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1.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, sleep disturbance, and brain abnormalities

Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, sleep disturbance, and brain abnormalities (NEDFASB) is a syndromic disorder with multisystemic involvement. Affected individuals have severe global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development, poor or absent language, behavioral abnormalities, seizures, and sleep disturbances. Craniofacial dysmorphisms, while variable, include round face, prognathism, depressed nasal bridge, and cleft or high-arched palate. Brain imaging shows dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and progressive cerebellar atrophy. Additional features may include genitourinary tract anomalies, hearing loss, and mild distal skeletal defects (summary by Humbert et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1777442
Concept ID:
C5436821
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Vissers-Bodmer syndrome

Vissers-Bodmer syndrome (VIBOS) is characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, speech delay, motor delay, and behavioral abnormalities apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: some individuals have only mild learning difficulties, whereas others have severe cognitive impairment with IQ in the 50s. Many patients have behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder, ADD, ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and impulsivity. Other common features include growth impairment abnormalities, hypotonia, and distal skeletal defects, such as foot and hand deformities. Less common features include seizures, brain abnormalities on MRI, feeding problems, and joint hypermobility. Most individuals have dysmorphic facial features, but there is no recognizable gestalt (summary by Vissers et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1776566
Concept ID:
C5436647
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 15

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 15 (MC4DN15) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms in infancy. Affected individuals show global developmental delay, poor feeding, short stature with microcephaly, proximal muscle weakness, and distal spasticity. Other manifestations include scoliosis, primary pulmonary hypertension, childhood-onset refractory seizures, and inability to walk. Brain imaging shows features consistent with Leigh syndrome (see 256000) and enlarged ventricles. Laboratory studies show increased serum and CSF lactate, as well as decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Hallmann et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1773430
Concept ID:
C5436712
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 20

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 20 (MC4DN20) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms in infancy. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, and global developmental delay. Additional features include elevated liver enzymes, increased serum lactate, metabolic acidosis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which may result in cardiorespiratory failure and early death. Patient tissues show variably decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (Baertling et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1771040
Concept ID:
C5436726
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 8

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 8 (MC4DN8) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of neuromuscular symptoms in the first decade of life after normal early development. Affected individuals develop a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function with gait difficulties, spasticity, dysarthria, hypotonia, and variable intellectual disability. Other features may include facial hypotonia, optic atrophy with visual impairment, nystagmus, muscle rigidity, and loss of ambulation. Rare patients may have renal tubulopathy. Brain imaging shows T2-weighted hyperintensities in the basal ganglia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Serum lactate is often increased, and patient tissues show decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Seeger et al., 2010). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1765544
Concept ID:
C5436689
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Lessel-Kreienkamp syndrome

Lessel-Kreienkamp syndrome (LESKRES) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with intellectual disability and speech and language delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. The severity of the disorder is highly variable: some patients have mildly delayed walking and mild cognitive deficits, whereas others are nonambulatory and nonverbal. Most have behavioral disorders. Additional features, including seizures, hypotonia, gait abnormalities, visual defects, cardiac defects, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features may also be present (summary by Lessel et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1762595
Concept ID:
C5436892
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 16

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 16 (MC4DN16) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with highly variable manifestations. Common features include failure to thrive with poor overall growth, short stature, and microcephaly. Some patients additionally have neurologic involvement, including developmental regression with severe hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and seizures. Brain imaging in the more severely affected patients shows cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and abnormal lesions in the basal ganglia. In all cases, patient tissues show variably decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Pillai et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1762514
Concept ID:
C5436714
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 11

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 11 (MC4DN11) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of neuromuscular symptoms in childhood or adolescence. Affected individuals have hypotonia and walking difficulties that slowly progress to cerebellar ataxia, often with tremor, dystonia, choreoathetosis, and/or dysarthria. Sensory axonal neuropathy and cerebellar atrophy may also be present. Some patients have mild motor or speech delay and poor overall growth, but cognitive function is normal. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Doss et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1760275
Concept ID:
C5436694
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 7

