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X-linked sideroblastic anemia with ataxia(ASAT)

MedGen UID:
335078
Concept ID:
C1845028
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Anemia sideroblastic and spinocerebellar ataxia; ASAT; Pagon Bird Detter syndrome; Sideroblastic anemia with spinocerebellar ataxia; X-Linked Sideroblastic Anemia and Ataxia
SNOMED CT: X-linked sideroblastic anemia with spinocerebellar ataxia (719816006)
Modes of inheritance:
X-linked recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
375779
Concept ID:
C1845977
Finding
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for recessive traits related to a gene encoded on the X chromosome. In the context of medical genetics, X-linked recessive disorders manifest in males (who have one copy of the X chromosome and are thus hemizygotes), but generally not in female heterozygotes who have one mutant and one normal allele.
 
Gene (location): ABCB7 (Xq13.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010524
OMIM®: 301310
Orphanet: ORPHA2802

Definition

X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia is a rare condition characterized by a blood disorder called sideroblastic anemia and movement problems known as ataxia. This condition occurs only in males.

Sideroblastic anemia results when developing red blood cells called erythroblasts do not make enough hemoglobin, which is the protein that carries oxygen in the blood. People with X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia have mature red blood cells that are smaller than normal (microcytic) and appear pale (hypochromic) because of the shortage of hemoglobin. This disorder also leads to an abnormal accumulation of iron in red blood cells. The iron-loaded erythroblasts, which are present in bone marrow, are called ring sideroblasts. These abnormal cells give the condition its name. Unlike other forms of sideroblastic anemia, X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia does not cause a potentially dangerous buildup of iron in the body. The anemia is typically mild and usually does not cause any symptoms.

X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia causes problems with balance and coordination that appear early in life. The ataxia primarily affects the trunk, making it difficult to sit, stand, and walk unassisted. In addition to ataxia, people with this condition often have trouble coordinating movements that involve judging distance or scale (dysmetria) and find it difficult to make rapid, alternating movements (dysdiadochokinesis). Mild speech difficulties (dysarthria), tremor, and abnormal eye movements have also been reported in some affected individuals. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

Clinical features

From HPO
Clonus
MedGen UID:
40341
Concept ID:
C0009024
Sign or Symptom
A series of rhythmic and involuntary muscle contractions (at a frequency of about 5 to 7 Hz) that occur in response to an abruptly applied and sustained stretch.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Dysmetria
MedGen UID:
68583
Concept ID:
C0234162
Finding
A type of ataxia characterized by the inability to carry out movements with the correct range and motion across the plane of more than one joint related to incorrect estimation of the distances required for targeted movements.
Dysdiadochokinesis
MedGen UID:
115975
Concept ID:
C0234979
Sign or Symptom
A type of ataxia characterized by the impairment of the ability to perform rapidly alternating movements, such as pronating and supinating his or her hand on the dorsum of the other hand as rapidly as possible.
Nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
335079
Concept ID:
C1845029
Finding
Intention tremor
MedGen UID:
1642960
Concept ID:
C4551520
Sign or Symptom
A type of kinetic tremor that occurs during target directed movement is called intention tremor. That is, an oscillatory cerebellar ataxia that tends to be absent when the limbs are inactive and during the first part of voluntary movement but worsening as the movement continues and greater precision is required (e.g., in touching a target such as the patient's nose or a physician's finger).
Sideroblastic anemia
MedGen UID:
8067
Concept ID:
C0002896
Disease or Syndrome
Sideroblastic anemia results from a defect in the incorporation of iron into the heme molecule. A sideroblast is an erythroblast that has stainable deposits of iron in cytoplasm (this can be demonstrated by Prussian blue staining).
Hypochromic microcytic anemia
MedGen UID:
124413
Concept ID:
C0271901
Disease or Syndrome
A type of anemia characterized by an abnormally low concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocytes and lower than normal size of the erythrocytes.
Abnormality of metabolism/homeostasis
MedGen UID:
867398
Concept ID:
C4021768
Finding

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVX-linked sideroblastic anemia with ataxia
Follow this link to review classifications for X-linked sideroblastic anemia with ataxia in Orphanet.

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