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Koolen-de Vries syndrome(KDVS)

MedGen UID:
355853
Concept ID:
C1864871
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: KANSL1-Related Intellectual Disability Syndrome; KDVS
SNOMED CT: Koolen De Vries syndrome (717338006)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Gene (location): KANSL1 (17q21.31)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0012496
OMIM®: 610443
Orphanet: ORPHA96169

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Koolen-de Vries Syndrome
Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS) is characterized by congenital malformations, developmental delay / intellectual disability, neonatal/childhood hypotonia, epilepsy, dysmorphisms, and behavioral features. Psychomotor developmental delay is noted in all individuals from an early age. The majority of individuals with KdVS function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. Other findings include speech and language delay (100%), epilepsy (~33%), congenital heart defects (25%-50%), renal and urologic anomalies (25%-50%), and cryptorchidism. Behavior in most is described as friendly, amiable, and cooperative. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
David A Koolen  |  Angela Morgan  |  Bert BA de Vries   view full author information

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Koolen-de Vries syndrome is a disorder characterized by developmental delay and mild to moderate intellectual disability. People with this disorder typically have a disposition that is described as cheerful, sociable, and cooperative. They usually have weak muscle tone (hypotonia) in childhood. About half have recurrent seizures (epilepsy).

Affected individuals often have distinctive facial features including a high, broad forehead; droopy eyelids (ptosis); a narrowing of the eye openings (blepharophimosis); outer corners of the eyes that point upward (upward-slanting palpebral fissures); skin folds covering the inner corner of the eyes (epicanthal folds); a bulbous nose; and prominent ears. Males with Koolen-de Vries syndrome often have undescended testes (cryptorchidism). Defects in the walls between the chambers of the heart (septal defects) or other cardiac abnormalities, kidney problems, and skeletal anomalies such as foot deformities occur in some affected individuals.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/koolen-de-vries-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Severe distention of the kidney with dilation of the renal pelvis and calices.
Vesicoureteral reflux
MedGen UID:
21852
Concept ID:
C0042580
Disease or Syndrome
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is characterized by the reflux of urine from the bladder into the ureters and sometimes into the kidneys. It is a risk factor for urinary tract infections. Primary VUR results from a developmental defect of the ureterovesical junction (UVJ). In combination with intrarenal reflux, the resulting inflammatory reaction may result in renal injury or scarring, also called reflux nephropathy (RN). Extensive renal scarring impairs renal function and may predispose patients to hypertension, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency (summary by Lu et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Vesicoureteral Reflux A locus designated VUR1 maps to chromosome 1p13. VUR2 (610878) is caused by mutation in the ROBO2 gene (602431) on chromosome 3p12; VUR3 (613674) is caused by mutation in the SOX17 gene (610928) on chromosome 8q11; VUR4 (614317) maps to chromosome 5; VUR5 (614318) maps to chromosome 13; VUR6 (614319) maps to chromosome 18; VUR7 (615390) maps to chromosome 12; and VUR8 (615963) is caused by mutation in the TNXB gene (600985) on chromosome 6p21. A possible X-linked form has been reported (VURX; 314550).
Recurrent urinary tract infections
MedGen UID:
120466
Concept ID:
C0262655
Disease or Syndrome
Repeated infections of the urinary tract.
Hypotrophy of the small hand muscles
MedGen UID:
334705
Concept ID:
C1843228
Disease or Syndrome
Slender finger
MedGen UID:
387832
Concept ID:
C1857482
Finding
Fingers that are disproportionately narrow (reduced girth) for the hand/foot size or build of the individual.
Narrow palm
MedGen UID:
346628
Concept ID:
C1857632
Finding
For children from birth to 4 years of age, the palm width is more than 2 SD below the mean; for children from 4 to 16 years of age the palm width is below the 5th centile; or, the width of the palm appears disproportionately narrow for its length.
Positional foot deformity
MedGen UID:
870707
Concept ID:
C4025161
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot deformity resulting due to an abnormality affecting the muscle and soft tissue. In contrast if the bones of the foot are affected the term structural foot deformity applies.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Bicuspid aortic valve
MedGen UID:
57436
Concept ID:
C0149630
Congenital Abnormality
Aortic valve disease-2 (AOVD2) is characterized by bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and dilation of the ascending aorta. Calcification of the valve and the aorta has been observed, and some patients exhibit coarctation of the aorta (Tan et al., 2012; Luyckx et al., 2019; Park et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of aortic valve disease, see AOVD1 (109730).
