epub 2020 Aug 17 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61787. PMID: 32803853Free PMC Article

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