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1.

CHARGE association

CHD7 disorder encompasses the entire phenotypic spectrum of heterozygous CHD7 pathogenic variants that includes CHARGE syndrome as well as subsets of features that comprise the CHARGE syndrome phenotype. The mnemonic CHARGE syndrome, introduced in the premolecular era, stands for coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies (including deafness). Following the identification of the genetic cause of CHD7 disorder, the phenotypic spectrum expanded to include cranial nerve anomalies, vestibular defects, cleft lip and/or palate, hypothyroidism, tracheoesophageal anomalies, brain anomalies, seizures, and renal anomalies. Life expectancy highly depends on the severity of manifestations; mortality can be high in the first few years when severe birth defects (particularly complex heart defects) are present and often complicated by airway and feeding issues. In childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, decreased life expectancy is likely related to a combination of residual heart defects, infections, aspiration or choking, respiratory issues including obstructive and central apnea, and possibly seizures. Despite these complications, the life expectancy for many individuals can be normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75567
Concept ID:
C0265354
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Camptomelic dysplasia

Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by distinctive facies, Pierre Robin sequence with cleft palate, shortening and bowing of long bones, and clubfeet. Other findings include laryngotracheomalacia with respiratory compromise and ambiguous genitalia or normal female external genitalia in most individuals with a 46,XY karyotype. Many affected infants die in the neonatal period; additional findings identified in long-term survivors include short stature, cervical spine instability with cord compression, progressive scoliosis, and hearing impairment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
354620
Concept ID:
C1861922
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Fanconi anemia complementation group L

Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
854018
Concept ID:
C3469528
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Chondrodysplasia punctata 2 X-linked dominant

The findings in X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 2 (CDPX2) range from fetal demise with multiple malformations and severe growth retardation to much milder manifestations, including females with no recognizable physical abnormalities. At least 95% of live-born individuals with CDPX2 are female. Characteristic features include growth deficiency; distinctive craniofacial appearance; chondrodysplasia punctata (stippling of the epiphyses of the long bones, vertebrae, trachea, and distal ends of the ribs); often asymmetric rhizomelic shortening of limbs; scoliosis; linear or blotchy scaling ichthyosis in the newborn; later appearance of linear or whorled atrophic patches involving hair follicles (follicular atrophoderma); coarse hair with scarring alopecia; and cataracts. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
79381
Concept ID:
C0282102
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Talipes equinovarus

Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
6.

Desmosterolosis

Desmosterolosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and elevated levels of the cholesterol precursor desmosterol in plasma, tissue, and cultured cells (summary by Waterham et al., 2001). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
400801
Concept ID:
C1865596
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Heterotaxy, visceral, 1, X-linked

Heterotaxy Heterotaxy ('heter' meaning 'other' and 'taxy' meaning 'arrangement'), or situs ambiguus, is a developmental condition characterized by randomization of the placement of visceral organs, including the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and stomach. The organs are oriented randomly with respect to the left-right axis and with respect to one another (Srivastava, 1997). Heterotaxy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Multiple Types of Congenital Heart Defects Congenital heart defects (CHTD) are among the most common congenital defects, occurring with an incidence of 8/1,000 live births. The etiology of CHTD is complex, with contributions from environmental exposure, chromosomal abnormalities, and gene defects. Some patients with CHTD also have cardiac arrhythmias, which may be due to the anatomic defect itself or to surgical interventions (summary by van de Meerakker et al., 2011). Reviews Obler et al. (2008) reviewed published cases of double-outlet right ventricle and discussed etiology and associations. Genetic Heterogeneity of Visceral Heterotaxy See also HTX2 (605376), caused by mutation in the CFC1 gene (605194) on chromosome 2q21; HTX3 (606325), which maps to chromosome 6q21; HTX4 (613751), caused by mutation in the ACVR2B gene (602730) on chromosome 3p22; HTX5 (270100), caused by mutation in the NODAL gene (601265) on chromosome 10q22; HTX6 (614779), caused by mutation in the CCDC11 gene (614759) on chromosome 18q21; HTX7 (616749), caused by mutation in the MMP21 gene (608416) on chromosome 10q26; HTX8 (617205), caused by mutation in the PKD1L1 gene (609721) on chromosome 7p12; HTX9 (618948), caused by mutation in the MNS1 gene (610766) on chromosome 15q21; HTX10 (619607), caused by mutation in the CFAP52 gene (609804) on chromosome 17p13; HTX11 (619608), caused by mutation in the CFAP45 gene (605152) on chromosome 1q23; and HTX12 (619702), caused by mutation in the CIROP gene (619703) on chromosome 14q11. Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Types of Congenital Heart Defects An X-linked form of CHTD, CHTD1, is caused by mutation in the ZIC3 gene on chromosome Xq26. CHTD2 (614980) is caused by mutation in the TAB2 gene (605101) on chromosome 6q25. A form of nonsyndromic congenital heart defects associated with cardiac rhythm and conduction disturbances (CHTD3; 614954) has been mapped to chromosome 9q31. CHTD4 (615779) is caused by mutation in the NR2F2 gene (107773) on chromosome 15q26. CHTD5 (617912) is caused by mutation in the GATA5 gene (611496) on chromosome 20q13. CHTD6 (613854) is caused by mutation in the GDF1 gene (602880) on chromosome 19p13. CHTD7 (618780) is caused by mutation in the FLT4 gene (136352) on chromosome 5q35. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
336609
Concept ID:
C1844020
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Frank-Ter Haar syndrome

