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Items: 16

1.

Familial colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is common in both men and women. In addition to lifestyle and environmental risk factors, gene defects can contribute to an inherited predisposition to CRC. CRC is caused by changes in different molecular pathogenic pathways, such as chromosomal instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, and microsatellite instability. Chromosome instability is the most common alteration and is present in almost 85% of all cases (review by Schweiger et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Colorectal Cancer Mutations in a single gene result in a marked predisposition to colorectal cancer in 2 distinct syndromes: familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP; 175100) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; see 120435). FAP is caused by mutations in the APC gene (611731), whereas HNPCC is caused by mutations in several genes, including MSH2 (609309), MLH1 (120436), PMS1 (600258), PMS2 (600259), MSH6 (600678), TGFBR2 (190182), and MLH3 (604395). Epigenetic silencing of MSH2 results in a form of HNPCC (see HNPCC8, 613244). Other colorectal cancer syndromes include autosomal recessive adenomatous polyposis (608456), which is caused by mutations in the MUTYH gene (604933), and oligodontia-colorectal cancer syndrome (608615), which is caused by mutations in the AXIN2 gene (604025). The CHEK2 gene (604373) has been implicated in susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Finnish patients. A germline mutation in the PLA2G2A gene (172411) was identified in a patient with colorectal cancer. Germline susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer have also been identified. CRCS1 (608812) is conferred by mutation in the GALNT12 gene (610290) on chromosome 9q22; CRCS2 (611469) maps to chromosome 8q24; CRCS3 (612229) is conferred by variation in the SMAD7 gene (602932) on chromosome 18; CRCS4 (601228) is conferred by variation on 15q that causes increased and ectopic expression of the GREM1 gene (603054); CRCS5 (612230) maps to chromosome 10p14; CRCS6 (612231) maps to chromosome 8q23; CRCS7 (612232) maps to chromosome 11q23; CRCS8 (612589) maps to chromosome 14q22; CRCS9 (612590) maps to 16q22; CRCS10 (612591) is conferred by mutation in the POLD1 gene (174761) on chromosome 19q13; CRCS11 (612592) maps to chromosome 20p12; and CRCS12 (615083) is conferred by mutation in the POLE gene (174762) on chromosome 12q24. Somatic mutations in many different genes, including KRAS (190070), PIK3CA (171834), BRAF (164757), CTNNB1 (116806), FGFR3 (134934), AXIN2 (604025), AKT1 (164730), MCC (159350), MYH11 (160745), PARK2 (602544), RNF43 (612482), and BUB1 (601452) have been identified in colorectal cancer. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
965772
Concept ID:
CN280943
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Stickler syndrome type 1

Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
810955
Concept ID:
C2020284
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Cold agglutinin disease

Cold agglutinin disease is a type of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (see this term) defined by the presence of cold autoantibodies (autoantibodies which are active at temperatures below 30°C). [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
688249
Concept ID:
C1264008
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Infectious otitis media

Inflammation of the anatomical structures of the middle ear secondary to an infectious process. Bacterial etiology is most common, but both viral and fungal pathogens are also possible. Symptoms include erythema and edema of the tympanic membrane, pain, and possibly fever. In severe infections, inflammation and edema of the structures of the middle ear can lead to perforation of the tympanic membrane secondary to the buildup of pressure in the narrow space. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
443472
Concept ID:
C2827407
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Speech-language disorder 1

