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Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliotic type, 2(EDSKMH; EDSKSCL2)

MedGen UID:
482790
Concept ID:
C3281160
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with progressive kyphoscoliosis, myopathy, and hearing loss; Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliotic and deafness type
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): FKBP14 (7p14.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013800
OMIM®: 614557
Orphanet: ORPHA300179

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: FKBP14 Kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
FKBP14 kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (FKBP14-kEDS) is characterized by congenital muscle hypotonia and weakness (typically improving during childhood), progressive scoliosis, joint hypermobility, hyperelastic skin, gross motor developmental delay, myopathy, and hearing impairment. Most affected children achieve independent walking between ages two and four years. A decline of motor function in adulthood may be seen, but affected individuals are likely to be able to participate in activities of daily living in adulthood and maintain independent walking. Occasional features underlying systemic connective tissue involvement include aortic rupture and arterial dissection, subdural hygroma, insufficiency of cardiac valves, bluish sclerae, bladder diverticula, inguinal or umbilical herniae, and premature rupture of membranes during pregnancy. Rarer findings may include bifid uvula with submucous or frank cleft palate, speech/language delay without true cognitive impairment, and rectal prolapse. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Cecilia Giunta  |  Marianne Rohrbach  |  Christine Fauth, et. al.   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome kyphoscoliotic type 2 (EDSKSCL2) is characterized by severe muscle hypotonia at birth, progressive scoliosis, joint hypermobility, hyperelastic skin, myopathy, sensorineural hearing impairment, and normal pyridinoline excretion in urine (Baumann et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the kyphoscoliotic type of EDS, see 225400.  http://www.omim.org/entry/614557
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Bleeding problems are common in the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and are caused by unpredictable tearing (rupture) of blood vessels and organs. These complications can lead to easy bruising, internal bleeding, a hole in the wall of the intestine (intestinal perforation), or stroke. During pregnancy, women with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may experience rupture of the uterus. Additional forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that involve rupture of the blood vessels include the kyphoscoliotic, classical, and classical-like types.

Other types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have additional signs and symptoms. The cardiac-valvular type causes severe problems with the valves that control the movement of blood through the heart. People with the kyphoscoliotic type experience severe curvature of the spine that worsens over time and can interfere with breathing by restricting lung expansion. A type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome called brittle cornea syndrome is characterized by thinness of the clear covering of the eye (the cornea) and other eye abnormalities. The spondylodysplastic type features short stature and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormally curved (bowed) limbs. Abnormalities of muscles, including hypotonia and permanently bent joints (contractures), are among the characteristic signs of the musculocontractural and myopathic forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The periodontal type causes abnormalities of the teeth and gums.

An unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility) occurs in most forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and it is a hallmark feature of the hypermobile type. Infants and children with hypermobility often have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which can delay the development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking. The loose joints are unstable and prone to dislocation and chronic pain. In the arthrochalasia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, infants have hypermobility and dislocations of both hips at birth.

Many people with the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes have soft, velvety skin that is highly stretchy (elastic) and fragile. Affected individuals tend to bruise easily, and some types of the condition also cause abnormal scarring. People with the classical form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome experience wounds that split open with little bleeding and leave scars that widen over time to create characteristic "cigarette paper" scars. The dermatosparaxis type of the disorder is characterized by loose skin that sags and wrinkles, and extra (redundant) folds of skin may be present.

The various forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have been classified in several different ways. Originally, 11 forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome were named using Roman numerals to indicate the types (type I, type II, and so on). In 1997, researchers proposed a simpler classification (the Villefranche nomenclature) that reduced the number of types to six and gave them descriptive names based on their major features. In 2017, the classification was updated to include rare forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that were identified more recently. The 2017 classification describes 13 types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of disorders that affect connective tissues supporting the skin, bones, blood vessels, and many other organs and tissues. Defects in connective tissues cause the signs and symptoms of these conditions, which range from mildly loose joints to life-threatening complications.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/ehlers-danlos-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Diverticulum of bladder
MedGen UID:
57625
Concept ID:
C0156273
Finding
Diverticulum (sac or pouch) in the wall of the urinary bladder.
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Aortic rupture
MedGen UID:
8151
Concept ID:
C0003496
Disease or Syndrome
Tearing of the aortic wall generally associated with profuse internal bleeding.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Mitral regurgitation
MedGen UID:
7670
Concept ID:
C0026266
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the mitral valve characterized by insufficiency or incompetence of the mitral valve resulting in retrograde leaking of blood through the mitral valve upon ventricular contraction.
Tricuspid regurgitation
MedGen UID:
11911
Concept ID:
C0040961
Disease or Syndrome
Failure of the tricuspid valve to close sufficiently upon contraction of the right ventricle, causing blood to regurgitate (flow backward) into the right atrium.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Redundant umbilical skin
MedGen UID:
862315
Concept ID:
C4013878
Anatomical Abnormality
Greater than normal amount of skin surrounding the umbilicus (belly button) with protrusion of the umbilicus above the plane of the abdomen.
Conductive hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
9163
Concept ID:
C0018777
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of vibrational conductance of sound to the inner ear leading to impairment of sensory perception of sound.
Mixed hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
102336
Concept ID:
C0155552
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing loss resulting from a combination of conductive hearing impairment and sensorineural hearing impairment.
High-frequency sensorineural hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
867405
Concept ID:
C4021775
Disease or Syndrome
A form of sensorineural hearing impairment that affects primarily the higher frequencies.
Waddling gait
MedGen UID:
66667
Concept ID:
C0231712
Finding
Weakness of the hip girdle and upper thigh muscles, for instance in myopathies, leads to an instability of the pelvis on standing and walking. If the muscles extending the hip joint are affected, the posture in that joint becomes flexed and lumbar lordosis increases. The patients usually have difficulties standing up from a sitting position. Due to weakness in the gluteus medius muscle, the hip on the side of the swinging leg drops with each step (referred to as Trendelenburg sign). The gait appears waddling. The patients frequently attempt to counteract the dropping of the hip on the swinging side by bending the trunk towards the side which is in the stance phase (in the German language literature this is referred to as Duchenne sign). Similar gait patterns can be caused by orthopedic conditions when the origin and the insertion site of the gluteus medius muscle are closer to each other than normal, for instance due to a posttraumatic elevation of the trochanter or pseudarthrosis of the femoral neck.
Delayed ability to walk
MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Inguinal hernia
MedGen UID:
6817
Concept ID:
C0019294
Finding
Protrusion of the contents of the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal.
Umbilical hernia
MedGen UID:
9232
Concept ID:
C0019322
Anatomical Abnormality
Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the abdominal wall musculature around the umbilicus. Skin and subcutaneous tissue overlie the defect.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Myopathy
MedGen UID:
10135
Concept ID:
C0026848
Disease or Syndrome
A disorder of muscle unrelated to impairment of innervation or neuromuscular junction.
Osteopenia
MedGen UID:
18222
Concept ID:
C0029453
Disease or Syndrome
Osteopenia is a term to define bone density that is not normal but also not as low as osteoporosis. By definition from the World Health Organization osteopenia is defined by bone densitometry as a T score -1 to -2.5.
Muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
57735
Concept ID:
C0151786
Finding
Reduced strength of muscles.
Atlantoaxial instability
MedGen UID:
98381
Concept ID:
C0410653
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally increased movement at the junction between the first cervical (atlas) and the second cervical (axis) vertebrae as a result of either a bony or ligamentous anomaly.
Muscular atrophy
MedGen UID:
892680
Concept ID:
C0541794
Pathologic Function
The presence of skeletal muscular atrophy (which is also known as amyotrophy).
Kyphoscoliosis
MedGen UID:
154361
Concept ID:
C0575158
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal curvature of the spine in both a coronal (lateral) and sagittal (back-to-front) plane.
Poor head control
MedGen UID:
322809
Concept ID:
C1836038
Finding
Difficulty to maintain correct position of the head while standing or sitting.
Type 1 muscle fiber predominance
MedGen UID:
344274
Concept ID:
C1854387
Finding
An abnormal predominance of type I muscle fibers (in general, this feature can only be observed on muscle biopsy).
Neonatal hypotonia
MedGen UID:
412209
Concept ID:
C2267233
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) manifesting in the neonatal period.
Small joint hypermobilty
MedGen UID:
1053068
Concept ID:
CN376458
Finding
The capability that a small joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes. Small joints include metacarpophalangeal joints, proximal interphalangeal joints, \nsecond to fifth metatarsophalangeal joints, and wrists.
Large joint hypermobilty
MedGen UID:
1052858
Concept ID:
CN376459
Finding
The capability that a large joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes. Large joints include shoulders, elbows, hips, knees, and ankles.
Cleft soft palate
MedGen UID:
98471
Concept ID:
C0432098
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft of the soft palate (also known as the velum, or muscular palate) as a result of a developmental defect occurring between the 7th and 12th week of pregnancy. Cleft soft palate can cause functional abnormalities of the Eustachian tube with resulting middle ear anomalies and hearing difficulties, as well as speech problems associated with hypernasal speech due to velopharyngeal insufficiency.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Sloping forehead
MedGen UID:
346640
Concept ID:
C1857679
Finding
Inclination of the anterior surface of the forehead from the vertical more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently excessive posterior sloping of the forehead in a lateral view.
Cutis laxa
MedGen UID:
8206
Concept ID:
C0010495
Disease or Syndrome
Wrinkled, redundant, inelastic and sagging skin.
Atrophic scars
MedGen UID:
57875
Concept ID:
C0162154
Pathologic Function
Scars that form a depression compared to the level of the surrounding skin because of damage to the collagen, fat or other tissues below the skin.
Hyperextensible skin
MedGen UID:
66023
Concept ID:
C0241074
Finding
A condition in which the skin can be stretched beyond normal, and then returns to its initial position.
Phrynoderma
MedGen UID:
83101
Concept ID:
C0334013
Disease or Syndrome
A skin condition characterized by excessive development of keratin in hair follicles, resulting in rough, cone-shaped, elevated papules resulting from closure of hair follicles with a white plug of sebum.
Bruising susceptibility
MedGen UID:
140849
Concept ID:
C0423798
Finding
An ecchymosis (bruise) refers to the skin discoloration caused by the escape of blood into the tissues from ruptured blood vessels. This term refers to an abnormally increased susceptibility to bruising. The corresponding phenotypic abnormality is generally elicited on medical history as a report of frequent ecchymoses or bruising without adequate trauma.
Soft skin
MedGen UID:
336730
Concept ID:
C1844592
Finding
Subjective impression of increased softness upon palpation of the skin.
Polyhydramnios
MedGen UID:
6936
Concept ID:
C0020224
Pathologic Function
The presence of excess amniotic fluid in the uterus during pregnancy.
Decreased fetal movement
MedGen UID:
68618
Concept ID:
C0235659
Finding
An abnormal reduction in quantity or strength of fetal movements.
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Microcornea
MedGen UID:
78610
Concept ID:
C0266544
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality of the cornea in which the cornea and the anterior segment of the eye are smaller than normal. The horizontal diameter of the cornea does not reach 10 mm even in adulthood.
Hypotelorism
MedGen UID:
96107
Concept ID:
C0424711
Finding
Interpupillary distance less than 2 SD below the mean (alternatively, the appearance of an decreased interpupillary distance or closely spaced eyes).
Blue sclerae
MedGen UID:
154236
Concept ID:
C0542514
Finding
An abnormal bluish coloration of the sclera.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliotic type, 2 in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Liang B, Yu D, Zhao W, Wang Y, Wang X, Wu X, Chen L, Chen M, Zhang M, Chen X, Lin N, Huang H, Xu L
J Hum Genet 2022 Nov;67(11):629-638. Epub 2022 Jul 27 doi: 10.1038/s10038-022-01062-9. PMID: 35896820