Aortic root aneurysm
MedGen UID:
720712
Concept ID:
C1298820
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal localized widening (dilatation) of the aortic root.
Pulmonic stenosis
MedGen UID:
408291
Concept ID:
C1956257
Disease or Syndrome
A narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract that can occur at the pulmonary valve (valvular stenosis), below the pulmonary valve (infundibular stenosis), or above the pulmonary valve (supravalvar stenosis).
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Small for gestational age
MedGen UID:
65920
Concept ID:
C0235991
Finding
Smaller than normal size according to sex and gestational age related norms, defined as a weight below the 10th percentile for the gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
MedGen UID:
196010
Concept ID:
C0700639
Congenital Abnormality
Pyloric stenosis, also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, is an uncommon condition in infants characterized by abnormal thickening of the pylorus muscles in the stomach leading to gastric outlet obstruction. Clinically infants are well at birth. Then, at 3 to 6 weeks of age, the infants present with projectile vomiting, potentially leading to dehydration and weight loss.
Feeding difficulties in infancy
MedGen UID:
436211
Concept ID:
C2674608
Finding
Impaired feeding performance of an infant as manifested by difficulties such as weak and ineffective sucking, brief bursts of sucking, and falling asleep during sucking. There may be difficulties with chewing or maintaining attention.
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Overfolded helix
MedGen UID:
325239
Concept ID:
C1837731
Finding
A condition in which the helix is folded over to a greater degree than normal. That is, excessive curling of the helix edge, whereby the free edge is parallel to the plane of the ear.
Anteverted ears
MedGen UID:
384047
Concept ID:
C1857055
Finding
Anxiety
MedGen UID:
1613
Concept ID:
C0003467
Finding
Intense feelings of nervousness, tension, or panic often arise in response to interpersonal stresses. There is worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative possibilities. Individuals may feel fearful, apprehensive, or threatened by uncertainty, and they may also have fears of falling apart or losing control.
Impulsivity
MedGen UID:
43850
Concept ID:
C0021125
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Acting on the spur of the moment in response to immediate stimuli; acting on a momentary basis without a plan or consideration of outcomes; having difficulty establishing or following plans; experiencing a sense of urgency and engaging in self-harming behavior when under emotional distress.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Gray matter heterotopia
MedGen UID:
452349
Concept ID:
C0266491
Finding
Heterotopia or neuronal heterotopia are macroscopic clusters of misplaced neurons (gray matter), most often situated along the ventricular walls or within the subcortical white matter.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Hyperactivity
MedGen UID:
98406
Concept ID:
C0424295
Finding
Hyperactivity is a condition characterized by constant and unusually high levels of activity, even in situations where it is deemed inappropriate.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Poor speech
MedGen UID:
341172
Concept ID:
C1848207
Finding
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Conspicuously happy disposition
MedGen UID:
866682
Concept ID:
C4021029
Finding
An unusually happy demeanor over time, which can also be observed during inappropriate situations that should, for example, cause distress, fear, or anger.
Morphological central nervous system abnormality
MedGen UID:
892343
Concept ID:
C4021765
Anatomical Abnormality
A structural abnormality of the central nervous system.
Hip dislocation
MedGen UID:
42455
Concept ID:
C0019554
Injury or Poisoning
Displacement of the femur from its normal location in the hip joint.
Kyphosis
MedGen UID:
44042
Concept ID:
C0022821
Anatomical Abnormality
Exaggerated anterior convexity of the thoracic vertebral column.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Spondylolisthesis
MedGen UID:
52470
Concept ID:
C0038016
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylolisthesis is defined as forward slipping of a vertebral body on the one below it. Spondylolysis is defined as a defect in the pars interarticularis without vertebral slipping (summary by Wiltse et al., 1975).
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Prominent metopic ridge
MedGen UID:
387953
Concept ID:
C1857949
Finding
Vertical bony ridge positioned in the midline of the forehead.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest ("pectus") a caved-in ("excavatum") appearance.
Vertebral fusion
MedGen UID:
480139
Concept ID:
C3278509
Anatomical Abnormality
A developmental defect leading to the union of two adjacent vertebrae.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Hip dysplasia
MedGen UID:
1640560
Concept ID:
C4551649