All FOXP2-related speech and language disorders, regardless of the underlying genetic alteration, have a core phenotype: childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), a disorder of speech motor programming or planning that affects the production, sequencing, timing, and stress of sounds, syllables, and words. All individuals with CAS – whether caused by an alteration of FOXP2 or of an unknown cause – have difficulties in automatically and accurately sequencing speech sounds into syllables, syllables into words, and words into sentences with the correct prosody. Additional findings in FOXP2-related speech and language disorders can include oral motor dyspraxia (difficulty planning or programming oral movements on command); dysarthria (a neuromuscular-based speech disorder that may affect nasal resonance, voice quality, prosody, and breath support for speech); moderate to severe receptive and expressive language disorder; and reading and spelling impairments. The underlying genetic cause of FOXP2-related speech and language disorders is either disruption of FOXP2 only (referred to in this GeneReview as FOXP2-only-related speech and language disorder) or large copy number variants (i.e., contiguous gene deletions), structural variants (i.e., chromosome translocation or inversion), or maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (UPD7) involving FOXP2 (here referred to as FOXP2-plus speech and language disorders). The genetic alteration determines if only speech and language problems are present (FOXP2-only-related speech and language disorder) or if more global developmental and behavioral issues are likely to be present as well (FOXP2-plus speech and language disorder). In FOXP2-only-related disorders, nonverbal (performance) IQ is typically more preserved compared to verbal IQ. Fine motor skills may be impaired (e.g., buttoning clothes, tying shoelaces), yet gross motor skills are normal. Autistic features and dysmorphic findings have been reported in a few affected individuals. In FOXP2-plus-related disorders oral motor deficits, global developmental delay, and autism spectrum disorder are common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
152917
Concept ID:
C0750927
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
6.

Carcinoma of colon

Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
147065
Concept ID:
C0699790
Neoplastic Process
7.

Fish-eye disease

Fish-eye disease, also called partial LCAT deficiency, is a disorder that causes the clear front surface of the eyes (the corneas) to gradually become cloudy. The cloudiness, which generally first appears in adolescence or early adulthood, consists of small grayish dots of cholesterol (opacities) distributed across the corneas. Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is produced in the body and obtained from foods that come from animals; it aids in many functions of the body but can become harmful in excessive amounts. As fish-eye disease progresses, the corneal cloudiness worsens and can lead to severely impaired vision. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
83354
Concept ID:
C0342895
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Colorectal cancer

Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
3170
Concept ID:
C0009402
Neoplastic Process
9.

Malignant tumor of colon

A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm that affects the colon. Representative examples include carcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
2839
Concept ID:
C0007102
Neoplastic Process
10.

Intestinal neoplasm

A benign or malignant neoplasm involving the small or large intestine. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
43932
Concept ID:
C0021841
Neoplastic Process
11.

Neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract

A benign or malignant neoplasm involving any part of the digestive system. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
4846
Concept ID:
C0017185
Neoplastic Process
12.

Neoplasm of the large intestine

A benign or malignant neoplasm that affects the colon or rectum. Representative examples of benign neoplasms include lipoma and leiomyoma. Representative examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma. Colorectal adenomas always exhibit epithelial dysplasia and are considered premalignant neoplasms. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
3171
Concept ID:
C0009404
Neoplastic Process
13.

Colonic neoplasm

A benign or malignant neoplasm that affects the colon. Representative examples of benign neoplasms include lipoma and leiomyoma. Representative examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma. Colonic adenomas always exhibit epithelial dysplasia and are considered premalignant neoplasms. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
3165
Concept ID:
C0009375
Neoplastic Process
14.

Colonic disease

Pathological processes in the colon region of the large intestine (intestine, large). [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
1049
Concept ID:
C0009373
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Colon neuroendocrine neoplasm

A rare epithelial tumor of the large intestine, arising from enterochromaffin cells, most commonly in the cecum or ascending colon. The tumor is usually slow-growing and can be diagnosed as an incidental finding in an asymptomatic patient, while in the later stages patients can present with abdominal pain, palpable abdominal mass, changes in bowel habits, signs of bowel obstruction, gastrointestinal bleeding, anorexia, weight loss or, rarely, carcinoid syndrome (facial flushing, diarrhea, tachycardia, hypo- and hypertension, cardiac abnormalities). [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
234162
Concept ID:
C1333097
Neoplastic Process
16.

Intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm

A neoplasm with neuroendocrine differentiation that arises from the small or large intestine. It includes well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (low and intermediate grade) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (high grade). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
233567
Concept ID:
C1334231
Neoplastic Process
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