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1.

Adrenoleukodystrophy

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) affects the nervous system white matter and the adrenal cortex. Three main phenotypes are seen in affected males: The childhood cerebral form manifests most commonly between ages four and eight years. It initially resembles attention-deficit disorder or hyperactivity; progressive impairment of cognition, behavior, vision, hearing, and motor function follow the initial symptoms and often lead to total disability within six months to two years. Most individuals have impaired adrenocortical function at the time that neurologic disturbances are first noted. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) manifests most commonly in an individual in his twenties or middle age as progressive stiffness and weakness of the legs, sphincter disturbances, sexual dysfunction, and often, impaired adrenocortical function; all symptoms are progressive over decades. "Addison disease only" presents with primary adrenocortical insufficiency between age two years and adulthood and most commonly by age 7.5 years, without evidence of neurologic abnormality; however, some degree of neurologic disability (most commonly AMN) usually develops by middle age. More than 20% of female carriers develop mild-to-moderate spastic paraparesis in middle age or later. Adrenal function is usually normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
57667
Concept ID:
C0162309
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Metachromatic leukodystrophy

Arylsulfatase A deficiency (also known as metachromatic leukodystrophy or MLD) is characterized by three clinical subtypes: late-infantile MLD, juvenile MLD, and adult MLD. Age of onset within a family is usually similar. The disease course may be from several years in the late-infantile-onset form to decades in the juvenile- and adult-onset forms. Late-infantile MLD. Onset is before age 30 months. Typical presenting findings include weakness, hypotonia, clumsiness, frequent falls, toe walking, and dysarthria. As the disease progresses, language, cognitive, and gross and fine motor skills regress. Later signs include spasticity, pain, seizures, and compromised vision and hearing. In the final stages, children have tonic spasms, decerebrate posturing, and general unawareness of their surroundings. Juvenile MLD. Onset is between age 30 months and 16 years. Initial manifestations include decline in school performance and emergence of behavioral problems, followed by gait disturbances. Progression is similar to but slower than in the late-infantile form. Adult MLD. Onset occurs after age 16 years, sometimes not until the fourth or fifth decade. Initial signs can include problems in school or job performance, personality changes, emotional lability, or psychosis; in others, neurologic symptoms (weakness and loss of coordination progressing to spasticity and incontinence) or seizures initially predominate. Peripheral neuropathy is common. Disease course is variable – with periods of stability interspersed with periods of decline – and may extend over two to three decades. The final stage is similar to earlier-onset forms. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
6071
Concept ID:
C0023522
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and eventual deterioration of bulbar functions. Early in the disease, affected individuals may have gait disturbance, slurred speech, difficulty with balance, brisk deep tendon reflexes, hypermetric saccades, nystagmus, and mild dysphagia. Later signs include slowing of saccadic velocity, development of up-gaze palsy, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, and hypotonia. In advanced stages, muscle atrophy, decreased deep tendon reflexes, loss of proprioception, cognitive impairment (e.g., frontal executive dysfunction, impaired verbal memory), chorea, dystonia, and bulbar dysfunction are seen. Onset is typically in the third or fourth decade, although childhood onset and late-adult onset have been reported. Those with onset after age 60 years may manifest a pure cerebellar phenotype. Interval from onset to death varies from ten to 30 years; individuals with juvenile onset show more rapid progression and more severe disease. Anticipation is observed. An axonal sensory neuropathy detected by electrophysiologic testing is common; brain imaging typically shows cerebellar and brain stem atrophy. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155703
Concept ID:
C0752120
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Desmin-related myofibrillar myopathy

Myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) is a noncommittal term that refers to a group of morphologically homogeneous, but genetically heterogeneous chronic neuromuscular disorders. The morphologic changes in skeletal muscle in MFM result from disintegration of the sarcomeric Z disc and the myofibrils, followed by abnormal ectopic accumulation of multiple proteins involved in the structure of the Z disc, including desmin, alpha-B-crystallin (CRYAB; 123590), dystrophin (300377), and myotilin (TTID; 604103). Genetic Heterogeneity of Myofibrillar Myopathy Other forms of MFM include MFM2 (608810), caused by mutation in the CRYAB gene (123590); MFM3 (609200), caused by mutation in the MYOT gene (604103); MFM4 (609452), caused by mutation in the ZASP gene (LDB3; 605906); MFM5 (609524), caused by mutation in the FLNC gene (102565); MFM6 (612954), caused by mutation in the BAG3 gene (603883); MFM7 (617114), caused by mutation in the KY gene (605739); MFM8 (617258), caused by mutation in the PYROXD1 gene (617220); MFM9 (603689), caused by mutation in the TTN gene (188840); MFM10 (619040), caused by mutation in the SVIL UNC45B gene (611220); MFM11 (619178), caused by mutation in the UNC45B gene (611220); and MFM12 (619424), caused by mutation in the MYL2 gene (160781). 'Desmin-related myopathy' is another term referring to MFM in which there are intrasarcoplasmic aggregates of desmin, usually in addition to other sarcomeric proteins. Rigid spine syndrome (602771), caused by mutation in the SEPN1 gene (606210), is another desmin-related myopathy. Goebel (1995) provided a review of desmin-related myopathy. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
330449
Concept ID:
C1832370
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Kennedy disease

