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Anophthalmia/microphthalmia-esophageal atresia syndrome(MCOPS3)

MedGen UID:
347232
Concept ID:
C1859773
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: AEG syndrome; Anophthalmia clinical with associated anomalies; Anophthalmia esophageal genital syndrome; Anophthalmia microphthalmia esophageal atresia; MCOPS3; Microphthalmia and esophageal atresia syndrome; Microphthalmia syndromic 3
SNOMED CT: AEG - anophthalmia-esophageal-genital syndrome (698851003); SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome (698851003); Syndromic microphthalmia 3 (698851003); Anophthalmia-esophageal-genital syndrome (698851003); SOX2-related eye disorder (698851003)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Not genetically inherited
MedGen UID:
988794
Concept ID:
CN307044
Finding
Source: Orphanet
clinical entity without genetic inheritance.
 
Genes (locations): SIX6 (14q23.1); SOX2 (3q26.33)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008799
OMIM®: 206900
Orphanet: ORPHA77298

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: SOX2 Disorder
The phenotypic spectrum of SOX2 disorder includes anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia, brain malformations, developmental delay / intellectual disability, esophageal atresia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (manifest as cryptorchidism and micropenis in males, gonadal dysgenesis infrequently in females, and delayed puberty in both sexes), pituitary hypoplasia, postnatal growth delay, hypotonia, seizures, and spastic or dystonic movements. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Kathleen A Williamson  |  T Michael Yates  |  David R FitzPatrick   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Syndromic microphthalmia-3 (MCOPS3) is characterized by clinical anophthalmia or microphthalmia with or without defects of the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tract. Extraocular abnormalities include brain anomalies, seizures, motor disability, neurocognitive delays, sensorineural hearing loss, and esophageal atresia. Hypoplasia of the anterior pituitary is another major complication, which frequently results in growth hormone deficiency; however, gonadotropin deficiency is likely to be the most consistent endocrinopathy in patients with SOX2 mutation (summary by Numakura et al., 2010).  http://www.omim.org/entry/206900
From MedlinePlus Genetics
SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal development of the eyes and other parts of the body.

People with SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome are usually born without eyeballs (anophthalmia), although some individuals have small eyes (microphthalmia). The term anophthalmia is often used interchangeably with severe microphthalmia because individuals with no visible eyeballs typically have some remaining eye tissue. These eye problems can cause significant vision loss. While both eyes are usually affected in SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome, one eye may be more affected than the other.

