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Items: 1 to 20 of 89

1.

Slow acetylator due to N-acetyltransferase enzyme variant

MedGen UID:
164207
Concept ID:
C0878587
Finding
2.

Aspartylglucosaminuria

Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a severe autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that involves the central nervous system and causes skeletal abnormalities as well as connective tissue lesions. The most characteristic feature is progressive mental retardation. The disorder is caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme glycosylasparaginase, which results in body fluid and tissue accumulation of a series of glycoasparagines, i.e., glycoconjugates with an aspartylglucosamine moiety at the reducing end. AGU belongs to the group of disorders commonly referred to as the Finnish disease heritage (summary by Mononen et al., 1993 and Arvio and Arvio, 2002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
78649
Concept ID:
C0268225
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Miller Dieker syndrome

PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78538
Concept ID:
C0265219
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Disorder due cytochrome p450 CYP2D6 variant

MedGen UID:
323088
Concept ID:
C1837154
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 1

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The lipopigment pattern seen most often in CLN1 is referred to as granular osmiophilic deposits (GROD). The patterns most often observed in CLN2 and CLN3 are 'curvilinear' and 'fingerprint' profiles, respectively. CLN4, CLN5, CLN6, CLN7, and CLN8 show mixed combinations of granular, curvilinear, fingerprint, and rectilinear profiles. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). Zeman and Dyken (1969) referred to these conditions as the 'neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses.' Goebel (1995) provided a comprehensive review of the NCLs and noted that they are possibly the most common group of neurodegenerative diseases in children. Mole et al. (2005) provided a detailed clinical and genetic review of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Genetic Heterogeneity of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis See also CLN2 (204500), caused by mutation in the TPP1 gene (607998) on chromosome 11p15; CLN3 (204200), caused by mutation in the CLN3 gene (607042) on 16p12; CLN4 (162350), caused by mutation in the DNAJC5 gene (611203) on 20q13; CLN5 (256731), caused by mutation in the CLN5 gene (608102) on 13q22; CLN6A (601780) and CLN6B (204300), both caused by mutation in the CLN6 gene (606725) on 15q21; CLN7 (610951), caused by mutation in the MFSD8 gene (611124) on 4q28; CLN8 (600143) and the Northern epilepsy variant of CLN8 (610003), both caused by mutation in the CLN8 gene (607837) on 8p23; CLN10 (610127), caused by mutation in the CTSD gene (116840) on 11p15; CLN11 (614706), caused by mutation in the GRN gene (138945) on 17q21; CLN13 (615362), caused by mutation in the CTSF gene (603539) on 11q13; and CLN14 (611726), caused by mutation in the KCTD7 gene (611725) on 7q11. CLN9 (609055) has not been molecularly characterized. A disorder that was formerly designated neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-12 (CLN12) is now considered to be a variable form of Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS; 606693). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
340540
Concept ID:
C1850451
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Salla disease

Free sialic acid storage disorders (FSASDs) are a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders resulting from increased lysosomal storage of free sialic acid. Historically, FSASD was divided into separate allelic disorders: Salla disease, intermediate severe Salla disease, and infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD). The mildest type was Salla disease, characterized by normal appearance and absence of neurologic findings at birth, followed by slowly progressive neurologic deterioration resulting in mild-to-moderate psychomotor delays, spasticity, athetosis, and epileptic seizures. Salla disease was named for a municipality in Finnish Lapland where a specific founder variant is relatively prevalent. However, the term Salla has been used in the literature to refer to less severe FSASD. More severe FSASD is historically referred to as ISSD, and is characterized by severe developmental delay, coarse facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, and cardiomegaly; death usually occurs in early childhood. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
203368
Concept ID:
C1096903
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Encephalopathy due to GLUT1 deficiency

The phenotypic spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS) is now known to be a continuum that includes the classic phenotype as well as paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia and epilepsy (previously known as dystonia 18 [DYT18]) and paroxysmal choreoathetosis with spasticity (previously known as dystonia 9 [DYT9]), atypical childhood absence epilepsy, myoclonic astatic epilepsy, and paroxysmal non-epileptic findings including intermittent ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, and alternating hemiplegia. The classic phenotype is characterized by infantile-onset seizures, delayed neurologic development, acquired microcephaly, and complex movement disorders. Seizures in classic early-onset Glut1 DS begin before age six months. Several seizure types occur: generalized tonic or clonic, focal, myoclonic, atypical absence, atonic, and unclassified. In some infants, apneic episodes and abnormal episodic eye-head movements similar to opsoclonus may precede the onset of seizures. The frequency, severity, and type of seizures vary among affected individuals and are not related to disease severity. Cognitive impairment, ranging from learning disabilities to severe intellectual disability, is typical. The complex movement disorder, characterized by ataxia, dystonia, and chorea, may occur in any combination and may be continuous, paroxysmal, or continual with fluctuations in severity influenced by environmental factors such as fasting or with infectious stress. Symptoms often improve substantially when a ketogenic diet is started. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1645412
Concept ID:
C4551966
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Neuropathy, hereditary sensory and autonomic, type 2A

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (HSAN2) is characterized by progressively reduced sensation to pain, temperature, and touch. Onset can be at birth and is often before puberty. The sensory deficit is predominantly distal with the lower limbs more severely affected than the upper limbs. Over time sensory function becomes severely reduced. Unnoticed injuries and neuropathic skin promote ulcerations and infections that result in spontaneous amputation of digits or the need for surgical amputation. Osteomyelitis is common. Painless fractures can complicate the disease. Autonomic disturbances are variable and can include hyperhidrosis, tonic pupils, and urinary incontinence in those with more advanced disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
416701
Concept ID:
C2752089
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Zinc, elevated plasma

MedGen UID:
349756
Concept ID:
C1860228
Finding
10.

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II

Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIc (CDG2C) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by moderate to severe psychomotor retardation, mild dysmorphism, and impaired neutrophil motility. It is a member of a group of disorders with a defect in the processing of protein-bound glycans. For a general overview of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs), see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066). Frydman (1996) contended that the neutrophil defect in CDG2C, which has been referred to as 'leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II' (LAD2), is a manifestation of the disorder and that there are no cases of 'primary' LAD II. Etzioni and Harlan (1999) provided a comprehensive review of both leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD1; 116920) and LAD2. While the functional neutrophil studies are similar in the 2 LADs, the clinical course is milder in LAD2. Furthermore, patients with LAD2 present other abnormal features, such as growth and mental retardation, which are related to the primary defect in fucose metabolism. Delayed separation of the umbilical cord occurs in LAD1. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of LAD, see 116920. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
96022
Concept ID:
C0398739
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Cardiac valvular dysplasia, X-linked

FLNA deficiency is associated with a phenotypic spectrum that includes FLNA-related periventricular nodular heterotopia (Huttenlocher syndrome), congenital heart disease (patent ductus arteriosus, atrial and ventricular septal defects), valvular dystrophy, dilation and rupture of the thoracic aortic, pulmonary disease (pulmonary hypertension, alveolar hypoplasia, emphysema, asthma, chronic bronchitis), gastrointestinal dysmotility and obstruction, joint hypermobility, and macrothrombocytopenia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78083
Concept ID:
C0262436
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Neural tube defects, folate-sensitive

Neural tube defects have a birth incidence of approximately 1 in 1,000 in American Caucasians and are the second most common type of birth defect after congenital heart defects. The most common NTDs are open spina bifida (myelomeningocele) and anencephaly (206500) (Detrait et al., 2005). Women with elevated plasma homocysteine, low folate, or low vitamin B12 (cobalamin) are at increased risk of having a child with a neural tube defect (O'Leary et al., 2005). Motulsky (1996) cited evidence from the Centers for Disease Control ( Anonymous, 1992) that folic acid given before and during the first 4 weeks of pregnancy can prevent 50% or more of neural tube defects. Botto et al. (1999) and Detrait et al. (2005) provided reviews of neural tube defects. De Marco et al. (2006) provided a detailed review of neurulation and the possible etiologies of neural tube defects. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
355746
Concept ID:
C1866558
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Conotruncal heart malformations

A group of congenital cardiac outflow tract anomalies that include such defects as tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, double-outlet right ventricle (DORV), double-outlet left ventricle, truncus arteriosus and transposition of the great arteries (TGA), among others. This group of defects is frequently found in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome . A deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 has equally been associated in a subset of patients with various types of isolated non-syndromic conotruncal heart malformations (with the exception of DORV and TGA where this is very uncommon). [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
341803
Concept ID:
C1857586
Disease or Syndrome
14.

