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Items: 8

1.

Atrophy

Any weakening or degeneration, especially through lack of use. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
83084
Concept ID:
C0333641
Pathologic Function
2.

Insulin resistance

Decreased sensitivity to circulating insulin which may result in acanthosis nigicrans, elevated insulin level or hyperglycemia. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
43904
Concept ID:
C0021655
Pathologic Function
3.

Skeletal muscle atrophy

The presence of skeletal muscular atrophy (which is also known as amyotrophy). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
892680
Concept ID:
C0541794
Pathologic Function
4.

Diabetes

MedGen UID:
729293
Concept ID:
C1320657
Finding
5.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is distinct from maturity-onset diabetes of the young (see 606391) in that it is polygenic, characterized by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions with onset in adulthood, usually at age 40 to 60 but occasionally in adolescence if a person is obese. The pedigrees are rarely multigenerational. The penetrance is variable, possibly 10 to 40% (Fajans et al., 2001). Persons with type 2 diabetes usually have an obese body habitus and manifestations of the so-called metabolic syndrome (see 605552), which is characterized by diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia. Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility to T2D1 (601283) is conferred by variation in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN10; 605286) on chomosome 2q37. The T2D2 locus (601407) on chromosome 12q was found in a Finnish population. The T2D3 locus (603694) maps to chomosome 20. The T2D4 locus (608036) maps to chromosome 5q34-q35. Susceptibility to T2D5 (616087) is conferred by variation in the TBC1D4 gene (612465) on chromosome 13q22. A mutation has been observed in hepatocyte nuclear factor-4-alpha (HNF4A; 600281.0004) in a French family with NIDDM of late onset. Mutations in the NEUROD1 gene (601724) on chromosome 2q32 were found to cause type II diabetes mellitus in 2 families. Mutation in the GLUT2 glucose transporter was associated with NIDDM in 1 patient (138160.0001). Mutation in the MAPK8IP1 gene, which encodes the islet-brain-1 protein, was found in a family with type II diabetes in individuals in 4 successive generations (604641.0001). Polymorphism in the KCNJ11 gene (600937.0014) confers susceptibility. In French white families, Vionnet et al. (2000) found evidence for a susceptibility locus for type II diabetes on 3q27-qter. They confirmed the diabetes susceptibility locus on 1q21-q24 reported by Elbein et al. (1999) in whites and by Hanson et al. (1998) in Pima Indians. A mutation in the GPD2 gene (138430.0001) on chromosome 2q24.1, encoding mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, was found in a patient with type II diabetes mellitus and in his glucose-intolerant half sister. Mutations in the PAX4 gene (167413) have been identified in patients with type II diabetes. Triggs-Raine et al. (2002) stated that in the Oji-Cree, a gly319-to-ser change in HNF1-alpha (142410.0008) behaves as a susceptibility allele for type II diabetes. Mutation in the HNF1B gene (189907.0007) was found in 2 Japanese patients with typical late-onset type II diabetes. Mutations in the IRS1 gene (147545) have been found in patients with type II diabetes. A missense mutation in the AKT2 gene (164731.0001) caused autosomal dominant type II diabetes in 1 family. A (single-nucleotide polymorphism) SNP in the 3-prime untranslated region of the resistin gene (605565.0001) was associated with susceptibility to diabetes and to insulin resistance-related hypertension in Chinese subjects. Susceptibility to insulin resistance has been associated with polymorphism in the TCF1 (142410.0011), PPP1R3A (600917.0001), PTPN1 (176885.0001), ENPP1 (173335.0006), IRS1 (147545.0002), and EPHX2 (132811.0001) genes. The K121Q polymorphism of ENPP1 (173335.0006) is associated with susceptibility to type II diabetes; a haplotype defined by 3 SNPs of this gene, including K121Q, is associated with obesity, glucose intolerance, and type II diabetes. A SNP in the promoter region of the hepatic lipase gene (151670.0004) predicts conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to type II diabetes. Variants of transcription factor 7-like-2 (TCF7L2; 602228.0001), located on 10q, have also been found to confer risk of type II diabetes. A common sequence variant, rs10811661, on chromosome 9p21 near the CDKN2A (600160) and CDKN2B (600431) genes has been associated with risk of type II diabetes. Variation in the PPARG gene (601487) has been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. A promoter polymorphism in the IL6 gene (147620) is associated with susceptibility to NIDDM. Variation in the KCNJ15 gene (602106) has been associated with T2DM in lean Asians. Variation in the SLC30A8 gene (611145) has been associated with susceptibility to T2D. Variation in the HMGA1 gene (600701.0001) is associated with an increased risk of type II diabetes. Mutation in the MTNR1B gene (600804) is associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Protection Against Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Protein-truncating variants in the SLC30A8 (611145) have been associated with a reduced risk for T2D. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
41523
Concept ID:
C0011860
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus AND acanthosis nigricans

Type A insulin resistance syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by severe insulin resistance, a condition in which the body's tissues and organs do not respond properly to the hormone insulin. Insulin normally helps regulate blood sugar levels by controlling how much sugar (in the form of glucose) is passed from the bloodstream into cells to be used as energy. In people with type A insulin resistance syndrome, insulin resistance impairs blood sugar regulation and ultimately leads to a condition called diabetes mellitus, in which blood sugar levels can become dangerously high.\n\nSevere insulin resistance also underlies the other signs and symptoms of type A insulin resistance syndrome. In affected females, the major features of the condition become apparent in adolescence. Many affected females do not begin menstruation by age 16 (primary amenorrhea) or their periods may be light and irregular (oligomenorrhea). They develop cysts on the ovaries and excessive body hair growth (hirsutism). Most affected females also develop a skin condition called acanthosis nigricans, in which the skin in body folds and creases becomes thick, dark, and velvety. Unlike most people with insulin resistance, females with type A insulin resistance syndrome are usually not overweight.\n\nThe features of type A insulin resistance syndrome are more subtle in affected males. Some males have low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) as the only sign; others may also have acanthosis nigricans. In many cases, males with this condition come to medical attention only when they develop diabetes mellitus in adulthood.\n\nType A insulin resistance syndrome is one of a group of related conditions described as inherited severe insulin resistance syndromes. These disorders, which also include Donohue syndrome and Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, are considered part of a spectrum. Type A insulin resistance syndrome represents the mildest end of the spectrum: its features often do not become apparent until puberty or later, and it is generally not life-threatening. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
501111
Concept ID:
C0342278
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Craniosynostosis and dental anomalies

This autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by craniosynostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, and dental anomalies, including malocclusion, delayed and ectopic tooth eruption, and/or supernumerary teeth. Some patients also display minor digit anomalies, such as syndactyly and/or clinodactyly (summary by Nieminen et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481703
Concept ID:
C3280073
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Mucolipidosis type III gamma

Mucolipidosis III gamma (ML III?) is a slowly progressive inborn error of metabolism mainly affecting skeletal, joint, and connective tissues. Clinical onset is in early childhood; the progressive course results in severe functional impairment and significant morbidity from chronic pain. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease from thoracic involvement, and thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves) are rarely clinically significant. A few (probably <10%) affected individuals display mild cognitive impairment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
340743
Concept ID:
C1854896
Disease or Syndrome
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