Individuals with SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome may also have seizures, brain abnormalities, slow growth, delayed development of motor skills (such as walking), and mild to severe learning disabilities. Some people with this condition are born with a blocked esophagus (esophageal atresia), which is often accompanied by an abnormal connection between the esophagus and the trachea (tracheoesophageal fistula). Genital abnormalities have been described in affected individuals, especially males. Male genital abnormalities include undescended testes (cryptorchidism) and an unusually small penis (micropenis).  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/sox2-anophthalmia-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
163083
Concept ID:
C0848558
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft (underside) characterized by displacement of the urethral meatus from the tip of the glans penis to the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.
Micropenis
MedGen UID:
1633603
Concept ID:
C4551492
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small penis. At birth, the normal penis is about 3 cm (stretched length from pubic tubercle to tip of penis) with micropenis less than 2.0-2.5 cm.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Postnatal growth retardation
MedGen UID:
395343
Concept ID:
C1859778
Finding
Slow or limited growth after birth.
Esophageal atresia
MedGen UID:
4545
Concept ID:
C0014850
Congenital Abnormality
A developmental defect resulting in complete obliteration of the lumen of the esophagus such that the esophagus ends in a blind pouch rather than connecting to the stomach.
Sensorineural hearing loss disorder
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
96788
Concept ID:
C0452138
Disease or Syndrome
A bilateral form of sensorineural hearing impairment.
Spastic diplegia
MedGen UID:
44181
Concept ID:
C0023882
Disease or Syndrome
Spasticity (neuromuscular hypertonia) primarily in the muscles of the legs, hips, and pelvis.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Hamartoma of hypothalamus
MedGen UID:
137970
Concept ID:
C0342418
Finding
Pallister-Hall-like syndrome (PHLS) is a pleiotropic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by phenotypic variability. Patients exhibit postaxial polydactyly as well as hypothalamic hamartoma, cardiac and skeletal anomalies, and craniofacial dysmorphisms. Hirschsprung disease has also been observed (Rubino et al., 2018; Le et al., 2020). Pallister-Hall syndrome (146510) is an autosomal dominant disorder with features overlapping those of PHLS, caused by mutation in the GLI3 gene (165240).
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Spastic tetraplegia
MedGen UID:
98433
Concept ID:
C0426970
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paralysis affecting all four limbs.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Anterior pituitary hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
347950
Concept ID:
C1859775
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the anterior pituitary gland.
Specific learning disability
MedGen UID:
871302
Concept ID:
C4025790
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Impairment of certain skills such as reading or writing, coordination, self-control, or attention that interfere with the ability to learn. The impairment is not related to a global deficiency of intelligence.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Hemivertebrae
MedGen UID:
82720
Concept ID:
C0265677
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of one half of the vertebral body.
Rib fusion
MedGen UID:
78570
Concept ID:
C0265695
Congenital Abnormality
Complete or partial merging of adjacent ribs.
Vertebral hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
87502
Concept ID:
C0345394
Congenital Abnormality
Small, underdeveloped vertebral bodies.
Supernumerary ribs
MedGen UID:
83380
Concept ID:
C0345397
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of more than 12 rib pairs.
Missing ribs
MedGen UID:
98093
Concept ID:
C0426816
Finding
A developmental anomaly with absence of one or more ribs.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Vertebral fusion
MedGen UID:
480139
Concept ID:
C3278509
Anatomical Abnormality
A developmental defect leading to the union of two adjacent vertebrae.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Butterfly vertebrae
MedGen UID:
1744309
Concept ID:
C5438458
Congenital Abnormality
A butterfly vertebra (sagittal cleft vertebra or anterior rachischisis) is a sagittal defect in the vertebral body caused by failure of fusion of the two lateral chondrification centers during embryogenesis. The name is based on the appearance of the two hemivertebrae emerging as butterfly wings from the central cleft on x-ray.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
82883
Concept ID:
C0271623
Disease or Syndrome
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is characterized by reduced function of the gonads (testes in males or ovaries in females) and results from the absence of the gonadal stimulating pituitary hormones
Anophthalmia
MedGen UID:
314
Concept ID:
C0003119
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of the globe or eyeball.
Congenital ocular coloboma
MedGen UID:
1046
Concept ID:
C0009363
Congenital Abnormality
Coloboma is an eye abnormality that occurs before birth. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in one of several parts of the eye, including the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain.\n\nColobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision. Colobomas affecting the iris, which result in a "keyhole" appearance of the pupil, generally do not lead to vision loss. Colobomas involving the retina result in vision loss in specific parts of the visual field. Large retinal colobomas or those affecting the optic nerve can cause low vision, which means vision loss that cannot be completely corrected with glasses or contact lenses.\n\nSome people with coloboma also have a condition called microphthalmia. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with coloboma may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract), increased pressure inside the eye (glaucoma) that can damage the optic nerve, vision problems such as nearsightedness (myopia), involuntary back-and-forth eye movements (nystagmus), or separation of the retina from the back of the eye (retinal detachment).\n\nColobomas involving the eyeball should be distinguished from gaps that occur in the eyelids. While these eyelid gaps are also called colobomas, they arise from abnormalities in different structures during early development.\n\nSome individuals have coloboma as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When coloboma occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Microphthalmia
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.\n\nBetween one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Optic nerve hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
137901
Concept ID:
C0338502
Disease or Syndrome
Underdevelopment of the optic nerve.
Sclerocornea
MedGen UID:
344000
Concept ID:
C1853235
Disease or Syndrome
A congenital anomaly in which a part or the whole of the cornea acquires the characteristics of sclera, resulting in clouding of the cornea.
Optic nerve aplasia
MedGen UID:
866737
Concept ID:
C4021084
Finding
Congenital absence of the optic nerve.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for Anophthalmia/microphthalmia-esophageal atresia syndrome in Orphanet.

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Zenteno JC, Perez-Cano HJ, Aguinaga M
Am J Med Genet A 2006 Sep 15;140(18):1899-903. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.31384. PMID: 16892407

Clinical prediction guides

Zenteno JC, Perez-Cano HJ, Aguinaga M
Am J Med Genet A 2006 Sep 15;140(18):1899-903. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.31384. PMID: 16892407