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1.

Cardioacrofacial dysplasia 1

Cardioacrofacial dysplasia-1 (CAFD1) is characterized by congenital cardiac defects, primarily common atrium or atrioventricular septal defect; limb anomalies, including short limbs, brachydactyly, and postaxial polydactyly; and dysmorphic facial features (Palencia-Campos et al., 2020). Genetic Heterogeneity of Cardioacrofacial Dysplasia CAFD2 (619143) is caused by mutation in the PRKACB gene (176892) on chromosome 1p31. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1777656
Concept ID:
C5436885
Disease or Syndrome
2.

SKELETAL MUSCLE GLYCOGEN CONTENT AND METABOLISM QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS

AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein that functions to maintain cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. Variation in the PRKAG3 subunit of AMPK has been linked to an increase in muscle glycogen content in pigs (Milan et al., 2000), mice (Garcia-Roves et al. (2008)), and humans (Costford et al., 2007). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1748381
Concept ID:
C5436642
Finding
3.

Cardioacrofacial dysplasia 2

Cardioacrofacial dysplasia-2 (CAFD2) is characterized by congenital cardiac defects, primarily common atrium or atrioventricular septal defect; limb anomalies, including short limbs, brachydactyly, and postaxial polydactyly; and dysmorphic facial features. Developmental delay of variable severity has also been observed (Palencia-Campos et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CAFD, see CAFD1 (619142). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1731253
Concept ID:
C5436886
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Hearing loss, autosomal recessive 116

Autosomal recessive deafness-116 (DFNB116) is characterized by slowly progressive moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), with a steeply sloping audiogram in the high frequencies in younger patients (Sineni et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1726617
Concept ID:
C5436789
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 8, autosomal recessive

Autosomal recessive idiopathic basal ganglia calcification-8 (IBGC8) is a progressive neurologic disorder with insidious onset of motor symptoms in adulthood. Affected individuals develop gait difficulties, parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, and dysarthria. Some may demonstrate cognitive decline or memory impairment. Brain imaging shows extensive calcifications in various brain regions including the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Because serum calcium and phosphate are normal, the disorder is thought to result from defects in the integrity of the neurovascular unit in the brain (summary by Schottlaender et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IBGC, see IBGC1 (213600). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1713414
Concept ID:
C5394199
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Ectodermal dysplasia with facial dysmorphism and acral, ocular, and brain anomalies

EDFAOB is characterized by linear hypopigmentation and craniofacial asymmetry in association with ocular, dental, and acral anomalies. Brain imaging has revealed some abnormalities, including diffuse cystic leukoencephalopathy and mildly enlarged lateral ventricles, but patients show no intellectual or neurologic impairment (Vabres et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1684719
Concept ID:
C5231477
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Neurodevelopmental disorder and language delay with or without structural brain abnormalities

Neurodevelopmental disorder and language delay with or without structural brain abnormalities (NEDLBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: patients may have hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and abnormalities on brain imaging, including enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and sometimes small brainstem. Many develop seizures, sometimes refractory, and some may have nonspecific dysmorphic features. Intellectual impairment can vary from mild to profound, and some patients may benefit from special education and respond well to speech therapy (summary by Reynhout et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1677130
Concept ID:
C5193048
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Arthrogryposis, distal, type 2B3

Distal arthrogryposis type 2B3 (DA2B3) is characterized by facial dysmorphism and congenital joint contractures with predominantly distal involvement. Some patients exhibit muscle weakness (Tajsharghi et al., 2008). Considerable inter- and intrafamilial variability has been reported (Xu et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1676839
Concept ID:
C5193098
Disease or Syndrome
9.

