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1.

Hb SS disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by intermittent vaso-occlusive events and chronic hemolytic anemia. Vaso-occlusive events result in tissue ischemia leading to acute and chronic pain as well as organ damage that can affect any organ system, including the bones, spleen, liver, brain, lungs, kidneys, and joints. Dactylitis (pain and/or swelling of the hands or feet) is often the earliest manifestation of SCD. In children, the spleen can become engorged with blood cells in a "splenic sequestration." The spleen is particularly vulnerable to infarction and the majority of individuals with SCD who are not on hydroxyurea or transfusion therapy become functionally asplenic in early childhood, increasing their risk for certain types of bacterial infections, primarily encapsulated organisms. Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a major cause of mortality in SCD. Chronic hemolysis can result in varying degrees of anemia, jaundice, cholelithiasis, and delayed growth and sexual maturation as well as activating pathways that contribute to the pathophysiology directly. Individuals with the highest rates of hemolysis are at higher risk for pulmonary artery hypertension, priapism, and leg ulcers and may be relatively protected from vaso-occlusive pain. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
287
Concept ID:
C0002895
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Steinert myotonic dystrophy syndrome

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystem disorder that affects skeletal and smooth muscle as well as the eye, heart, endocrine system, and central nervous system. The clinical findings, which span a continuum from mild to severe, have been categorized into three somewhat overlapping phenotypes: mild, classic, and congenital. Mild DM1 is characterized by cataract and mild myotonia (sustained muscle contraction); life span is normal. Classic DM1 is characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, myotonia, cataract, and often cardiac conduction abnormalities; adults may become physically disabled and may have a shortened life span. Congenital DM1 is characterized by hypotonia and severe generalized weakness at birth, often with respiratory insufficiency and early death; intellectual disability is common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
886881
Concept ID:
C3250443
Disease or Syndrome
3.

DiGeorge syndrome

Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) can present with a wide range of features that are highly variable, even within families. The major clinical manifestations of 22q11.2DS include congenital heart disease, particularly conotruncal malformations (ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, and truncus arteriosus), palatal abnormalities (velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate), immune deficiency, characteristic facial features, and learning difficulties. Hearing loss can be sensorineural and/or conductive. Laryngotracheoesophageal, gastrointestinal, ophthalmologic, central nervous system, skeletal, and genitourinary anomalies also occur. Psychiatric illness and autoimmune disorders are more common in individuals with 22q11.2DS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
4297
Concept ID:
C0012236
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, type 1

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS1) is characterized by the presence of 2 of 3 major clinical symptoms: Addison disease, and/or hypoparathyroidism, and/or chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (Neufeld et al., 1981). However, variable APS1 phenotypes have been observed, even among sibs. In addition, some patients may exhibit apparent isolated hypoparathyroidism, an early manifestation of APS1 with peak incidence at around age 5 years; over long-term follow-up, the development of additional features of APS1 may be observed (Cranston et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
39125
Concept ID:
C0085859
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Glycogen storage disease, type VII

Glycogen storage disease VII is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized clinically by exercise intolerance, muscle cramping, exertional myopathy, and compensated hemolysis. Myoglobinuria may also occur. The deficiency of the muscle isoform of PFK results in a total and partial loss of muscle and red cell PFK activity, respectively. Raben and Sherman (1995) noted that not all patients with GSD VII seek medical care because in some cases it is a relatively mild disorder. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
5342
Concept ID:
C0017926
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Cholestanol storage disease

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a lipid storage disease characterized by infantile-onset diarrhea, childhood-onset cataract, adolescent- to young adult-onset tendon xanthomas, and adult-onset progressive neurologic dysfunction (dementia, psychiatric disturbances, pyramidal and/or cerebellar signs, dystonia, atypical parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures). Chronic diarrhea from infancy and/or neonatal cholestasis may be the earliest clinical manifestation. In approximately 75% of affected individuals, cataracts are the first finding, often appearing in the first decade of life. Xanthomas appear in the second or third decade; they occur on the Achilles tendon, the extensor tendons of the elbow and hand, the patellar tendon, and the neck tendons. Xanthomas have been reported in the lung, bones, and central nervous system. Some individuals show cognitive impairment from early infancy, whereas the majority have normal or only slightly impaired intellectual function until puberty; dementia with slow deterioration in intellectual abilities occurs in the third decade in more than 50% of individuals. Neuropsychiatric symptoms such as behavioral changes, hallucinations, agitation, aggression, depression, and suicide attempts may be prominent. Pyramidal signs (i.e., spasticity) and/or cerebellar signs almost invariably become evident between ages 20 and 30 years. The biochemical abnormalities that distinguish CTX from other conditions with xanthomas include high plasma and tissue cholestanol concentration, normal-to-low plasma cholesterol concentration, decreased chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), increased concentration of bile alcohols and their glyconjugates, and increased concentrations of cholestanol and apolipoprotein B in cerebrospinal fluid. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
116041
Concept ID:
C0238052
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1

The phenotypic spectrum of ATP8B1 deficiency ranges from severe through moderate to mild. Severe ATP8B1 deficiency is characterized by infantile-onset cholestasis that progresses to cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and early death. Although mild-to-moderate ATP8B1 deficiency initially was thought to involve intermittent symptomatic cholestasis with a lack of hepatic fibrosis, it is now known that hepatic fibrosis may be present early in the disease course. Furthermore, in some persons with ATP8B1 deficiency the clinical findings can span the phenotypic spectrum, shifting over time from the mild end of the spectrum (episodic cholestasis) to the severe end of the spectrum (persistent cholestasis). Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is common across the phenotypic spectrum. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1645830
Concept ID:
C4551898
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Protoporphyria, erythropoietic, 1

Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is characterized by cutaneous photosensitivity (usually beginning in infancy or childhood) that results in tingling, burning, pain, and itching within 30 minutes after exposure to sun or ultraviolet light and may be accompanied by swelling and redness. Symptoms (which may seem out of proportion to the visible skin lesions) may persist for hours or days after the initial phototoxic reaction. Photosensitivity remains for life. Multiple episodes of acute photosensitivity may lead to chronic changes of sun-exposed skin (lichenification, leathery pseudovesicles, grooving around the lips) and loss of lunulae of the nails. Approximately 20%-30% of individuals with EPP have some degree of liver dysfunction, which is typically mild with slight elevations of the liver enzymes. Up to 5% may develop more advanced liver disease which may be accompanied by motor neuropathy similar to that seen in the acute porphyrias. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1643471
Concept ID:
C4692546
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Pyruvate kinase deficiency of red cells

Red cell pyruvate kinase deficiency is the most common cause of hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. PK deficiency is also the most frequent enzyme abnormality of the glycolytic pathway (Zanella et al., 2005). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
473069
Concept ID:
C0340968
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Cutaneous porphyria

Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is characterized in most individuals by severe cutaneous photosensitivity with blistering and increased friability of the skin over light-exposed areas. Onset in most affected individuals occurs at birth or early infancy. The first manifestation is often pink-to-dark red discoloration of the urine. Hemolytic anemia is common and can range from mild to severe, with some affected individuals requiring chronic blood transfusions. Porphyrin deposition may lead to corneal ulcers and scarring, reddish-brown discoloration of the teeth (erythrodontia), and bone loss and/or expansion of the bone marrow. The phenotypic spectrum, however, is broad and ranges from nonimmune hydrops fetalis in utero to late-onset disease with only mild cutaneous manifestations in adulthood. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
102408
Concept ID:
C0162530
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Hereditary spherocytosis type 1

Any hereditary spherocytosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ANK1 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
382302
Concept ID:
C2674218
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia, type II

Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II (CDA II) is the most common form of CDA (see this term) characterized by anemia, jaundice and splenomegaly and often leading to liver iron overload and gallstones. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
266296
Concept ID:
C1306589
Disease or Syndrome
13.
14.

HNSHA due to aldolase A deficiency

Aldolase A deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia (Kishi et al., 1987). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
82895
Concept ID:
C0272066
Disease or Syndrome
15.

X-linked erythropoietic protoporphyria

X-linked protoporphyria (XLP) is characterized in affected males by cutaneous photosensitivity (usually beginning in infancy or childhood) that results in tingling, burning, pain, and itching within minutes of sun/light exposure and may be accompanied by swelling and redness. Blistering lesions are uncommon. Pain, which may seem out of proportion to the visible skin lesions, may persist for hours or days after the initial phototoxic reaction. Photosensitivity is lifelong. Multiple episodes of acute photosensitivity may lead to chronic changes of sun-exposed skin (lichenification, leathery pseudovesicles, grooving around the lips) and loss of lunulae of the nails. An unknown proportion of individuals with XLP develop liver disease. Except for those with advanced liver disease, life expectancy is not reduced. The phenotype in heterozygous females ranges from asymptomatic to as severe as in affected males. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
394385
Concept ID:
C2677889
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Hemolytic anemia due to glucophosphate isomerase deficiency

Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects red blood cells, which carry oxygen to the body's tissues. People with this disorder have a condition known as chronic hemolytic anemia, in which red blood cells are broken down (undergo hemolysis) prematurely, resulting in a shortage of red blood cells (anemia). Chronic hemolytic anemia can lead to unusually pale skin (pallor), yellowing of the eyes and skin (jaundice), extreme tiredness (fatigue), shortness of breath (dyspnea), and a rapid heart rate (tachycardia). An enlarged spleen (splenomegaly), an excess of iron in the blood, and small pebble-like deposits in the gallbladder or bile ducts (gallstones) may also occur in this disorder.

Hemolytic anemia in GPI deficiency can range from mild to severe. In the most severe cases, affected individuals do not survive to birth. Individuals with milder disease can survive into adulthood. People with any level of severity of the disorder can have episodes of more severe hemolysis, called hemolytic crises, which can be triggered by bacterial or viral infections.

A small percentage of individuals with GPI deficiency also have neurological problems, including intellectual disability and difficulty with coordinating movements (ataxia). [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
462080
Concept ID:
C3150730
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency

Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency (TPID) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by congenital hemolytic anemia, and progressive neuromuscular dysfunction beginning in early childhood. Many patients die from respiratory failure in childhood. The neurologic syndrome is variable, but usually includes lower motor neuron dysfunction with hypotonia, muscle weakness and atrophy, and hyporeflexia. Some patients may show additional signs such as dystonic posturing and/or spasticity. Laboratory studies show intracellular accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), particularly in red blood cells (summary by Fermo et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
349893
Concept ID:
C1860808
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Claes-Jensen type

Claes-Jensen type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSCJ) is characterized by impaired intellectual development with substantial clinical heterogeneity in affected males. However, males are usually reported to have short stature, microcephaly, hyperreflexia, and aggressive behavior. In rare cases, female carriers exhibit mildly impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties (summary by Guerra et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
335139
Concept ID:
C1845243
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 12A (Zellweger)

Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome resulting from disordered peroxisome biogenesis. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 14 (CG14, equivalent to CGJ) have mutations in the PEX19 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766916
Concept ID:
C3554002
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Hemolytic anemia due to hexokinase deficiency

Hexokinase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset severe hemolytic anemia (summary by van Wijk et al., 2003). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
461693
Concept ID:
C3150343
Disease or Syndrome
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