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1.

Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation

Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM) syndrome is characterized by the presence of multiple small (1-2 cm in diameter) capillary malformations mostly localized on the face and limbs. Some affected individuals also have associated arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and/or arteriovenous fistulas (AFVs), fast-flow vascular anomalies that typically arise in the skin, muscle, bone, spine, and brain; life-threatening complications of these lesions can include bleeding, congestive heart failure, and/or neurologic consequences. Symptoms from intracranial AVMs/AVFs appear to occur early in life. Several individuals have Parkes Weber syndrome (multiple micro-AVFs associated with a cutaneous capillary stain and excessive soft-tissue and skeletal growth of an affected limb). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648501
Concept ID:
C4747394
Disease or Syndrome
2.

EPIDERMODYSPLASIA VERRUCIFORMIS, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 5

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis-5 is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by onset of warts and verrucous or plaque-like skin lesions associated with HPV infection. Immunologic workup shows T-cell lymphopenia, particularly affecting CD4+ T cells. There is an increased risk of skin malignancy, and some patients may have other symptoms of immune dysfunction (summary by Horev et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to epidermodysplasia verruciformis, see EV1 (226400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648489
Concept ID:
C4749043
Finding
3.

Acute myeloid leukemia, M6 type

Familial erythroleukemia is a leukemic or preleukemic state in which red cell proliferation is the predominant feature. Hematologic characteristics include particularly ineffective and hyperplastic erythropoiesis with megaloblastic components accompanied by myeloblastic proliferation of varying degree (Park et al., 2002). Park et al. (2002) discussed the evolution of the definition of 'erythroleukemia,' which is considered by most to be a subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML; 601626). Controversy about the precise definition of erythroleukemia revolves around the number or percentage of erythroblasts and myeloblasts found in the bone marrow and peripheral circulation. In the French-American-British (FAB) classification system (Bennett et al., 1985), it is known as AML-M6, whereas in the revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification system (Harris et al., 1999), it is known as 'AML, not otherwise categorized' (Zini and D'Onofrio, 2004). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648472
Concept ID:
C4746575
Finding
4.

Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome

Autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is a primary immune deficiency characterized by the classic triad of recurrent skin boils, cyst-forming pneumonias, and extreme elevations of serum IgE. It is now recognized that other common manifestations include eczema, mucocutaneous candidiasis, and several connective tissue and skeletal abnormalities. A rash in the newborn period subsequently evolves into an eczematoid dermatitis. Recurrent staphylococcal skin boils and bacterial pneumonias usually manifest in the first years of life. Pneumatocoeles and bronchiectasis often result from aberrant healing of pneumonias. Mucocutaneous candidiasis is common. A characteristic facial appearance typically emerges in adolescence. Skeletal abnormalities include osteopenia, minimal trauma fractures, and scoliosis. Vascular abnormalities include middle-sized artery tortuosity and aneurysms, with infrequent clinical sequelae of myocardial infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations include gastroesophageal reflux disease; esophageal dysmotility; and rarely colonic perforations, some of which are associated with diverticuli. Fungal infection of the GI tract (typically histoplasmosis, Cryptococcus, and Coccidioides) also occur infrequently. Survival is typically into adulthood, but life span is often shortened. Most deaths are associated with Gram-negative (Pseudomonas) or filamentous fungal pneumonias resulting in hemoptysis. Lymphomas occur at an increased frequency. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648470
Concept ID:
C4721531
Disease or Syndrome
5.

PROTEASOME-ASSOCIATED AUTOINFLAMMATORY SYNDROME 3

Proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome-3 is an autosomal recessive syndrome with onset in early infancy. Affected individuals present with nodular dermatitis, recurrent fever, myositis, panniculitis-induced lipodystrophy, lymphadenopathy, and dysregulation of the immune response, particularly associated with abnormal type I interferon-induced gene expression patterns. Additional features are highly variable, but may include joint contractures, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, recurrent infections, autoantibodies, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Some patients may have intracranial calcifications (summary by Brehm et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PRAAS, see PRAAS1 (256040). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648456
Concept ID:
C4747850
Disease or Syndrome
6.

