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1.

Joubert syndrome 1

Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1644883
Concept ID:
C4551568
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is characterized by distinctive facial features (widely spaced eyes, broad eyebrows with a medial flare, low-hanging columella, prominent or pointed chin, open-mouth expression, and uplifted earlobes with a central depression), congenital heart defects with predilection for abnormalities of the pulmonary arteries and/or valves, Hirschsprung disease or chronic constipation, genitourinary anomalies (particularly hypospadias in males), and hypogenesis or agenesis of the corpus callosum. Most affected individuals have moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. Speech is typically limited to a few words or is absent, with relative preservation of receptive language skills. Growth restriction with microcephaly and seizure disorder are also common. Most affected people have a happy demeanor and a wide-based gait that can sometimes be confused with Angelman syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
341067
Concept ID:
C1856113
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Focal dermal hypoplasia

Focal dermal hypoplasia is a multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. Skin manifestations present at birth include atrophic and hypoplastic areas of skin; cutis aplasia; fat nodules in the dermis manifesting as soft, yellow-pink cutaneous nodules; and pigmentary changes. Verrucoid papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes may appear later. The nails can be ridged, dysplastic, or hypoplastic; hair can be sparse or absent. Limb malformations include oligo-/syndactyly and split hand/foot. Developmental abnormalities of the eye can include anophthalmia/microphthalmia, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, and lacrimal duct abnormalities. Craniofacial findings can include facial asymmetry, notched alae nasi, cleft lip and palate, and pointed chin. Occasional findings include dental anomalies, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, and renal anomalies. Psychomotor development is usually normal; some individuals have cognitive impairment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
42055
Concept ID:
C0016395
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Baraitser-Winter syndrome 1

Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability. Many (but not all) affected individuals have pachygyria that is predominantly frontal, wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles, and sensory impairment due to iris or retinal coloboma and/or sensorineural deafness. Intellectual disability, which is common but variable, is related to the severity of the brain malformations. Seizures, congenital heart defects, renal malformations, and gastrointestinal dysfunction are also common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
340943
Concept ID:
C1855722
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Townes-Brocks syndrome 1

Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) is characterized by the triad of imperforate anus (84%), dysplastic ears (87%; overfolded superior helices and preauricular tags; frequently associated with sensorineural and/or conductive hearing impairment [65%]), and thumb malformations (89%; triphalangeal thumbs, duplication of the thumb [preaxial polydactyly], and rarely hypoplasia of the thumbs). Renal impairment (42%), including end-stage renal disease (ESRD), may occur with or without structural abnormalities (mild malrotation, ectopia, horseshoe kidney, renal hypoplasia, polycystic kidneys, vesicoutereral reflux). Congenital heart disease occurs in 25%. Foot malformations (52%; flat feet, overlapping toes) and genitourinary malformations (36%) are common. Intellectual disability occurs in approximately 10% of individuals. Rare features include iris coloboma, Duane anomaly, Arnold-Chiari malformation type 1, and growth retardation. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1635275
Concept ID:
C4551481
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Holoprosencephaly 2

A rare disorder characterized by the partial separation of the cerebral hemispheres. It is associated with mutations in the SIX3 gene. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
322517
Concept ID:
C1834877
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Joubert syndrome 2

Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
334114
Concept ID:
C1842577
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Joubert syndrome 6

Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
342805
Concept ID:
C1853153
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Microphthalmia, syndromic 1

Microphthalmia-ankyloblepharon-intellectual disability syndrome is characterized by microphthalmia, ankyloblepharon and intellectual deficit. It has been described in seven male patients from two generations of a Northern Ireland family. The causative gene is localized to the Xq27-q28 region. The syndrome is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
162898
Concept ID:
C0796016
Congenital Abnormality
10.

Cat eye syndrome

Cat eye syndrome (CES) is characterized clinically by the combination of coloboma of the iris and anal atresia with fistula, downslanting palpebral fissures, preauricular tags and/or pits, frequent occurrence of heart and renal malformations, and normal or near-normal mental development. A small supernumerary chromosome (smaller than chromosome 21) is present, frequently has 2 centromeres, is bisatellited, and represents an inv dup(22)(q11). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120543
Concept ID:
C0265493
Disease or Syndrome
11.