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Liang B, Yu D, Zhao W, Wang Y, Wang X, Wu X, Chen L, Chen M, Zhang M, Chen X, Lin N, Huang H, Xu L
J Hum Genet 2022 Nov;67(11):629-638. Epub 2022 Jul 27 doi: 10.1038/s10038-022-01062-9. PMID: 35896820
Semyachkina AN, Nikolaeva EA, Galeeva NM, Polyakov AV, Kurnikova MA, Belova VА, Shulyakova IV, Dantsev IS, Dzhivanshiryan GV
F1000Res 2021;10:502. Epub 2021 Jun 25 doi: 10.12688/f1000research.52268.1. PMID: 34504686Free PMC Article
Basalom S, Rauch F
Curr Osteoporos Rep 2020 Apr;18(2):95-102. doi: 10.1007/s11914-020-00568-5. PMID: 32162201
van Dijk FS, Mancini GMS, Maugeri A, Cobben JM
Eur J Med Genet 2017 Oct;60(10):536-540. Epub 2017 Jul 27 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2017.07.011. PMID: 28757364

Diagnosis

Liang B, Yu D, Zhao W, Wang Y, Wang X, Wu X, Chen L, Chen M, Zhang M, Chen X, Lin N, Huang H, Xu L
J Hum Genet 2022 Nov;67(11):629-638. Epub 2022 Jul 27 doi: 10.1038/s10038-022-01062-9. PMID: 35896820
Semyachkina AN, Nikolaeva EA, Galeeva NM, Polyakov AV, Kurnikova MA, Belova VА, Shulyakova IV, Dantsev IS, Dzhivanshiryan GV
F1000Res 2021;10:502. Epub 2021 Jun 25 doi: 10.12688/f1000research.52268.1. PMID: 34504686Free PMC Article
Basalom S, Rauch F
Curr Osteoporos Rep 2020 Apr;18(2):95-102. doi: 10.1007/s11914-020-00568-5. PMID: 32162201
van Dijk FS, Mancini GMS, Maugeri A, Cobben JM
Eur J Med Genet 2017 Oct;60(10):536-540. Epub 2017 Jul 27 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2017.07.011. PMID: 28757364

Clinical prediction guides

Liang B, Yu D, Zhao W, Wang Y, Wang X, Wu X, Chen L, Chen M, Zhang M, Chen X, Lin N, Huang H, Xu L
J Hum Genet 2022 Nov;67(11):629-638. Epub 2022 Jul 27 doi: 10.1038/s10038-022-01062-9. PMID: 35896820
Basalom S, Rauch F
Curr Osteoporos Rep 2020 Apr;18(2):95-102. doi: 10.1007/s11914-020-00568-5. PMID: 32162201

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