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a gradually progressive neuromuscular disorder in which degeneration of lower motor neurons results in muscle weakness, muscle atrophy, and fasciculations. SBMA occurs only in males. Affected individuals often show gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and reduced fertility as a result of mild androgen insensitivity. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
333282
Concept ID:
C1839259
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Actin accumulation myopathy

Congenital myopathy-2A (CMYP2A) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by infantile- or childhood-onset myopathy with delayed motor milestones and nonprogressive muscle weakness. Of the patients with congenital myopathy caused by mutation in the ACTA1 gene, about 90% carry heterozygous mutations that are usually de novo and cause the severe infantile phenotype (CMYP2C; 620278). Some patients with de novo mutations have a more typical and milder disease course with delayed motor development and proximal muscle weakness, but are able to achieve independent ambulation. Less frequently, autosomal dominant transmission of the disorder within a family may occur when the ACTA1 mutation produces a phenotype compatible with adult life. Of note, intrafamilial variability has also been reported: a severely affected proband may be identified and then mildly affected or even asymptomatic relatives are found to carry the same mutation. The severity of the disease most likely depends on the detrimental effect of the mutation, although there are probably additional modifying factors (Ryan et al., 2001; Laing et al., 2009; Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001; Agrawal et al., 2004; Nowak et al., 2013; Sewry et al., 2019; Laitila and Wallgren-Pettersson, 2021). The most common histologic finding on muscle biopsy in patients with ACTA1 mutations is the presence of 'nemaline rods,' which represent abnormal thread- or rod-like structures ('nema' is Greek for 'thread'). However, skeletal muscle biopsy from patients with mutations in the ACTA1 gene can show a range of pathologic phenotypes. These include classic rods, intranuclear rods, clumped filaments, cores, or fiber-type disproportion, all of which are nonspecific pathologic findings and not pathognomonic of a specific congenital myopathy. Most patients have clinically severe disease, regardless of the histopathologic phenotype (Nowak et al., 2007; Sewry et al., 2019). ACTA1 mutations are the second most common cause of congenital myopathies classified histologically as 'nemaline myopathy' after mutations in the NEB gene (161650). ACTA1 mutations are overrepresented in the severe phenotype with early death (Laing et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM2 (256030). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
777997
Concept ID:
C3711389
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Nemaline myopathy 2

Nemaline myopathy-2 (NEM2) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder with a wide range of severity. The most common clinical presentation is early-onset (in infancy or childhood) muscle weakness predominantly affecting proximal limb muscles. Muscle biopsy shows accumulation of Z-disc and thin filament proteins into aggregates named 'nemaline bodies' or 'nemaline rods,' usually accompanied by disorganization of the muscle Z discs. The clinical and histologic spectrum of entities caused by variants in the NEB gene is a continuum, ranging in severity. The distribution of weakness can vary from generalized muscle weakness, more pronounced in proximal limb muscles, to distal-only involvement, although neck flexor weakness appears to be rather consistent. Histologic patterns range from a severe usually nondystrophic disturbance of the myofibrillar pattern to an almost normal pattern, with or without nemaline bodies, sometimes combined with cores (summary by Lehtokari et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Nemaline Myopathy See also NEM1 (255310), caused by mutation in the tropomyosin-3 gene (TPM3; 191030) on chromosome 1q22; NEM3 (161800), caused by mutation in the alpha-actin-1 gene (ACTA1; 102610) on chromosome 1q42; NEM4 (609285), caused by mutation in the beta-tropomyosin gene (TPM2; 190990) on chromosome 9p13; NEM5A (605355), also known as Amish nemaline myopathy, NEM5B (620386), and NEM5C (620389), all caused by mutation in the troponin T1 gene (TNNT1; 191041) on chromosome 19q13; NEM6 (609273), caused by mutation in the KBTBD13 gene (613727) on chromosome 15q22; NEM7 (610687), caused by mutation in the cofilin-2 gene (CFL2; 601443) on chromosome 14q13; NEM8 (615348), caused by mutation in the KLHL40 gene (615340), on chromosome 3p22; NEM9 (615731), caused by mutation in the KLHL41 gene (607701) on chromosome 2q31; NEM10 (616165), caused by mutation in the LMOD3 gene (616112) on chromosome 3p14; and NEM11 (617336), caused by mutation in the MYPN gene (608517) on chromosome 10q21. Several of the genes encode components of skeletal muscle sarcomeric thin filaments (Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001). Mutations in the NEB gene are the most common cause of nemaline myopathy (Lehtokari et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
342534
Concept ID:
C1850569
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Familial infantile myasthenia

Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of inherited disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Patients present clinically with onset of variable muscle weakness between infancy and adulthood. These disorders have been classified according to the location of the defect: presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic. CMS6 is an autosomal recessive CMS resulting from a presynaptic defect; patients have onset of symptoms in infancy or early childhood and tend to have sudden apneic episodes. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may be beneficial (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
140751
Concept ID:
C0393929
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Congenital myasthenic syndrome 10

Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of inherited disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Patients present clinically with onset of variable muscle weakness between infancy and adulthood. These disorders have been classified according to the location of the defect: presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic. CMS10 is an autosomal recessive CMS resulting from a postsynaptic defect affecting endplate maintenance of the NMJ. Patients present with limb-girdle weakness in the first decade. Treatment with ephedrine or salbutamol may be beneficial; cholinesterase inhibitors should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
376880
Concept ID:
C1850792
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1D (DNAJB6)

Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy is characterized by proximal and/or distal muscle weakness and atrophy. The age at onset is variable and can range from the first to the sixth decade, although later onset is less common. Most patients present with proximal muscle weakness that progresses to distal involvement, but some can present with distal impairment. The severity is variable: patients with a more severe phenotype can lose ambulation after several decades and have facial weakness with bulbar and respiratory involvement. Muscle biopsy shows dystrophic changes with protein aggregates, myofibrillar degeneration, and rimmed vacuoles (summary by Ruggieri et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Dominant Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Other forms of autosomal dominant LGMD include LGMDD2 (608423), previously LGMD1F, caused by mutation in the TNPO3 gene (610032) on chromosome 7q32; LGMDD3 (609115), previously LGMD1G, caused by mutation in the HNRNPDL gene (607137) on chromosome 4q21; and LGMDD4 (618129), previously LGMD1I, caused by mutation in the CAPN3 gene (114240) on chromosome 15q15. For a discussion of autosomal recessive LGMD, see 253600. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648441
Concept ID:
C4721885
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 1B, fast-channel

Fast-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (FCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel, specifically from abnormally brief opening and activity of the channel, with a rapid decay in endplate current and a failure to reach the threshold for depolarization. Treatment with pyridostigmine or amifampridine may be helpful; quinine, quinidine, and fluoxetine should be avoided (summary by Sine et al., 2003 and Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
909200
Concept ID:
C4225405
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2

CHCHD10-related disorders are characterized by a spectrum of adult-onset neurologic phenotypes that can include: Mitochondrial myopathy (may also be early onset): weakness, amyotrophy, exercise intolerance. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): progressive degeneration of upper motor neurons and lower motor neurons. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD): slowly progressive behavioral changes, language disturbances, cognitive decline, extrapyramidal signs. Late-onset spinal motor neuronopathy (SMA, Jokela type): weakness, cramps, and/or fasciculations; areflexia. Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy: slowly progressive lower-leg muscle weakness and atrophy, small hand muscle weakness, loss of tendon reflexes, sensory abnormalities. Cerebellar ataxia: gait ataxia, kinetic ataxia (progressive loss of coordination of lower- and upper-limb movements), dysarthria/dysphagia, nystagmus, cerebellar oculomotor disorder. Because of the recent discovery of CHCHD10-related disorders and the limited number of affected individuals reported to date, the natural history of these disorders (except for SMAJ caused by the p.Gly66Val pathogenic variant) is largely unknown. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
863085
Concept ID:
C4014648
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 1

Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and a variety of cranial nerve palsies, usually involving the motor components of the seventh and ninth to twelfth (more rarely the third, fifth, and sixth) cranial nerves. Spinal motor nerves and, less commonly, upper motor neurons are sometimes affected, giving a picture resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400). The onset of the disease is usually in the second decade, but earlier and later onset have been reported. Hearing loss tends to precede the onset of neurologic signs, mostly progressive muscle weakness causing respiratory compromise. However, patients with very early onset may present with bulbar palsy and may not develop hearing loss until later. The symptoms, severity, and disease duration are variable (summary by Green et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome See also BVVLS2 (614707), caused by mutation in the SLC52A2 gene (607882) on chromosome 8q. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
163239
Concept ID:
C0796274
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 2

Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome-2 (BVVLS2) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by early childhood onset of sensorineural deafness, bulbar dysfunction, and severe diffuse muscle weakness and wasting of the upper and lower limbs and axial muscles, resulting in respiratory insufficiency. Some patients may lose independent ambulation. Because it results from a defect in riboflavin metabolism, some patients may benefit from high-dose riboflavin supplementation (summary by Johnson et al., 2012; Foley et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, see BVVLS1 (211530). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766452
Concept ID:
C3553538
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Congenital myasthenic syndrome 4A

Slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor channel, specifically from prolonged opening and activity of the channel, which causes prolonged synaptic currents resulting in a depolarization block. This is associated with calcium overload, which may contribute to subsequent degeneration of the endplate and postsynaptic membrane. Treatment with quinine, quinidine, or fluoxetine may be helpful; acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and amifampridine should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
908188
Concept ID:
C4225413
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Meretoja syndrome

The Finnish type of systemic amyloidosis is characterized clinically by a unique constellation of features including lattice corneal dystrophy, and cranial neuropathy, bulbar signs, and skin changes. Some patients may develop peripheral neuropathy and renal failure. The disorder is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern; however, homozygotes with a more severe phenotype have also been reported (Meretoja, 1973). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
301243
Concept ID:
C1622345
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 3

Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-3 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult or late adult onset of cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities, and speech apraxia and/or upper and lower motor neuron signs. Some patients may also develop Paget disease of bone. The phenotype is highly variable, even within families (summary by Rea et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FTDALS, see FTDALS1 (105550). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
897127
Concept ID:
C4225326
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Congenital myopathy with fiber type disproportion

Congenital fiber-type disproportion is a condition that primarily affects skeletal muscles, which are muscles used for movement. People with this condition typically experience muscle weakness (myopathy), particularly in the muscles of the shoulders, upper arms, hips, and thighs. Weakness can also affect the muscles of the face and muscles that control eye movement (ophthalmoplegia), sometimes causing droopy eyelids (ptosis). Individuals with congenital fiber-type disproportion generally have a long face, a high arch in the roof of the mouth (high-arched palate), and crowded teeth.

Individuals with congenital fiber-type disproportion may have joint deformities (contractures) and an abnormally curved lower back (lordosis) or a spine that curves to the side (scoliosis). Approximately 30 percent of people with this disorder experience mild to severe breathing problems related to weakness of muscles needed for breathing. Some people who experience these breathing problems require use of a machine to help regulate their breathing at night (noninvasive mechanical ventilation), and occasionally during the day as well. About 30 percent of affected individuals have difficulty swallowing due to muscle weakness in the throat. Rarely, people with this condition have a weakened and enlarged heart muscle (dilated cardiomyopathy).

The severity of congenital fiber-type disproportion varies widely. It is estimated that up to 25 percent of affected individuals experience severe muscle weakness at birth and die in infancy or childhood. Others have only mild muscle weakness that becomes apparent in adulthood. Most often, the signs and symptoms of this condition appear by age 1. The first signs of this condition are usually decreased muscle tone (hypotonia) and muscle weakness. In most cases, muscle weakness does not worsen over time, and in some instances it may improve. Although motor skills such as standing and walking may be delayed, many affected children eventually learn to walk. These individuals often have less stamina than their peers, but they remain active. Rarely, people with this condition have a progressive decline in muscle strength over time. These individuals may lose the ability to walk and require wheelchair assistance. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
108177
Concept ID:
C0546264
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Progressive bulbar palsy of childhood

Fazio-Londe disease is a progressive bulbar palsy with onset in childhood that presents with hypotonia and respiratory insufficiency (summary by Bosch et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
41975
Concept ID:
C0015708
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 21

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-21 (ALS21) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in muscle weakness and respiratory failure. Some patients may develop myopathic features or dementia (summary by Johnson et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, see ALS1 (105400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
813851
Concept ID:
C3807521
Disease or Syndrome
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