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Congenital heart defects and skeletal malformations syndrome(CHDSKM)

MedGen UID:
1618340
Concept ID:
C4539857
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: CHDSKM; CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS AND SKELETAL MALFORMATIONS SYNDROME
 
Gene (location): ABL1 (9q34.12)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0060532
OMIM®: 617602

Definition

Congenital heart defects and skeletal malformations syndrome (CHDSKM) is characterized by atrial and ventricular septal defects, with aortic root dilation in adulthood. Skeletal defects are variable and include pectus excavatum, scoliosis, and finger contractures, and some patients exhibit joint laxity. Failure to thrive is observed during infancy and early childhood (Wang et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
163083
Concept ID:
C0848558
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft (underside) characterized by displacement of the urethral meatus from the tip of the glans penis to the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.
Arachnodactyly
MedGen UID:
2047
Concept ID:
C0003706
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally long and slender fingers ("spider fingers").
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Sandal gap
MedGen UID:
374376
Concept ID:
C1840069
Finding
A widely spaced gap between the first toe (the great toe) and the second toe.
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger
MedGen UID:
340456
Concept ID:
C1850049
Congenital Abnormality
Clinodactyly refers to a bending or curvature of the fifth finger in the radial direction (i.e., towards the 4th finger).
Coarctation of aorta
MedGen UID:
1617
Concept ID:
C0003492
Congenital Abnormality
Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing or constriction of a segment of the aorta.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Aortic root aneurysm
MedGen UID:
720712
Concept ID:
C1298820
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal localized widening (dilatation) of the aortic root.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Anal atresia
MedGen UID:
1997
Concept ID:
C0003466
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital absence of the anus, i.e., the opening at the bottom end of the intestinal tract.
Intestinal malrotation
MedGen UID:
113153
Concept ID:
C0221210
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of the intestinal rotation and fixation that normally occurs during the development of the gut. This can lead to volvulus, or twisting of the intestine that causes obstruction and necrosis.
Chronic constipation
MedGen UID:
98325
Concept ID:
C0401149
Sign or Symptom
Constipation for longer than three months with fewer than 3 bowel movements per week, straining, lumpy or hard stools, and a sensation of anorectal obstruction or incomplete defecation.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Kyphosis
MedGen UID:
44042
Concept ID:
C0022821
Anatomical Abnormality
Exaggerated anterior convexity of the thoracic vertebral column.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
MedGen UID:
68625
Concept ID:
C0235833
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of a hernia of the diaphragm present at birth.
Camptodactyly
MedGen UID:
195780
Concept ID:
C0685409
Congenital Abnormality
The distal interphalangeal joint and/or the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or toes cannot be extended to 180 degrees by either active or passive extension.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The ability of a joint to move beyond its normal range of motion.
Narrow maxilla
MedGen UID:
377533
Concept ID:
C1851835
Anatomical Abnormality
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest ("pectus") a caved-in ("excavatum") appearance.
Repeated pneumothoraces
MedGen UID:
870578
Concept ID:
C4025027
Disease or Syndrome
Carious teeth
MedGen UID:
8288
Concept ID:
C0011334
Disease or Syndrome
Caries is a multifactorial bacterial infection affecting the structure of the tooth. This term has been used to describe the presence of more than expected dental caries.
Dental crowding
MedGen UID:
11850
Concept ID:
C0040433
Finding
Changes in alignment of teeth in the dental arch
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Narrow nose
MedGen UID:
98086
Concept ID:
C0426422
Finding
Interalar distance more than 2 SD below the mean for age, or alternatively, an apparently decreased width of the nasal base and alae.