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH) is an abnormality of the seating of the femoral head in the acetabulum. Its severity ranges from mild instability of the femoral head with slight capsular laxity, through moderate lateral displacement of the femoral head, without loss of contact of the head with the acetabulum, up to complete dislocation of the femoral head from the acetabulum. It is one of the most common skeletal congenital anomalies (summary by Sollazzo et al., 2000). Acetabular dysplasia is an idiopathic, localized developmental dysplasia of the hip that is characterized by a shallow hip socket and decreased coverage of the femoral head. Its radiologic criteria include the center-edge angle of Wiberg, the Sharp angle, and the acetabular roof obliquity. Most patients with acetabular dysplasia develop osteoarthritis (165720) after midlife, and even mild acetabular dysplasia can cause hip osteoarthritis (summary by Mabuchi et al., 2006). CDH occurs as an isolated anomaly or with more general disorders represented by several syndromes and with chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomy 18 (Wynne-Davies, 1970). Genetic Heterogeneity of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Developmental dysplasia of the hip-1 (DDH1) maps to chromosome 13q22; DDH2 (615612) maps to chromosome 3p21. DDH3 (620690) is caused by mutation in the LRP1 gene (107770) on chromosome 12q13.
Congenital laryngomalacia
MedGen UID:
120500
Concept ID:
C0264303
Anatomical Abnormality
Laryngomalacia is a congenital abnormality of the laryngeal cartilage in which the cartilage is floppy and prolapses over the larynx during inspiration.
Eczema
MedGen UID:
3968
Concept ID:
C0013595
Disease or Syndrome
Eczema is a form of dermatitis that is characterized by scaly, pruritic, erythematous lesions located on flexural surfaces.
Hypernasal speech
MedGen UID:
107884
Concept ID:
C0566620
Finding
A type of speech characterized by the presence of an abnormally increased nasal airflow during speech associated with structural abnormality of the nasal passages.
Blepharophimosis
MedGen UID:
2670
Concept ID:
C0005744
Congenital Abnormality
A fixed reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids with short palpebral fissures.
Cleft upper lip
MedGen UID:
40327
Concept ID:
C0008924
Congenital Abnormality
A gap or groove in the upper lip. This is a congenital defect resulting from nonfusion of tissues of the lip during embryonal development.
High forehead
MedGen UID:
65991
Concept ID:
C0239676
Finding
An abnormally increased height of the forehead.
Open mouth
MedGen UID:
116104
Concept ID:
C0240379
Finding
A facial appearance characterized by a permanently or nearly permanently opened mouth.
Bulbous nose
MedGen UID:
66013
Concept ID:
C0240543
Finding
Increased volume and globular shape of the anteroinferior aspect of the nose.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Narrow palate
MedGen UID:
278045
Concept ID:
C1398312
Finding
Width of the palate more than 2 SD below the mean (objective) or apparently decreased palatal width (subjective).
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Widely spaced teeth
MedGen UID:
337093
Concept ID:
C1844813
Finding
Increased spaces (diastemata) between most of the teeth in the same dental arch.
Broad forehead
MedGen UID:
338610
Concept ID:
C1849089
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently increased distance between the two sides of the forehead.
Everted lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
344003
Concept ID:
C1853246
Finding
An abnormal configuration of the lower lip such that it is turned outward i.e., everted, with the Inner aspect of the lower lip vermilion (normally opposing the teeth) being visible in a frontal view.
Pear-shaped nose
MedGen UID:
377912
Concept ID:
C1853482
Finding
Prominent nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
343051
Concept ID:
C1854113
Finding
Anterior positioning of the nasal root in comparison to the usual positioning for age.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Broad chin
MedGen UID:
868767
Concept ID:
C4023172
Finding
Increased width of the midpoint of the mandible (mental protuberance) and overlying soft tissue.
Dry skin
MedGen UID:
56250
Concept ID:
C0151908
Sign or Symptom
Skin characterized by the lack of natural or normal moisture.
Sacral dimple
MedGen UID:
98428
Concept ID:
C0426848
Finding
A cutaneous indentation resulting from tethering of the skin to underlying structures (bone) of the intergluteal cleft.
Prominent fingertip pads
MedGen UID:
322758
Concept ID:
C1835807
Finding
A soft tissue prominence of the ventral aspects of the fingertips. The term "persistent fetal fingertip pads" is often used as a synonym, but should better not be used because it implies knowledge of history of the patient which often does not exist.
Fair hair
MedGen UID:
336542
Concept ID:
C1849221
Finding
A lesser degree of hair pigmentation than would otherwise be expected.
Abnormality of hair texture
MedGen UID:
869296
Concept ID:
C4023722
Finding
An abnormality of the texture of the hair.
Wide intermamillary distance
MedGen UID:
473489
Concept ID:
C1827524
Finding
A larger than usual distance between the left and right nipple.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Iris hypopigmentation
MedGen UID:
509721
Concept ID:
C0154920
Finding
An abnormal reduction in the amount of pigmentation of the iris.
Hypotelorism
MedGen UID:
96107
Concept ID:
C0424711
Finding
Interpupillary distance less than 2 SD below the mean (alternatively, the appearance of an decreased interpupillary distance or closely spaced eyes).