EPILEPSY, FAMILIAL ADULT MYOCLONIC, 7

MedGen UID:
1648435
Concept ID:
C4748080
Disease or Syndrome
7.

INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE, IMMUNODEFICIENCY, AND ENCEPHALOPATHY

MedGen UID:
1648434
Concept ID:
C4748708
Disease or Syndrome
8.

VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AND PROGRESSIVE PHTHISIS BULBI

Visual impairment and progressive phthisis bulbi is characterized by poor vision at birth, with development of bilateral phthisis by adulthood (Ansar et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648430
Concept ID:
C4748978
Disease or Syndrome
9.

IMMUNODEFICIENCY 15A

Immunodeficiency 15A is an autosomal dominant primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by relatively late onset of recurrent respiratory tract infections and lymphopenia, combined with immune activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. One patient presented with inflammatory disease and possible ectodermal defect. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648385
Concept ID:
C4748694
Disease or Syndrome
10.

BONE MARROW FAILURE SYNDROME 5

Bone marrow failure syndrome-5 (BMFS5) is a hematologic disorder characterized by infantile onset of severe red cell anemia requiring transfusion. Additional features include hypogammaglobulinemia, poor growth with microcephaly, developmental delay, and seizures (summary by Toki et al., 2018) For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of BMFS, see BMFS1 (614675). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648380
Concept ID:
C4748488
Disease or Syndrome
11.

MUCOCUTANEOUS ULCERATION, CHRONIC

MedGen UID:
1648375
Concept ID:
C4748997
Disease or Syndrome
12.

INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER WITH OR WITHOUT EPILEPSY OR CEREBELLAR ATAXIA

MedGen UID:
1648354
Concept ID:
C4748041
Disease or Syndrome
13.

MENTAL RETARDATION, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE 63

MedGen UID:
1648348
Concept ID:
C4748167
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Nakajo syndrome

This autosomal recessive systemic autoinflammatory disorder is characterized by early childhood onset of annular erythematous plaques on the face and extremities with subsequent development of partial lipodystrophy and laboratory evidence of immune dysregulation. More variable features include recurrent fever, severe joint contractures, muscle weakness and atrophy, hepatosplenomegaly, basal ganglia calcifications, and microcytic anemia (summary by Agarwal et al., 2010; Kitamura et al., 2011; Arima et al., 2011). This disorder encompasses Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome (NKJO); joint contractures, muscular atrophy, microcytic anemia, and panniculitis-induced lipodystrophy (JMP syndrome); and chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature syndrome (CANDLE). Among Japanese patients, this disorder is best described as Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, since both Nakajo (1939) and Nishimura et al. (1950) contributed to the original phenotypic descriptions. Genetic Heterogeneity of Proteasome-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome See also PRAAS2 (618048), caused by mutation in the POMP gene (613386) on chromosome 13q12, and PRAAS3 (617591), caused by mutation in the PSMB4 gene (602177) on chromosome 1q21. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648310
Concept ID:
C4746851
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Gingival fibromatosis 1

MedGen UID:
1647111
Concept ID:
C4551558
Disease or Syndrome
16.

NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER WITH OR WITHOUT HYPERKINETIC MOVEMENTS AND SEIZURES, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE

GRIN1-related neurodevelopmental disorder (GRIN1-NDD) is characterized by mild to profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID) in all affected individuals. Other common manifestations are epilepsy, muscular hypotonia, movement disorders, spasticity, feeding difficulties, and behavior problems. To date, 72 individuals with GRIN1-NDD have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1646665
Concept ID:
C4693325
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Craniosynostosis 1

Craniosynostosis is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). Mutation in the TWIST1 has been found to cause coronal and sagittal forms of craniosynostosis. Genetic Heterogeneity of Craniosynostosis Craniosynostosis-2 (CRS2; 604757) is caused by mutation in the MSX2 gene (123101) on chromosome 5q35. Craniosynostosis-3 (CRS3; 615314) is caused by mutation in the TCF12 gene (600480) on chromosome 15q21. Craniosynostosis-4 (CRS4; 600775) is caused by mutation in the ERF gene (611888) on chromosome 19q13. Susceptibility to craniosynostosis-5 (CRS5; 615529) is conferred by variation in the ALX4 gene (605420) on chromosome 11p11. Craniosynostosis-6 (CRS6; 616602) is caused by mutation in the ZIC1 gene (600470) on chromosome 3q24. Susceptibility to craniosynostosis-7 (CRS7; 617439) is conferred by variation in the SMAD6 gene (602931) on chromosome 15q22. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1646646
Concept ID:
C4551902
Disease or Syndrome
18.

CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE, DOMINANT INTERMEDIATE G

CMTDIG is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Most affected individuals have onset in the first or second decades of slowly progressive distal motor weakness and atrophy, resulting in gait instability and distal upper limb impairment, as well as distal sensory impairment. More severely affected individuals may have pes cavus and claw hands and become wheelchair-bound, whereas other affected individuals have later onset with a milder disease course. Electrophysiologic studies tend to show median motor nerve conduction velocities (NCV) in the 'intermediate' range, between 25 and 45 m/s (summary by Berciano et al., 2017). In a review of intermediate CMT, Berciano et al. (2017) noted that advanced axonal degeneration may induce secondary demyelinating changes resulting in decreased NCV and attenuated compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in median nerve conduction studies. They thus suggested that testing the upper arm, axilla to elbow, may provide more accurate assessment of NCV and CMAP and reveal an intermediate phenotype (review by Berciano et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMTDI, see 606482. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1642893
Concept ID:
C4693509
Disease or Syndrome
19.

TUMORAL CALCINOSIS, HYPERPHOSPHATEMIC, FAMILIAL, 2

Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the progressive deposition of basic calcium phosphate crystals in periarticular spaces, soft tissues, and sometimes bone (Chefetz et al., 2005). The biochemical hallmark of tumoral calcinosis is hyperphosphatemia caused by increased renal absorption of phosphate due to loss-of-function mutations in the FGF23 or GALNT3 (601756) gene. The term 'hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome' is sometimes used when the disorder is characterized by involvement of the long bones associated with the radiographic findings of periosteal reaction and cortical hyperostosis. Although some have distinguished HHS from FTC by the presence of bone involvement and the absence of skin involvement (Frishberg et al., 2005), Ichikawa et al. (2010) concluded that the 2 entities represent a continuous spectrum of the same disease, best described as familial hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis. HFTC is considered to be the clinical converse of autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR; 193100), an allelic disorder caused by gain-of-function mutations in the FGF23 gene and associated with hypophosphatemia and decreased renal phosphate absorption (Chefetz et al., 2005; Ichikawa et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HFTC, see 211900. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1640532
Concept ID:
C4693863
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis 1

Primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis (PLCA) is a condition in which clumps of abnormal proteins called amyloids build up in the skin, specifically in the wave-like projections (dermal papillae) between the top two layers of skin (the dermis and the epidermis). The primary feature of PLCA is patches of skin with abnormal texture or color. The appearance of these patches defines three forms of the condition: lichen amyloidosis, macular amyloidosis, and nodular amyloidosis.Lichen amyloidosis is characterized by severely itchy patches of thickened skin with multiple small bumps. The patches are scaly and reddish brown in color. These patches usually occur on the shins but can also occur on the forearms, other parts of the legs, and elsewhere on the body.In macular amyloidosis, the patches are flat and dark brown. The coloring can have a lacy (reticulated) or rippled appearance, although it is often uniform. Macular amyloidosis patches are most commonly found on the upper back, but they can also occur on other parts of the torso or on the limbs. These patches are mildly itchy.Nodular amyloidosis is characterized by firm, raised bumps (nodules) that are pink, red, or brown. These nodules often occur on the face, torso, limbs, or genitals and are typically not itchy.In some affected individuals, the patches have characteristics of both lichen and macular amyloidosis. These cases are called biphasic amyloidosis.In all forms of PLCA, the abnormal patches of skin usually arise in mid-adulthood. They can remain for months to years and may recur after disappearing, either at the same location or elsewhere. Very rarely, nodular amyloidosis progresses to a life-threatening condition called systemic amyloidosis, in which amyloid deposits accumulate in tissues and organs throughout the body.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
1639046
Concept ID:
C4551501
Disease or Syndrome
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