3-Oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase deficiency

Pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias is a form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which 46,XY males show ambiguous genitalia at birth, including perineal hypospadias and a blind perineal pouch, and develop masculinization at puberty. The name of the disorder stems from the finding of a blind-ending perineal opening resembling a vagina and a severely hypospadiac penis with the urethra opening onto the perineum. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75667
Concept ID:
C0268297
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Polycystic ovaries

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that affects women in their child-bearing years and alters the levels of multiple hormones, resulting in problems affecting many body systems.

Most women with polycystic ovary syndrome produce excess male sex hormones (androgens), a condition called hyperandrogenism. Having too much of these hormones typically leads to excessive body hair growth (hirsutism), acne, and male pattern baldness.

Hyperandrogenism and abnormal levels of other sex hormones prevent normal release of egg cells from the ovaries (ovulation) and regular menstrual periods, leading to difficulty conceiving a child (subfertility) or a complete inability to conceive (infertility). For those who achieve pregnancy, there is an increased risk of complications and pregnancy loss. Due to irregular and infrequent menstruation and hormone abnormalities, affected women have an increased risk of cancer of the uterine lining (endometrial cancer).

In polycystic ovary syndrome, one or both ovaries can contain multiple small, immature ovarian follicles that can appear as cysts on medical imaging. Normally, ovarian follicles contain egg cells, which are released during ovulation. In polycystic ovary syndrome, abnormal hormone levels prevent follicles from growing and maturing to release egg cells. Instead, these immature follicles accumulate in the ovaries. Affected women can have 12 or more of these follicles. The number of these follicles usually decreases with age.

About half of all women with polycystic ovary syndrome are overweight or have obesity and are at increased risk of a fatty liver. Additionally, many women with polycystic ovary syndrome have elevated levels of insulin, which is a hormone that helps control levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar. By age 40, about 10 percent of overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome develop abnormally high blood glucose levels (type 2 diabetes), and up to 35 percent develop prediabetes (higher-than-normal blood glucose levels that do not reach the cutoff for diabetes). Obesity and increased insulin levels (hyperinsulinemia) further increase the production of androgens in polycystic ovary syndrome.

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are also at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome, which is a group of conditions that include high blood pressure (hypertension), increased belly fat, high levels of unhealthy fats and low levels of healthy fats in the blood, and high blood glucose levels. About 20 percent of affected adults experience pauses in breathing during sleep (sleep apnea). Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are more likely than women in the general popluation to have mood disorders such as depression. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
10836
Concept ID:
C0032460
Disease or Syndrome
16.

T-substance anomaly

MedGen UID:
338528
Concept ID:
C1848724
Finding
17.

Coronary artery disease, susceptibility to

MedGen UID:
333498
Concept ID:
C1840169
Finding
18.

Sodium-potassium-ATPase activity of red cell

MedGen UID:
376532
Concept ID:
C1849169
Cell Function
19.

Thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency

The thiopurines include azathioprine (a pro-drug for mercaptopurine), mercaptopurine and thioguanine. They are used to treat a variety of immunological disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, non- Hodgkin lymphoma and ulcerative colitis. Both mercaptopurine and thioguanine can exert cytotoxic effects through the formation of thioguanine nucleotides (TGNs), active metabolites that incorporate into DNA. Mercaptopurine and thioguanine are directly inactivated by thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT). Individuals with two nonfunctional TPMT alleles are at 100% risk of potentially fatal myelosuppression, due to an increased buildup of toxic TGNs. Alternative agents or a drastically reduced dose are recommended for patients with this genotype. Patients heterozygous for a nonfunctional TPMT allele are at increased risk of myelosuppression, and reduced dosing is recommended for these individuals. These dosing guidelines have been published in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) and are available on the PharmGKB website. [from PharmGKB]

MedGen UID:
83352
Concept ID:
C0342801
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Magnesium, elevated red cell

MedGen UID:
343360
Concept ID:
C1855464
Finding
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