U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 1 to 20 of 44

1.

Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-I-H/S

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
88566
Concept ID:
C0086431
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Junctional epidermolysis bullosa, non-Herlitz type

Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes, manifest by blistering with little or no trauma. Blistering may be severe and granulation tissue can form on the skin around the oral and nasal cavities, fingers and toes, and internally around the upper airway. Blisters generally heal with no significant scarring. Broad classification of JEB includes JEB generalized severe and JEB generalized intermediate. In JEB generalized severe, blisters are present at birth or become apparent in the neonatal period. Congenital malformations of the urinary tract and bladder may also occur. In JEB generalized intermediate, the phenotype may be mild with blistering localized to hands, feet, knees, and elbows with or without renal or ureteral involvement. Some individuals never blister after the newborn period. Additional features shared by JEB and the other major forms of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) include congenital localized absence of skin (aplasia cutis congenita), milia, nail dystrophy, scarring alopecia, hypotrichosis, pseudosyndactyly, and other contractures. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
82798
Concept ID:
C0268374
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Lowe syndrome

Lowe syndrome (oculocerebrorenal syndrome) is characterized by involvement of the eyes, central nervous system, and kidneys. Dense congenital cataracts are found in all affected boys and infantile glaucoma in approximately 50%. All boys have impaired vision; corrected acuity is rarely better than 20/100. Generalized hypotonia is noted at birth and is of central (brain) origin. Deep tendon reflexes are usually absent. Hypotonia may slowly improve with age, but normal motor tone and strength are never achieved. Motor milestones are delayed. Almost all affected males have some degree of intellectual disability; 10%-25% function in the low-normal or borderline range, approximately 25% in the mild-to-moderate range, and 50%-65% in the severe-to-profound range of intellectual disability. Affected males have varying degrees of proximal renal tubular dysfunction of the Fanconi type, including low molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, aminoaciduria, bicarbonate wasting and renal tubular acidosis, phosphaturia with hypophosphatemia and renal rickets, hypercalciuria, sodium and potassium wasting, and polyuria. The features of symptomatic Fanconi syndrome do not usually become manifest until after the first few months of life, except for LMW proteinuria. Glomerulosclerosis associated with chronic tubular injury usually results in slowly progressive chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease between the second and fourth decades of life. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
18145
Concept ID:
C0028860
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Meckel syndrome, type 1

Meckel syndrome, also known as Meckel-Gruber syndrome, is a severe pleiotropic autosomal recessive developmental disorder caused by dysfunction of primary cilia during early embryogenesis. There is extensive clinical variability and controversy as to the minimum diagnostic criteria. Early reports, including that of Opitz and Howe (1969) and Wright et al. (1994), stated that the classic triad of Meckel syndrome comprises (1) cystic renal disease; (2) a central nervous system malformation, most commonly occipital encephalocele; and (3) polydactyly, most often postaxial. However, based on a study of 67 patients, Salonen (1984) concluded that the minimum diagnostic criteria are (1) cystic renal disease; (2) CNS malformation, and (3) hepatic abnormalities, including portal fibrosis or ductal proliferation. In a review of Meckel syndrome, Logan et al. (2011) stated that the classic triad first described by Meckel (1822) included occipital encephalocele, cystic kidneys, and fibrotic changes to the liver. Genetic Heterogeneity of Meckel Syndrome See also MKS2 (603194), caused by mutation in the TMEM216 gene (613277) on chromosome 11q12; MKS3 (607361), caused by mutation in the TMEM67 gene (609884) on chromosome 8q; MKS4 (611134), caused by mutation in the CEP290 gene (610142) on chromosome 12q; MKS5 (611561), caused by mutation in the RPGRIP1L gene (610937) on chromosome 16q12; MKS6 (612284), caused by mutation in the CC2D2A gene (612013) on chromosome 4p15; MKS7 (267010), caused by mutation in the NPHP3 (608002) gene on chromosome 3q22; MKS8 (613885), caused by mutation in the TCTN2 gene (613846) on chromosome 12q24; MKS9 (614209), caused by mutation in the B9D1 gene (614144) on chromosome 17p11; MKS10 (614175), caused by mutation in the B9D2 gene (611951) on chromosome 19q13; MKS11 (615397), caused by mutation in the TMEM231 gene (614949) on chromosome 16q23; MKS12 (616258), caused by mutation in the KIF14 gene (611279) on chromosome 1q32; MKS13 (617562), caused by mutation in the TMEM107 gene (616183) on chromosome 17p13; and MKS14 (619879), caused by mutation in the TXNDC15 gene (617778) on chromosome 5q31. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
811346
Concept ID:
C3714506
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Frontometaphyseal dysplasia 1

The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
923943
Concept ID:
C4281559
Congenital Abnormality
6.