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 7 (MC4DN7) is an autosomal recessive metabolic encephalomyopathic disorder with highly variable manifestations. Only a few patients have been reported. Some patients have normal early development then show rapid neurodegeneration with progressive muscle weakness, gait disturbances, and cognitive decline in mid to late childhood. Other features may include seizures and visual impairment. Brain imaging shows progressive leukodystrophy with cystic lesions. In contrast, at least 1 patient has been reported who presented in the neonatal period with metabolic acidosis, hydrocephalus, hypotonia, and cortical blindness. This patient developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy resulting in early death. All patients had increased serum lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Massa et al., 2008 and Abdulhag et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1754683
Concept ID:
C5436685
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 1 (MC4DN1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurodegeneration and encephalopathy with loss of motor and cognitive skills between about 5 and 18 months of age after normal early development. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, loss of the ability to sit or walk, poor communication, and poor eye contact. Other features may include oculomotor abnormalities, including slow saccades, strabismus, ophthalmoplegia, and nystagmus, as well as deafness, apneic episodes, ataxia, tremor, and brisk tendon reflexes. Brain imaging shows bilateral symmetric lesions in the basal ganglia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Some patients may also have abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum. Laboratory studies usually show increased serum and CSF lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV in patient tissues. There is phenotypic variability, but death in childhood, often due to central respiratory failure, is common (summary by Tiranti et al., 1998; Tiranti et al., 1999; Teraoka et al., 1999; Poyau et al., 2000) Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex IV Deficiency Most isolated COX deficiencies are inherited as autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in nuclear-encoded genes; mutations in the mtDNA-encoded COX subunit genes are relatively rare (Shoubridge, 2001; Sacconi et al., 2003). Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency caused by mutation in nuclear-encoded genes, in addition to MC4DN1, include MC4DN2 (604377), caused by mutation in the SCO2 gene (604272); MC4DN3 (619046), caused by mutation in the COX10 gene (602125); MC4DN4 (619048), caused by mutation in the SCO1 gene (603664); MC4DN5 (220111), caused by mutation in the LRPPRC gene (607544); MC4DN6 (615119), caused by mutation in the COX15 gene (603646); MC4DN7 (619051), caused by mutation in the COX6B1 gene (124089); MC4DN8 (619052), caused by mutation in the TACO1 gene (612958); MC4DN9 (616500), caused by mutation in the COA5 gene (613920); MC4DN10 (619053), caused by mutation in the COX14 gene (614478); MC4DN11 (619054), caused by mutation in the COX20 gene (614698); MC4DN12 (619055), caused by mutation in the PET100 gene (614770); MC4DN13 (616501), caused by mutation in the COA6 gene (614772); MC4DN14 (619058), caused by mutation in the COA3 gene (614775); MC4DN15 (619059), caused by mutation in the COX8A gene (123870); MC4DN16 (619060), caused by mutation in the COX4I1 gene (123864); MC4DN17 (619061), caused by mutation in the APOPT1 gene (616003); MC4DN18 (619062), caused by mutation in the COX6A2 gene (602009); MC4DN19 (619063), caused by mutation in the PET117 gene (614771); MC4DN20 (619064), caused by mutation in the COX5A gene (603773); and MC4DN21 (619065), caused by mutation in the COXFA4 gene (603883). Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency has been associated with mutations in several mitochondrial genes, including MTCO1 (516030), MTCO2 (516040), MTCO3 (516050), MTTS1 (590080), MTTL1 (590050), and MTTN (590010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1750917
Concept ID:
C5435656
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Mismatch repair cancer syndrome 2