Term Hierarchy

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Parthenis C, Panagopoulos P
Ginekol Pol 2021;92(8):597-598. doi: 10.5603/GP.a2021.0157. PMID: 34541634

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Bouman A, Bouwmeester RN, van Vlimmeren LA, Burger P, Mandel JL, de Vries BBA, de Kleuver M, Klein WM, Geelen JM, Koolen DA
Am J Med Genet A 2023 Sep;191(9):2346-2355. Epub 2023 Jun 23 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63334. PMID: 37350176
Amenta S, Frangella S, Marangi G, Lattante S, Ricciardi S, Doronzio PN, Orteschi D, Veredice C, Contaldo I, Zampino G, Gentile M, Scarano E, Graziano C, Zollino M
J Med Genet 2022 Feb;59(2):189-195. Epub 2020 Dec 24 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107225. PMID: 33361104
Prat D, Katowitz WR, Strong A, Katowitz JA
Ophthalmic Genet 2021 Apr;42(2):186-188. Epub 2021 Jan 3 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2020.1868012. PMID: 33393407
Pascolini G, Gaudioso F, Fadda MT, Laino L, Ferraris A, Grammatico P
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Mar;185(3):978-981. Epub 2020 Dec 12 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62006. PMID: 33314579
Myers KA, Mandelstam SA, Ramantani G, Rushing EJ, de Vries BB, Koolen DA, Scheffer IE
Epilepsia 2017 Jun;58(6):1085-1094. Epub 2017 Apr 25 doi: 10.1111/epi.13746. PMID: 28440867

Diagnosis

Bouman A, Bouwmeester RN, van Vlimmeren LA, Burger P, Mandel JL, de Vries BBA, de Kleuver M, Klein WM, Geelen JM, Koolen DA
Am J Med Genet A 2023 Sep;191(9):2346-2355. Epub 2023 Jun 23 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63334. PMID: 37350176
Karamik G, Tuysuz B, Isik E, Yilmaz A, Alanay Y, Sunamak EC, Durmusalioglu EA, Ozkinay F, Cetin GO, Ozturk N, Mihci E, Nur B
Am J Med Genet A 2023 Jul;191(7):1814-1825. Epub 2023 Apr 13 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63207. PMID: 37053206
Khan AQ, Coorg RK, Gill D, Marini C, Myers KA
Epileptic Disord 2022 Oct 1;24(5):928-933. doi: 10.1684/epd.2022.1452. PMID: 35811432
Amenta S, Frangella S, Marangi G, Lattante S, Ricciardi S, Doronzio PN, Orteschi D, Veredice C, Contaldo I, Zampino G, Gentile M, Scarano E, Graziano C, Zollino M
J Med Genet 2022 Feb;59(2):189-195. Epub 2020 Dec 24 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107225. PMID: 33361104
Murdock DR, Dai H, Burrage LC, Rosenfeld JA, Ketkar S, Müller MF, Yépez VA, Gagneur J, Liu P, Chen S, Jain M, Zapata G, Bacino CA, Chao HT, Moretti P, Craigen WJ, Hanchard NA; Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Lee B
J Clin Invest 2021 Jan 4;131(1) doi: 10.1172/JCI141500. PMID: 33001864Free PMC Article