CONTRACTURES, PTERYGIA, AND SPONDYLOCARPOTARSAL FUSION SYNDROME 1B

Contractures, pterygia, and spondylocarpotarsal fusion syndrome-1B (CPSFS1B) is characterized by contractures of proximal and distal joints, pterygia involving the neck, elbows, fingers, and/or knees, and variable vertebral, carpal, and tarsal fusions. Inter- and intrafamilial variability has been observed (Cameron-Christie et al., 2018). An autosomal dominant form of contractures, pterygia, and spondylocarpotarsal fusion syndrome (CPSFS1A; 178110) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the MYH3 gene. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1676457
Concept ID:
C5193114
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Hypomagnesemia 5, renal, with ocular involvement

HOMG5 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe renal magnesium wasting, progressive renal failure, nephrocalcinosis, and severe visual impairment (Konrad et al., 2006). Amelogenesis imperfecta may also be present in some patients (Yamaguti et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of renal hypomagnesemia, see 602014. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648449
Concept ID:
C4721891
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Epilepsy, familial adult myoclonic, 7

MedGen UID:
1648435
Concept ID:
C4748080
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Keratoconus 9

Keratoconus-9, a degenerative corneal disease with onset during adolescence, is characterized by corneal ectasia, thinning, and cone-shaped protrusion that results in reduced vision (Hao et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of keratoconus, see 148300. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1645093
Concept ID:
C4693660
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection

Familial TAAD may not be associated with other signs and symptoms. However, some individuals in affected families show mild features of related conditions called Marfan syndrome or Loeys-Dietz syndrome. These features include tall stature, stretch marks on the skin, an unusually large range of joint movement (joint hypermobility), and either a sunken or protruding chest. Occasionally, people with familial TAAD develop aneurysms in the brain or in the section of the aorta located in the abdomen (abdominal aorta). Some people with familial TAAD have heart abnormalities that are present from birth (congenital). Affected individuals may also have a soft out-pouching in the lower abdomen (inguinal hernia), an abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis), or a purplish skin discoloration (livedo reticularis) caused by abnormalities in the tiny blood vessels of the skin (dermal capillaries). However, these conditions are also common in the general population. Depending on the genetic cause of familial TAAD in particular families, they may have an increased risk of developing blockages in smaller arteries, which can lead to heart attack and stroke.\n\nIn familial TAAD, the aorta can become weakened and stretched (aortic dilatation), which can lead to a bulge in the blood vessel wall (an aneurysm). Aortic dilatation may also lead to a sudden tearing of the layers in the aorta wall (aortic dissection), allowing blood to flow abnormally between the layers. These aortic abnormalities are potentially life-threatening because they can decrease blood flow to other parts of the body such as the brain or other vital organs, or cause the aorta to break open (rupture).\n\nFamilial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (familial TAAD) involves problems with the aorta, which is the large blood vessel that distributes blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Familial TAAD affects the upper part of the aorta, near the heart. This part of the aorta is called the thoracic aorta because it is located in the chest (thorax). Other vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body (arteries) can also be affected.\n\nAortic aneurysms usually have no symptoms. However, depending on the size, growth rate, and location of these abnormalities, they can cause pain in the jaw, neck, chest, or back; swelling in the arms, neck, or head; difficult or painful swallowing; hoarseness; shortness of breath; wheezing; a chronic cough; or coughing up blood. Aortic dissections usually cause severe, sudden chest or back pain, and may also result in unusually pale skin (pallor), a very faint pulse, numbness or tingling (paresthesias) in one or more limbs, or paralysis.\n\nThe occurrence and timing of these aortic abnormalities vary, even within the same affected family. They can begin in childhood or not occur until late in life. Aortic dilatation is generally the first feature of familial TAAD to develop, although in some affected individuals dissection occurs with little or no aortic dilatation. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
1644766
Concept ID:
C4707243
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Pseudo-TORCH syndrome 1

MedGen UID:
1639355
Concept ID:
C4552078
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 1