Mismatch repair cancer syndrome-2 (MMRCS2) is an autosomal recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by hematologic malignancy, brain tumors, and gastrointestinal tumors. Multiple cafe-au-lait spots reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1; 162200) may be present. Microsatellite instability may be detected in tumor samples (Muller et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mismatch repair cancer syndrome (MMRCS), see MMRCS1 (276300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1750327
Concept ID:
C5436806
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 2 (MC4DN2) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms at birth or in the first weeks or months of life. Affected individuals have severe hypotonia, often associated with feeding difficulties and respiratory insufficiency necessitating tube feeding and mechanical ventilation. The vast majority of patients develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the first days or weeks of life, which usually leads to death in infancy or early childhood. Patients also show neurologic abnormalities, including developmental delay, nystagmus, fasciculations, dystonia, EEG changes, and brain imaging abnormalities compatible with a diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). There may also be evidence of systemic involvement with hepatomegaly and myopathy, although neurogenic muscle atrophy is more common and may resemble spinal muscular atrophy type I (SMA1; 253300). Serum lactate is increased, and laboratory studies show decreased mitochondrial complex IV protein and activity levels in various tissues, including heart and skeletal muscle. Most patients die in infancy of cardiorespiratory failure (summary by Papadopoulou et al., 1999). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1748867
Concept ID:
C5399977
Disease or Syndrome
13.

SKELETAL MUSCLE GLYCOGEN CONTENT AND METABOLISM QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS

AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein that functions to maintain cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. Variation in the PRKAG3 subunit of AMPK has been linked to an increase in muscle glycogen content in pigs (Milan et al., 2000), mice (Garcia-Roves et al. (2008)), and humans (Costford et al., 2007). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1748381
Concept ID:
C5436642
Finding
14.

Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 4

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 4 (MC4DN4) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms in infancy. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, and neurologic distress. Additional features include hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, increased serum lactate, and metabolic acidosis. Some patients may develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Patient tissues show decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV. Death usually occurs in infancy (summary by Valnot et al., 2000 and Stiburek et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1748100
Concept ID:
C5436683
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Turcot syndrome

Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1748029
Concept ID:
C5399763
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 10

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 10 (MC4DN10) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of severe symptoms soon after birth. Affected infants have respiratory and neurologic distress, metabolic lactic acidosis, and dysmorphic features, including microphthalmia. Death occurs in early infancy. Postmortem examination has demonstrated systemic involvement with hepatomegaly, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, renal hypoplasia, and adrenal hyperplasia. There is also abnormal brain myelination and cavitating brain lesions. Patient tissues show decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Weraarpachai et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1746545
Concept ID:
C5436692
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Mismatch repair cancer syndrome 4

Mismatch repair cancer syndrome-4 (MMRCS4) is an autosomal recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by early-onset leukemia/lymphoma, brain tumors, colorectal/gastrointestinal cancers, and other rare malignancies, including rhabdomyosarcoma (summary by Li et al., 2015). Cafe-au-lait spots are usually present (De Vos et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mismatch repair cancer syndrome, see MMRCS1 (276300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1745382
Concept ID:
C5436817
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 21

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 21 (MC4DN21) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms in infancy. Affected individuals present with congenital lactic acidosis and later show global developmental delay with delayed speech and learning disabilities. Additional features include motor dysfunction manifest as spasticity, dystonia, and pyramidal tract signs. Ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures may also occur. Brain imaging shows T2-weighted hyperintensities in subcortical regions, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Patient tissues show variably decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (Pitceathly et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1732562
Concept ID:
C5436727
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Chromosome 16p13.2 deletion syndrome

Hao-Fountain syndrome (HAFOUS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, variably impaired intellectual development with significant speech delay, behavioral abnormalities, such as autism, and mild dysmorphic facies. Additional features are variable, but may include hypotonia, feeding problems, delayed walking with unsteady gait, hypogonadism in males, and ocular anomalies, such as strabismus. Some patients develop seizures and some have mild white matter abnormalities on brain imaging (summary by Fountain et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1719035
Concept ID:
C5393908
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Bone marrow failure syndrome 6

MedGen UID:
1717739
Concept ID:
C5394274
Disease or Syndrome
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