The primary characteristics of the Frank-ter Haar syndrome are brachycephaly, wide fontanels, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, prominent eyes, macrocornea with or without glaucoma, full cheeks, small chin, bowing of the long bones, and flexion deformity of the fingers. Protruding, simple ears and prominent coccyx are also regarded as important diagnostic signs (summary by Maas et al., 2004). Borrone syndrome was described as a severe progressive multisystem disorder with features overlapping those of FTHS, including thick skin, acne conglobata, osteolysis, gingival hypertrophy, brachydactyly, camptodactyly, and mitral valve prolapse. Although it was initially thought to be a distinct phenotype, mutations in the FTHS-associated gene SH3PXD2B have been identified in patients diagnosed with Borrone syndrome. The earlier differential description was attributed to phenotypic variability as well as to differences in the ages at which patients were examined (Wilson et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
383652
Concept ID:
C1855305
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Arthrogryposis- oculomotor limitation-electroretinal anomalies syndrome

Distal arthrogryposis type 5 is distinguished from other forms of DA by the presence of ocular abnormalities, typically ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and/or strabismus, in addition to contractures of the skeletal muscles. Some cases have been reported to have pulmonary hypertension as a result of restrictive lung disease (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). There are 2 syndromes with features overlapping those of DA5 that are also caused by heterozygous mutation in PIEZO2: distal arthrogryposis type 3 (DA3, or Gordon syndrome; 114300) and Marden-Walker syndrome (MWKS; 248700), which are distinguished by the presence of cleft palate and mental retardation, respectively. McMillin et al. (2014) suggested that the 3 disorders might represent variable expressivity of the same condition. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1A (108120). Genetic Heterogeneity of Distal Arthrogryposis 5 A subtype of DA5 due to mutation in the ECEL1 gene (605896) on chromosome 2q36 has been designated DA5D (615065). See NOMENCLATURE. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
350678
Concept ID:
C1862472
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Schneckenbecken dysplasia

Schneckenbecken dysplasia (SHNKND) is a perinatally lethal skeletal dysplasia. The German term 'Schneckenbecken' refers to the distinctive, snail-like appearance of the ilia that results from a medial bone projection from the inner iliac margin. Other hallmarks of the disorder include thoracic hypoplasia, severe flattening of the vertebral bodies, and short, thick long bones (summary by Hiraoka et al., 2007). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
98475
Concept ID:
C0432194
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Sacral defect with anterior meningocele

Sacral defect with anterior meningocele (SDAM) is a form of caudal dysgenesis. It is present at birth and becomes symptomatic later in life, usually because of obstructive labor in females, chronic constipation, or meningitis. Inheritance is autosomal dominant (Chatkupt et al., 1994). Welch and Aterman (1984) gave a population frequency of 0.14%. Caudal dysgenesis syndrome and caudal regression syndrome are broad terms that refer to a heterogeneous constellation of congenital caudal anomalies affecting the caudal spine and spinal cord, the hindgut, the urogenital system, and the lower limbs. Approximately 15 to 25% of mothers of children with caudal dysgenesis have insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (222100) (Lynch et al., 2000). See also Currarino syndrome (176450), a similar disorder caused by mutation in the HLXB9 gene (142994) on chromosome 7q36. Currarino syndrome classically comprises the triad of hemisacrum, anorectal malformation, and presacral mass. However, Currarino syndrome also shows phenotypic variability: Lynch et al. (2000) stated that there is variable expressivity of clinical features and that some patients with Currarino syndrome are asymptomatic. Kochling et al. (2001) found the complete triad of Currarino syndrome in only 8 of 23 patients with mutations in the HLXB9 gene, These reports suggest that some patients previously reported as having forms of sacral agenesis, including SDAM, may have had Currarino syndrome and vice versa. See also spina bifida (182940), which can be seen in some patients with sacral agenesis or caudal regression syndrome and may be etiologically related. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
325455
Concept ID:
C1838568
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Brachydactyly type A1C

Any brachydactyly type A1 in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GDF5 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
767360
Concept ID:
C3554446
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Acromesomelic dysplasia 3

MedGen UID:
904735
Concept ID:
C4225404
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Polymicrogyria with or without vascular-type ehlers-danlos syndrome

Polymicrogyria with or without vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Although all patients have polymicrogyria and other variable structural brain anomalies on imaging, only some show developmental delay and/or seizures. Similarly, only some patients have connective tissue defects that particularly affect the vascular system and can result in early death (summary by Vandervore et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1675672
Concept ID:
C5193040
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Microcephaly 15, primary, autosomal recessive

Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain imaging abnormalities (NEDMISBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a spectrum of neurologic abnormalities apparent from early infancy. Affected individuals have impaired intellectual development with poor speech, progressive microcephaly, and appendicular spasticity. Brain imaging usually shows abnormalities, including enlarged ventricles, white matter defects, and atrophy or hypoplasia of brain tissue. Some patients have a more severe phenotype with seizures, lack of developmental milestones, and early death (summary by Harel et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
895496
Concept ID:
C4225310
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 39

An autosomal dominant condition caused by mutation(s) in the MYT1L gene, encoding myelin transcription factor 1-like protein. It is characterized by intellectual disability and mild dysmorphic facial features. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
909304
Concept ID:
C4225296
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Bone fragility with contractures, arterial rupture, and deafness

Connective tissue disorder due to lysyl hydroxylase-3 deficiency is a rare, genetic disease, caused by lack of lysyl hydrohylase 3 (LH3) activity, characterized by multiple tissue and organ involvement, including skeletal abnormalities (club foot, progressive scoliosis, osteopenia, pathologic fractures), ocular involvement (flat retinae, myopia, cataracts) and hair, nail and skin anomalies (coarse, abnormally distributed hair, skin blistering, reduced palmar creases, hypoplastic nails). Patients also present intrauterine growth retardation, facial dysmorphism (flat facial profile, low-set ears, shallow orbits, short and upturned nose, downturned corners of mouth) and joint flexion contractures. Growth and developmental delay, bilateral sensorineural deafness, friable diaphragm and later-onset spontaneous vascular ruptures are additional reported features. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
382811
Concept ID:
C2676285
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Noonan syndrome 13

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1761918
Concept ID:
C5436773
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Al-Gazali syndrome

Al-Gazali syndrome (ALGAZ) is characterized by prenatal growth retardation, skeletal anomalies including joint contractures, camptodactyly, and bilateral talipes equinovarus, small mouth, anterior segment eye anomalies, and early lethality (summary by Ben-Mahmoud et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
373020
Concept ID:
C1836121
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 3, myogenic type

Myogenic-type arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-3 (AMC3) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by decreased fetal movements, hypotonia, variable skeletal defects, including clubfoot and scoliosis, and delayed motor milestones with difficulty walking (summary by Baumann et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1680655
Concept ID:
C5193121
Disease or Syndrome
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