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic finding in several renal disorders that manifest clinically as proteinuria and progressive decline in renal function. Some patients with FSGS develop the clinical entity called 'nephrotic syndrome' (see NPHS1; 256300), which includes massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and edema. However, patients with FSGS may have proteinuria in the nephrotic range without other features of the nephrotic syndrome (summary by D'Agati et al., 2004; Mathis et al., 1998). D'Agati et al. (2011) provided a detailed review of FSGS, emphasizing that the disorder results from defects of the podocyte. Because of confusion in the literature regarding use of the terms 'nephrotic syndrome' and 'focal segmental glomerulosclerosis' (see NOMENCLATURE section), these disorders in OMIM are classified as NPHS or FSGS according to how they were first designated in the literature. Genetic Heterogeneity of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Nephrotic Syndrome Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome are genetically heterogeneous disorders representing a spectrum of hereditary renal diseases. See also FSGS2 (603965), caused by mutation in the TRPC6 gene (603652); FSGS3 (607832), associated with variation in the CD2AP gene (604241); FSGS4 (612551), mapped to chromosome 22q12; FSGS5 (613237), caused by mutation in the INF2 gene (610982); FSGS6 (614131), caused by mutation in the MYO1E gene (601479); FSGS7 (616002), caused by mutation in the PAX2 gene (167409); FSGS8 (616032), caused by mutation in the ANLN gene (616027); FSGS9 (616220), caused by mutation in the CRB2 gene (609720); and FSGS10 (256020), caused by mutation in the LMX1B gene (602575). See also NPHS1 (256300), caused by mutation in the NPHS1 gene (602716); NPHS2 (600995), caused by mutation in the podocin gene (604766); NPHS3 (610725), caused by mutation in the PLCE1 gene (608414); NPHS4 (256370), caused by mutation in the WT1 gene (607102); NPHS5 (614199), caused by mutation in the LAMB2 gene (150325); NPHS6 (614196), caused by mutation in the PTPRO gene (600579); NPHS7 (615008), caused by mutation in the DGKE gene (601440); NPHS8 (615244), caused by mutation in the ARHGDIA gene (601925); NPHS9 (615573), caused by mutation in the COQ8B gene (615567); NPHS10 (615861), caused by mutation in the EMP2 gene (602334); NPHS11 (616730), caused by mutation in the NUP107 gene (607617); NPHS12 (616892), caused by mutation in the NUP93 gene (614351); NPHS13 (616893), caused by mutation in the NUP205 gene (614352); NPHS14 (617575), caused by mutation in the SGPL1 gene (603729); NPHS15 (617609), caused by mutation in the MAGI2 gene (606382); NPHS16 (617783), caused by mutation in the KANK2 gene (614610), NPHS17 (618176), caused by mutation in the NUP85 gene (170285); NPHS18 (618177), caused by mutation in the NUP133 gene (607613); NPHS19 (618178), caused by mutation in the NUP160 gene (607614); NPHS20 (301028), caused by mutation in the TBC1D8B gene (301027); and NPHS21 (618594) caused by mutation in the AVIL gene (613397). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1636833
Concept ID:
C4551527
Disease or Syndrome
16.

HELIX syndrome

HELIX syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by Hypohidrosis, Electrolyte imbalance, Lacrimal gland dysfunction, Ichthyosis, and Xerostomia (summary by Hadj-Rabia et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1621482
Concept ID:
C4522164
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 48

MedGen UID:
1619532
Concept ID:
C4540321
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
18.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with midbrain and hindbrain malformations

MedGen UID:
1385580
Concept ID:
C4479613
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Retinitis pigmentosa 78

MedGen UID:
1378790
Concept ID:
C4479481
Disease or Syndrome
20.

VISCERAL NEUROPATHY, FAMILIAL, 2, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE

Autosomal recessive visceral neuropathy-2 (VSCN2) is characterized by intestinal dysmotility due to aganglionosis or hypoganglionosis of the colon. Patients also exhibit peripheral axonal neuropathy, ptosis, and sensorineural hearing loss (Le et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of VSCN, see VSCN1 (243180). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
982090
Concept ID:
CN300314
Disease or Syndrome
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