11q partial monosomy syndrome

Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome with major clinical features of growth retardation, psychomotor retardation, trigonocephaly, divergent intermittent strabismus, epicanthus, telecanthus, broad nasal bridge, short nose with anteverted nostrils, carp-shaped upper lip, retrognathia, low-set dysmorphic ears, bilateral camptodactyly, hammertoes, and isoimmune thrombocytopenia (Fryns et al., 1986, Epstein, 1986). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
162878
Concept ID:
C0795841
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Temtamy syndrome

Temtamy syndrome is a mental retardation/multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by variable craniofacial dysmorphism, ocular coloboma, seizures, and brain abnormalities, including abnormalities of the corpus callosum and thalamus (summary by Akizu et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
347474
Concept ID:
C1857512
Disease or Syndrome
13.

COACH syndrome 2

COACH syndrome is classically defined as Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, Oligophrenia, Ataxia, Colobomas, and Hepatic fibrosis (Verloes and Lambotte, 1989). Brain MRI demonstrates the molar tooth sign, which is a feature of Joubert syndrome. The disorder has been described as a Joubert syndrome-related disorder with liver disease (summary by Doherty et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of COACH syndrome, see 216360. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1752166
Concept ID:
C5436837
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Klippel-Feil syndrome 3, autosomal dominant

Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the formation or segmentation of the cervical vertebrae, resulting in a fused appearance. The clinical triad consists of short neck, low posterior hairline, and limited neck movement, although less than 50% of patients demonstrate all 3 clinical features (Tracy et al., 2004). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Klippel-Feil syndrome, see KFS1 (118100). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462317
Concept ID:
C3150967
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 5

Any microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SHH gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
369356
Concept ID:
C1968843
Disease or Syndrome
16.

CHIME syndrome

CHIME syndrome, also known as Zunich neuroectodermal syndrome, is an extremely rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder clinically characterized by colobomas, congenital heart defects, migratory ichthyosiform dermatosis, mental retardation, and ear anomalies (CHIME). Other clinical features include distinctive facial features, abnormal growth, genitourinary abnormalities, seizures, and feeding difficulties (summary by Ng et al., 2012). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
341214
Concept ID:
C1848392
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Hydrocephalus, nonsyndromic, autosomal recessive 2

Congenital hydrocephalus-2 (HYC2) is a congenital disorder with onset in utero. Affected individuals have hydrocephalus with variably dilated ventricles and variable neurologic sequelae. Some individuals have other brain abnormalities, including lissencephaly, thinning of the corpus callosum, and neuronal heterotopia. Most patients have delayed motor development and some have delayed intellectual development and/or seizures. Additional congenital features, including cardiac septal defects, iris coloboma, and nonspecific dysmorphic features, may be observed. Some patients die in utero, in infancy, or in early childhood, whereas others have long-term survival (summary by Shaheen et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital hydrocephalus, see 233600. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
767605
Concept ID:
C3554691
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Hallermann-Streiff syndrome

Hallermann-Streiff syndrome is characterized by a typical skull shape (brachycephaly with frontal bossing), hypotrichosis, microphthalmia, cataracts, beaked nose, micrognathia, skin atrophy, dental anomalies, and proportionate short stature (Hallermann, 1948; Streiff, 1950; Francois, 1958). Mental retardation is present in a minority of cases (Gorlin et al., 1990). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
5414
Concept ID:
C0018522
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Colobomatous optic disc-macular atrophy-chorioretinopathy syndrome

A rare genetic eye disease with characteristics of optic disc anomalies (bilateral colobomatous optic discs, retinal vessels arising from the peripheral optic disc) and macular atrophy. Peripapillary chorioretinal atrophy and chorioretinal and iris coloboma have also been described. Patients present with horizontal nystagmus and poor visual acuity. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
894574
Concept ID:
C4225424
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Oculoauricular syndrome

Oculoauricular syndrome (OCACS) is characterized by complex ocular anomalies, including congenital cataract, anterior segment dysgenesis, iris coloboma, and early-onset retinal dystrophy, and dysplastic ears with abnormal external ear cartilage (summary by Gillespie et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
393758
Concept ID:
C2677500
Disease or Syndrome
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