Thin vermilion border
MedGen UID:
108294
Concept ID:
C0578038
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the medial part of the lip more than 2 SD below the mean, or apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the lip in the frontal view. The vermilion is the red part of the lips (and confusingly, the vermilion itself is also often referred to as being equivalent the lips).
Smooth philtrum
MedGen UID:
222980
Concept ID:
C1142533
Finding
Flat skin surface, with no ridge formation in the central region of the upper lip between the nasal base and upper vermilion border.
Narrow forehead
MedGen UID:
326956
Concept ID:
C1839758
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations below the mean (objective); or apparently narrow intertemporal region (subjective).
Long nose
MedGen UID:
326583
Concept ID:
C1839798
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations above the mean, or alternatively, an apparently increased length from the nasal root to the nasal base.
Pointed chin
MedGen UID:
336193
Concept ID:
C1844505
Finding
A marked tapering of the lower face to the chin.
Medial flaring of the eyebrow
MedGen UID:
336722
Concept ID:
C1844562
Finding
An abnormal distribution of eyebrow hair growth in the medial direction.
Broad forehead
MedGen UID:
338610
Concept ID:
C1849089
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently increased distance between the two sides of the forehead.
Short nose
MedGen UID:
343052
Concept ID:
C1854114
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations below the mean, or alternatively, an apparently decreased length from the nasal root to the nasal tip.
Downturned corners of mouth
MedGen UID:
356471
Concept ID:
C1866195
Anatomical Abnormality
A morphological abnormality of the mouth in which the angle of the mouth is downturned. The oral commissures are positioned inferior to the midline labial fissure.
Short chin
MedGen UID:
784514
Concept ID:
C3697248
Finding
Decreased vertical distance from the vermilion border of the lower lip to the inferior-most point of the chin.
Cutis marmorata
MedGen UID:
78093
Concept ID:
C0263401
Disease or Syndrome
A reticular discoloration of the skin with cyanotic (reddish-blue appearing) areas surrounding pale central areas due to dilation of capillary blood vessels and stagnation of blood within the vessels. Cutis marmorata generally occurs on the legs, arms and trunk and is often more severe in cold weather.
Thin skin
MedGen UID:
140848
Concept ID:
C0423757
Finding
Reduction in thickness of the skin, generally associated with a loss of suppleness and elasticity of the skin.
Soft skin
MedGen UID:
336730
Concept ID:
C1844592
Finding
Subjective impression of increased softness upon palpation of the skin.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
473112
Concept ID:
C0423224
Finding
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Kohut TJ, Gilbert MA, Loomes KM
Semin Liver Dis 2021 Nov;41(4):525-537. Epub 2021 Jul 2 doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1730951. PMID: 34215014
Weiss K, Lazar HP, Kurolap A, Martinez AF, Paperna T, Cohen L, Smeland MF, Whalen S, Heide S, Keren B, Terhal P, Irving M, Takaku M, Roberts JD, Petrovich RM, Schrier Vergano SA, Kenney A, Hove H, DeChene E, Quinonez SC, Colin E, Ziegler A, Rumple M, Jain M, Monteil D, Roeder ER, Nugent K, van Haeringen A, Gambello M, Santani A, Medne L, Krock B, Skraban CM, Zackai EH, Dubbs HA, Smol T, Ghoumid J, Parker MJ, Wright M, Turnpenny P, Clayton-Smith J, Metcalfe K, Kurumizaka H, Gelb BD, Baris Feldman H, Campeau PM, Muenke M, Wade PA, Lachlan K
Genet Med 2020 Feb;22(2):389-397. Epub 2019 Aug 7 doi: 10.1038/s41436-019-0612-0. PMID: 31388190Free PMC Article
Statland JM, Fontaine B, Hanna MG, Johnson NE, Kissel JT, Sansone VA, Shieh PB, Tawil RN, Trivedi J, Cannon SC, Griggs RC
Muscle Nerve 2018 Apr;57(4):522-530. Epub 2017 Nov 29 doi: 10.1002/mus.26009. PMID: 29125635Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Spencer C, Comitis G, Lawrenson J, Fieggen K
Am J Med Genet A 2023 Jun;191(6):1652-1655. Epub 2023 Mar 22 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63189. PMID: 36949638
Chen CA, Crutcher E, Gill H, Nelson TN, Robak LA, Jongmans MCJ, Pfundt R, Prasad C, Berard RA, Fannemel M, Frengen E, Misceo D, Ramsey K, Yang Y, Schaaf CP, Wang X
Hum Mutat 2020 Oct;41(10):1738-1744. Epub 2020 Jul 19 doi: 10.1002/humu.24075. PMID: 32643838

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