Therapy

Li T, Lu D, Yao C, Li T, Dong H, Li Z, Xu G, Chen J, Zhang H, Yi X, Zhu H, Liu G, Wen K, Zhao H, Gao J, Zhang Y, Han Q, Li T, Zhang W, Zhao J, Li T, Bai Z, Song M, He X, Zhou T, Xia Q, Li A, Pan X
Nat Commun 2022 Feb 17;13(1):931. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-28613-0. PMID: 35177641Free PMC Article
Murdock DR, Dai H, Burrage LC, Rosenfeld JA, Ketkar S, Müller MF, Yépez VA, Gagneur J, Liu P, Chen S, Jain M, Zapata G, Bacino CA, Chao HT, Moretti P, Craigen WJ, Hanchard NA; Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Lee B
J Clin Invest 2021 Jan 4;131(1) doi: 10.1172/JCI141500. PMID: 33001864Free PMC Article
Woodfin T, Stoops C, Philips JB 3rd, Lose E, Mikhail FM, Hurst A
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2019 Aug;7(8):e829. Epub 2019 Jun 28 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.829. PMID: 31250568Free PMC Article
Myers KA, Mandelstam SA, Ramantani G, Rushing EJ, de Vries BB, Koolen DA, Scheffer IE
Epilepsia 2017 Jun;58(6):1085-1094. Epub 2017 Apr 25 doi: 10.1111/epi.13746. PMID: 28440867

Prognosis

Amenta S, Frangella S, Marangi G, Lattante S, Ricciardi S, Doronzio PN, Orteschi D, Veredice C, Contaldo I, Zampino G, Gentile M, Scarano E, Graziano C, Zollino M
J Med Genet 2022 Feb;59(2):189-195. Epub 2020 Dec 24 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107225. PMID: 33361104
Prat D, Katowitz WR, Strong A, Katowitz JA
Ophthalmic Genet 2021 Apr;42(2):186-188. Epub 2021 Jan 3 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2020.1868012. PMID: 33393407
Woodfin T, Stoops C, Philips JB 3rd, Lose E, Mikhail FM, Hurst A
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2019 Aug;7(8):e829. Epub 2019 Jun 28 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.829. PMID: 31250568Free PMC Article
Morgan AT, Haaften LV, van Hulst K, Edley C, Mei C, Tan TY, Amor D, Fisher SE, Koolen DA
Eur J Hum Genet 2018 Jan;26(1):75-84. Epub 2017 Dec 11 doi: 10.1038/s41431-017-0035-9. PMID: 29225339Free PMC Article
Ciaccio C, Dordoni C, Ritelli M, Colombi M
Cytogenet Genome Res 2016;150(1):40-45. Epub 2016 Nov 17 doi: 10.1159/000452724. PMID: 27852077

Clinical prediction guides

Brand F, Vijayananth A, Hsieh TC, Schmidt A, Peters S, Mangold E, Cremer K, Bender T, Sivalingam S, Hundertmark H, Knaus A, Engels H, Krawitz PM, Perne C
Hum Mutat 2022 Nov;43(11):1659-1665. Epub 2022 Oct 2 doi: 10.1002/humu.24467. PMID: 36104871
Amenta S, Frangella S, Marangi G, Lattante S, Ricciardi S, Doronzio PN, Orteschi D, Veredice C, Contaldo I, Zampino G, Gentile M, Scarano E, Graziano C, Zollino M
J Med Genet 2022 Feb;59(2):189-195. Epub 2020 Dec 24 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107225. PMID: 33361104
Pascolini G, Gaudioso F, Fadda MT, Laino L, Ferraris A, Grammatico P
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Mar;185(3):978-981. Epub 2020 Dec 12 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62006. PMID: 33314579
Myers KA, Mandelstam SA, Ramantani G, Rushing EJ, de Vries BB, Koolen DA, Scheffer IE
Epilepsia 2017 Jun;58(6):1085-1094. Epub 2017 Apr 25 doi: 10.1111/epi.13746. PMID: 28440867
Ciaccio C, Dordoni C, Ritelli M, Colombi M
Cytogenet Genome Res 2016;150(1):40-45. Epub 2016 Nov 17 doi: 10.1159/000452724. PMID: 27852077

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