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Items: 5

1.

Increased reactive oxygen species production

An accumulation of free radical groups in the body inadequately neutralized by antioxidants, which creates a potentially unstable and damaging cellular environment linked to tissue damage. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
1390274
Concept ID:
C4476796
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
2.

Pulmonary emphysema

A subcategory of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It occurs in people who smoke and suffer from chronic bronchitis. It is characterized by inflation of the alveoli, alveolar wall damage, and reduction in the number of alveoli, resulting in difficulty breathing. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
18764
Concept ID:
C0034067
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Inflammation

A localized protective response resulting from injury or destruction of tissues. Inflammation serves to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurious agent and the injured tissue. In the acute phase, inflammation is characterized by the signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Histologically, inflammation involves a complex series of events, including dilatation of arterioles, capillaries, and venules, with increased permeability and blood flow; exudation of fluids, including plasma proteins; and leukocyte migration into the site of inflammation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
7072
Concept ID:
C0021368
Pathologic Function
4.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, complex disorder associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. COPD is defined by irreversible airflow obstruction due to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and/or small airways disease. Airflow obstruction is typically determined by reductions in quantitative spirometric indices, including forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) (Silverman et al., 2002; Celedon et al., 2004). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
9818
Concept ID:
C0024117
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, susceptibility to

MedGen UID:
854229
Concept ID:
C3838076
Finding
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