Fetal akinesia deformation sequence 1

Decreased fetal activity associated with multiple joint contractures, facial anomalies and pulmonary hypoplasia. Ultrasound examination may reveal polyhydramnios, ankylosis, scalp edema, and decreased chest movements (reflecting pulmonary hypoplasia). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
220903
Concept ID:
C1276035
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome

The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Distal arthrogryposis type 2B1

Distal arthrogryposis is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by clenched fist, overlapping fingers, camptodactyly, ulnar deviation, and positional foot deformities from birth. It is a disorder of primary limb malformation without primary neurologic or muscle disease. DA1 is not associated with other abnormalities, whereas other forms of DA have additional phenotypic features (Bamshad et al., 1996). The congenital contractures in DA2B (Sheldon-Hall syndrome, SHS) are similar to those observed in DA1, but affected individuals tend to have more prominent nasolabial folds, downslanting palpebral fissures, and a small mouth. DA2B is thought to be the most common of the distal arthrogryposis disorders (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1676961
Concept ID:
C5193014
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Waardenburg syndrome type 3

Waardenburg syndrome type 3 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; presence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the ocular inner canthi; and upper limb abnormalities (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). WS type 3 is also referred to as 'Klein-Waardenburg syndrome' (Gorlin et al., 1976). Clinical Variability of Waardenburg Syndrome Types 1-4 Waardenburg syndrome has been classified into 4 main phenotypes. Type I Waardenburg syndrome (WS1; 193500) is characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, including a white forelock and premature graying; pigmentary changes of the iris, such as heterochromia iridis and brilliant blue eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and 'dystopia canthorum.' WS type II (WS2) is distinguished from type I by the absence of dystopia canthorum. WS type III has dystopia canthorum and is distinguished by the presence of upper limb abnormalities. WS type IV (WS4; 277580), also known as Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, has the additional feature of Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
86948
Concept ID:
C0079661
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Autosomal recessive distal spinal muscular atrophy 1

Autosomal recessive distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-1 (HMNR1) is characterized by distal and proximal muscle weakness and diaphragmatic palsy that leads to respiratory distress. Without intervention, most infants with the severe form of the disease die before 2 years of age. Affected individuals present in infancy with inspiratory stridor, weak cry, recurrent bronchopneumonia, and swallowing difficulties. The disorder is caused by distal and progressive motor neuronopathy resulting in muscle weakness (summary by Perego et al., 2020). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Distal Hereditary Motor Neuronopathy See also HMNR2 (605726), caused by mutation in the SIGMAR1 gene (601978); HMNR3 (607088) (encompassing Harding HMN types III and IV), which maps to chromosome 11q13; HMNR4 (611067), caused by mutation in the PLEKHG5 gene (611101); HMNR5 (614881), caused by mutation in the DNAJB2 gene (604139); HMNR6 (620011), caused by mutation in the REEP1 gene (609139); HMNR7 (619216), caused by mutation in the VWA1 gene (611901); HMNR8 (618912), caused by mutation in the SORD gene (182500); HMNR9 (620402), caused by mutation in the COQ7 gene (601683); and HMRN10 (620542), caused by mutation in the VRK1 gene (602168). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
388083
Concept ID:
C1858517
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with congenital joint dislocations

CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
373381
Concept ID:
C1837657
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, spondylocheirodysplastic type

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type 3 (EDSSPD3) is characterized by short stature, hyperelastic skin and hypermobile joints, protuberant eyes with bluish sclerae, finely wrinkled palms, and characteristic radiologic features (Giunta et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the spondylodysplastic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, see 130070. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
393515
Concept ID:
C2676510
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Osteoglophonic dysplasia

Osteoglophonic dysplasia (OGD) is characterized by rhizomelic dwarfism, nonossifying bone lesions, craniosynostosis, prominent supraorbital ridge, and depressed nasal bridge (summary by White et al., 2005). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
96592
Concept ID:
C0432283
Congenital Abnormality
14.

Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia

Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by predominant involvement of articular cartilage with progressive joint stiffness and enlargement in the absence of inflammation. Onset – typically between ages three and six years – begins with the involvement of the interphalangeal joints. Over time, involvement of large joints and the spine causes significant joint contractures, gait disturbance, and scoliosis and/or kyphosis, resulting in abnormal posture and significant morbidity. Despite the considerable arthropathy, pain is not a major presenting feature of this condition. Initially height is normal; however, short stature (<3rd centile) becomes evident in adolescence as the skeletal changes progress. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
96581
Concept ID:
C0432215
Congenital Abnormality
15.

Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3A, with or without extraocular involvement

Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) encompasses several different inherited strabismus syndromes characterized by congenital restrictive ophthalmoplegia affecting extraocular muscles innervated by the oculomotor and/or trochlear nerves. If all affected members of a family have classic CFEOM with bilateral involvement and inability to raise the eyes above midline, the phenotype is classified as CFEOM1 (135700). CFEOM2 (602078) shows autosomal recessive inheritance. CFEOM3 is characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance of a more variable phenotype than classic CFEOM1. Individuals with CFEOM3 may not have bilateral involvement, may be able to raise the eyes above midline, or may not have blepharoptosis (reviews by Yamada et al., 2004 and Heidary et al., 2008). Yamada et al. (2003) concluded that CFEOM3 is a relatively rare form of CFEOM. Genetic Heterogeneity of CFEOM3 The CFEOM3 phenotype is genetically heterogeneous; see also CFEOM3B (135700), caused by mutation in the KIF21A gene on chromosome 12q12, and CFEOM3C (609384), which maps to chromosome 13q. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
412638
Concept ID:
C2748801
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Terminal osseous dysplasia-pigmentary defects syndrome

Terminal osseous dysplasia is an X-linked dominant male-lethal disease characterized by skeletal dysplasia of the limbs, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibroma during infancy (Sun et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
335344
Concept ID:
C1846129
Disease or Syndrome
17.

H syndrome

The histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome comprises features of 4 histiocytic disorders previously thought to be distinct: Faisalabad histiocytosis (FHC), sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), H syndrome, and pigmented hypertrichosis with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus syndrome (PHID). FHC was described as an autosomal recessive disease involving joint deformities, sensorineural hearing loss, and subsequent development of generalized lymphadenopathy and swellings in the eyelids that contain histiocytes (summary by Morgan et al., 2010). SHML, or familial Rosai-Dorfman disease, was described as a rare cause of lymph node enlargement in children, consisting of chronic massive enlargement of cervical lymph nodes frequently accompanied by fever, leukocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Extranodal sites were involved in approximately 25% of patients, including salivary glands, orbit, eyelid, spleen, and testes. The involvement of retropharyngeal lymphoid tissue sometimes caused snoring and sleep apnea (summary by Kismet et al., 2005). H syndrome was characterized by cutaneous hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis, hepatosplenomegaly, heart anomalies, and hypogonadism; hearing loss was also found in about half of patients, and many had short stature. PHID was characterized by predominantly antibody-negative insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus associated with pigmented hypertrichosis and variable occurrence of other features of H syndrome, with hepatosplenomegaly occurring in about half of patients (Cliffe et al., 2009). Bolze et al. (2012) noted that mutations in the SLC29A3 gene (612373) had been implicated in H syndrome, PHID, FHC, and SHML, and that some patients presented a combination of features from 2 or more of these syndromes, leading to the suggestion that these phenotypes should be grouped together as 'SLC29A3 disorder.' Bolze et al. (2012) suggested that the histologic features of the lesions seemed to be the most uniform phenotype in these patients. In addition, the immunophenotype of infiltrating cells in H syndrome patients was shown to be the same as that seen in patients with the familial form of Rosai-Dorfman disease, further supporting the relationship between these disorders (Avitan-Hersh et al., 2011; Colmenero et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
400532
Concept ID:
C1864445
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Blau syndrome

Blau syndrome is characterized by the triad of granulomatous arthritis, uveitis, and dermatitis. First described in 1985, it was considered to be distinct from sarcoidosis due to the early age of onset and autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Published reports of sporadic cases of children with 'early-onset sarcoidosis' (EOS) with granulomatous involvement of different organs, primarily affecting joints, eyes, and skin, were suspected to represent the same disorder because the patients' characteristics were nearly identical. Subsequently, identical NOD2 mutations were identified in patients with Blau syndrome as well as in patients diagnosed with EOS, confirming earlier suspicions that they represented the same disease (summary by Borzutzky et al., 2010). Unlike older children diagnosed with sarcoidosis, these patients have no apparent pulmonary involvement; however, the disease is progressive and may result in severe complications such as blindness and/or joint destruction (Shetty and Gedalia, 1998). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1684759
Concept ID:
C5201146
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Gordon syndrome

DA3, or Gordon syndrome, is distinguished from other distal arthrogryposes by short stature and cleft palate (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). There are 2 syndromes with features overlapping those of DA3 that are also caused by heterozygous mutation in PIEZO2: distal arthrogryposis type 5 (DA5; 108145) and Marden-Walker syndrome (MWKS; 248700), which are distinguished by the presence of ocular abnormalities and mental retardation, respectively. McMillin et al. (2014) suggested that the 3 disorders may represent variable expressivity of the same condition. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
66314
Concept ID:
C0220666
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 2

Any COFS syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ERCC2 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
342799
Concept ID:
C1853102
Disease or Syndrome
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity