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1.

Bloom syndrome

Bloom syndrome (BSyn) is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, immune abnormalities, sensitivity to sunlight, insulin resistance, and a high risk for many cancers that occur at an early age. Despite their very small head circumference, most affected individuals have normal intellectual ability. Women may be fertile but often have early menopause, and men tend to be infertile, with only one confirmed case of paternity. Serious medical complications that are more common than in the general population and that also appear at unusually early ages include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus as a result of insulin resistance, and cancer of a wide variety of types and anatomic sites. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
2685
Concept ID:
C0005859
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome

Classic ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia beginning between ages one and four years, oculomotor apraxia, choreoathetosis, telangiectasias of the conjunctivae, immunodeficiency, frequent infections, and an increased risk for malignancy, particularly leukemia and lymphoma. Individuals with A-T are unusually sensitive to ionizing radiation. Non-classic forms of A-T have included adult-onset A-T and A-T with early-onset dystonia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
439
Concept ID:
C0004135
Disease or Syndrome
3.

PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation

PMM2-CDG, the most common of a group of disorders of abnormal glycosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides, is divided into three clinical stages: infantile multisystem, late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability, and adult stable disability. The clinical manifestations and course are highly variable, ranging from infants who die in the first year of life to mildly affected adults. Clinical findings tend to be similar in sibs. In the infantile multisystem presentation, infants show axial hypotonia, hyporeflexia, esotropia, and developmental delay. Feeding problems, vomiting, faltering growth, and developmental delay are frequently seen. Subcutaneous fat may be excessive over the buttocks and suprapubic region. Two distinct clinical courses are observed: (1) a nonfatal neurologic course with faltering growth, strabismus, developmental delay, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hepatopathy in infancy followed by neuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa in the first or second decade; and (2) a more severe neurologic-multivisceral course with approximately 20% mortality in the first year of life. The late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability stage, which begins between ages three and ten years, is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, severely delayed language and motor development, inability to walk, and IQ of 40 to 70; other findings include seizures, stroke-like episodes or transient unilateral loss of function, coagulopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, joint contractures, and skeletal deformities. In the adult stable disability stage, intellectual ability is stable; peripheral neuropathy is variable, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and myopia are seen, thoracic and spinal deformities with osteoporosis worsen, and premature aging is observed; females may lack secondary sexual development and males may exhibit decreased testicular volume. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and coagulopathy may occur. The risk for deep venous thrombosis is increased. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
138111
Concept ID:
C0349653
Disease or Syndrome
4.

X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

The phenotypic spectrum of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) ranges from typical X-SCID (early-onset disease in males that is fatal if not treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [HSCT] or gene therapy) to atypical X-SCID (later-onset disease comprising phenotypes caused by variable immunodeficiency, immune dysregulation, and/or autoimmunity). Typical X-SCID. Prior to universal newborn screening (NBS) for SCID most males with typical X-SCID came to medical attention between ages three and six months because of recurrent infections, persistent infections, and infections with opportunistic organisms. With universal NBS for SCID, the common presentation for typical X-SCID is now an asymptomatic, healthy-appearing male infant. Atypical X-SCID, which usually is not detected by NBS, can manifest in the first years of life or later with one of the following: recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections with bronchiectasis; Omenn syndrome, a clinical phenotype caused by immune dysregulation; X-SCID combined immunodeficiency (often with recurrent infections, warts, and dermatitis); immune dysregulation and autoimmunity; or Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative complications. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
220906
Concept ID:
C1279481
Disease or Syndrome
5.

X-linked agammaglobulinemia

X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections in affected males in the first two years of life. Recurrent otitis is the most common infection prior to diagnosis. Conjunctivitis, sinopulmonary infections, diarrhea, and skin infections are also frequently seen. Approximately 60% of individuals with XLA are recognized as having immunodeficiency when they develop a severe, life-threatening infection such as pneumonia, empyema, meningitis, sepsis, cellulitis, or septic arthritis. S pneumoniae and H influenzae are the most common organisms found prior to diagnosis and may continue to cause sinusitis and otitis after diagnosis and the initiation of gammaglobulin substitution therapy. Severe, difficult-to-treat enteroviral infections (often manifest as dermatomyositis or chronic meningoencephalitis) can be prevented by this treatment. The prognosis for individuals with XLA has improved markedly in the last 25 years as a result of earlier diagnosis, the development of preparations of gammaglobulin that allow normal concentrations of serum IgG to be achieved, and more liberal use of antibiotics. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
65123
Concept ID:
C0221026
Disease or Syndrome
6.

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to SH2D1A deficiency

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) has two recognizable subtypes, XLP1 and XLP2. XLP1 is characterized predominantly by one of three commonly recognized phenotypes: Inappropriate immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection leading to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or severe mononucleosis. Dysgammaglobulinemia. Lymphoproliferative disease (malignant lymphoma). XLP2 is most often characterized by HLH (often associated with EBV), dysgammaglobulinemia, and inflammatory bowel disease. HLH resulting from EBV infection is associated with an unregulated and exaggerated immune response with widespread proliferation of cytotoxic T cells, EBV-infected B cells, and macrophages. Dysgammaglobulinemia is typically hypogammaglobulinemia of one or more immunoglobulin subclasses. The malignant lymphomas are typically B-cell lymphomas, non-Hodgkin type, often extranodal, and in particular involving the intestine. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1770239
Concept ID:
C5399825
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Hyper-IgM syndrome type 1

X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (HIGM1), a disorder of abnormal T- and B-cell function, is characterized by low serum concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgE with normal or elevated serum concentrations of IgM. Mitogen proliferation may be normal, but NK- and T-cell cytotoxicity can be impaired. Antigen-specific responses are usually decreased or absent. Total numbers of B cells are normal but there is a marked reduction of class-switched memory B cells. Defective oxidative burst of both neutrophils and macrophages has been reported. The range of clinical findings varies, even within the same family. More than 50% of males with HIGM1 develop symptoms by age one year, and more than 90% are symptomatic by age four years. HIGM1 usually presents in infancy with recurrent upper- and lower-respiratory tract bacterial infections, opportunistic infections including Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and recurrent or protracted diarrhea that can be infectious or noninfectious and is associated with failure to thrive. Neutropenia is common; thrombocytopenia and anemia are less commonly seen. Autoimmune and/or inflammatory disorders (such as sclerosing cholangitis) as well as increased risk for neoplasms have been reported as medical complications of this disorder. Significant neurologic complications, often the result of a CNS infection, are seen in 5%-15% of affected males. Liver disease, a serious complication of HIGM1 once observed in more than 80% of affected males by age 20 years, may be decreasing with adequate screening and treatment of Cryptosporidium infection. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
96019
Concept ID:
C0398689
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Trichothiodystrophy 1, photosensitive

Trichothiodystrophy is also associated with recurrent infections, particularly respiratory infections, which can be life-threatening. People with trichothiodystrophy may have abnormal red blood cells, including red blood cells that are smaller than normal. They may also have elevated levels of a type of hemoglobin called A2, which is a protein found in red blood cells. Other features of trichothiodystrophy can include dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis); abnormalities of the fingernails and toenails; clouding of the lens in both eyes from birth (congenital cataracts); poor coordination; and skeletal abnormalities including degeneration of both hips at an early age.

About half of all people with trichothiodystrophy have a photosensitive form of the disorder, which causes them to be extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight. They develop a severe sunburn after spending just a few minutes in the sun. However, for reasons that are unclear, they do not develop other sun-related problems such as excessive freckling of the skin or an increased risk of skin cancer. Many people with trichothiodystrophy report that they do not sweat.

Intellectual disability and delayed development are common in people with trichothiodystrophy, although most affected individuals are highly social with an outgoing and engaging personality. Some people with trichothiodystrophy have brain abnormalities that can be seen with imaging tests. A common neurological feature of this disorder is impaired myelin production (dysmyelination). Myelin is a fatty substance that insulates nerve cells and promotes the rapid transmission of nerve impulses.

Mothers of children with trichothiodystrophy may experience problems during pregnancy including pregnancy-induced high blood pressure (preeclampsia) and a related condition called HELLP syndrome that can damage the liver. Babies with trichothiodystrophy are at increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, and slow growth. Most children with trichothiodystrophy have short stature compared to others their age. 

The signs and symptoms of trichothiodystrophy vary widely. Mild cases may involve only the hair. More severe cases also cause delayed development, significant intellectual disability, and recurrent infections; severely affected individuals may survive only into infancy or early childhood.

In people with trichothiodystrophy, tests show that the hair is lacking sulfur-containing proteins that normally gives hair its strength. A cross section of a cut hair shows alternating light and dark banding that has been described as a "tiger tail."

Trichothiodystrophy, commonly called TTD, is a rare inherited condition that affects many parts of the body. The hallmark of this condition is hair that is sparse and easily broken.  [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
355730
Concept ID:
C1866504
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Transcobalamin II deficiency

Transcobalamin II deficiency (TCN2D) is an autosomal recessive disorder with onset in early infancy characterized by failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, and pancytopenia. Other features include methylmalonic aciduria, recurrent infections, and vomiting and diarrhea. Treatment with cobalamin results in clinical improvement, but the untreated disorder may result in mental retardation and neurologic abnormalities (summary by Haberle et al., 2009). Hall (1981) gave a clinically oriented review of congenital defects of vitamin B12 transport, and Frater-Schroder (1983) gave a genetically oriented review. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
137976
Concept ID:
C0342701
Disease or Syndrome
10.

ALG12-congenital disorder of glycosylation

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes (CDGSs), are a group of hereditary multisystem disorders first recognized by Jaeken et al. (1980). The characteristic biochemical abnormality of CDGs is the hypoglycosylation of glycoproteins, which is routinely determined by isoelectric focusing (IEF) of serum transferrin. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there is a defect in the assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides or their transfer onto nascent glycoproteins, whereas type II CDG comprises defects of trimming, elongation, and processing of protein-bound glycans. CDG1G is a multisystem disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development, dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, male genital hypoplasia, coagulation abnormalities, and immune deficiency. More variable features include skeletal dysplasia, cardiac anomalies, ocular abnormalities, and sensorineural hearing loss. Some patients die in the early neonatal or infantile period, whereas others are mildly affected and live to adulthood (summary by Tahata et al., 2019). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
443954
Concept ID:
C2931001
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Myotonic dystrophy type 2

Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is characterized by myotonia and muscle dysfunction (proximal and axial weakness, myalgia, and stiffness), and less commonly by posterior subcapsular cataracts, cardiac conduction defects, insulin-insensitive type 2 diabetes mellitus, and other endocrine abnormalities. While myotonia (involuntary muscle contraction with delayed relaxation) has been reported during the first decade, onset is typically in the third to fourth decade, most commonly with fluctuating or episodic muscle pain that can be debilitating and proximal and axial weakness of the neck flexors and the hip flexors. Subsequently, weakness occurs in the elbow extensors and finger flexors. Facial weakness and weakness of the ankle dorsiflexors are less common. Myotonia rarely causes severe symptoms. In a subset of individuals, calf hypertrophy in combination with brisk reflexes is notable. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
419137
Concept ID:
C2931689
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Immunodeficiency, common variable, 1

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by antibody deficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections, and an inability to mount an antibody response to antigen. The defect results from a failure of B-cell differentiation and impaired secretion of immunoglobulins; the numbers of circulating B cells are usually in the normal range, but can be low. Most individuals with CVID have onset of infections after age 10 years. CVID represents the most common form of primary immunodeficiency disorders and is the most common form of primary antibody deficiency. Approximately 10 to 20% of patients with a diagnosis of CVID have a family history of the disorder (reviews by Chapel et al., 2008, Conley et al., 2009, and Yong et al., 2009). Genetic Heterogeneity of Common Variable Immunodeficiency Common variable immunodeficiency is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also CVID2 (240500), caused by mutation in the TACI gene (TNFRSF13B; 604907); CVID3 (613493), caused by mutation in the CD19 gene (107265); CVID4 (613494), caused by mutation in the BAFFR gene (TNFRSF13C; 606269); CVID5 (613495), caused by mutation in the CD20 gene (112210); CVID6 (613496), caused by mutation in the CD81 gene (186845); CVID7 (614699), caused by mutation in the CD21 gene (CR2; 120650); CVID8 (614700), caused by mutation in the LRBA gene (606453); CVID10 (615577), caused by mutation in the NFKB2 gene (164012); CVID11 (615767), caused by mutation in the IL21 gene (605384); CVID12 (616576), caused by mutation in the NFKB1 gene (164011); CVID13 (616873), caused by mutation in the IKZF1 gene (603023); CVID14 (617765), caused by mutation in the IRF2BP2 gene (615332); and CVID15 (620670), caused by heterozygous mutation in the SEC61A1 gene (609213). The disorder formerly designated CVID9 has been found to be a form of autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorder; see ALPS3 (615559). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
460728
Concept ID:
C3149378
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Acute infantile liver failure due to synthesis defect of mtDNA-encoded proteins

Acute infantile liver failure resulting from TRMU mutation is a transient disorder of hepatic function. In addition to elevated liver enzymes, jaundice, vomiting, coagulopathy, and hyperbilirubinemia, the presence of increased serum lactate is consistent with a defect in mitochondrial respiratory function. With supportive care, patients who survive the initial acute episode can recover and show normal development (Zeharia et al., 2009). See also transient infantile mitochondrial myopathy (MMIT; 500009), which is a similar disorder. A more severe, permanent disorder with some overlapping features is associated with mitochondrial DNA depletion (251880). See ILFS1 (615438) for information on syndromic infantile liver failure. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
480294
Concept ID:
C3278664
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Netherton syndrome

Netherton syndrome (NETH) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by congenital erythroderma, a specific hair-shaft abnormality, and atopic manifestations with high IgE levels. Generalized scaly erythroderma is apparent at or soon after birth and usually persists. Scalp hair is sparse and brittle with a characteristic 'bamboo' shape under light microscopic examination due to invagination of the distal part of the hair shaft to its proximal part. Atopic manifestations include eczema-like rashes, atopic dermatitis, pruritus, hay fever, angioedema, urticaria, high levels of IgE in the serum, and hypereosinophilia. Life-threatening complications are frequent during the neonatal period, including hypernatremic dehydration, hypothermia, extreme weight loss, bronchopneumonia, and sepsis. During childhood, failure to thrive is common as a result of malnutrition, metabolic disorders, chronic erythroderma, persistent cutaneous infections, or enteropathy (summary by Bitoun et al., 2002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1802991
Concept ID:
C5574950
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Vici syndrome

With the current widespread use of multigene panels and comprehensive genomic testing, it has become apparent that the phenotypic spectrum of EPG5-related disorder represents a continuum. At the most severe end of the spectrum is classic Vici syndrome (defined as a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystem involvement characterized by the combination of agenesis of the corpus callosum, cataracts, hypopigmentation, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency, microcephaly, and failure to thrive); at the milder end of the spectrum are attenuated neurodevelopmental phenotypes with variable multisystem involvement. Median survival in classic Vici syndrome appears to be 24 months, with only 10% of children surviving longer than age five years; the most common causes of death are respiratory infections as a result of primary immunodeficiency and/or cardiac insufficiency resulting from progressive cardiac failure. No data are available on life span in individuals at the milder end of the spectrum. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
340962
Concept ID:
C1855772
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Combined immunodeficiency due to STIM1 deficiency

Immunodeficiency-10 (IMD10) is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by onset of recurrent infections in childhood due to defective T- and NK-cell function, although the severity is variable. Affected individuals may also have hypotonia, hypohidrosis, or dental enamel hypoplasia consistent with amelogenesis imperfecta (summary by Parry et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
440575
Concept ID:
C2748557
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Combined immunodeficiency due to LRBA deficiency

Common variable immunodeficiency-8 with autoimmunity is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation. Affected individuals have early childhood onset of recurrent infections, particularly respiratory infections, and also develop variable autoimmune disorders, including idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and inflammatory bowel disease. The presentation and phenotype are highly variable, even within families (summary by Lopez-Herrera et al., 2012 and Alangari et al., 2012). Immunologic findings are also variable and may include decreased B cells, hypogammaglobulinemia, and deficiency of CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells (Charbonnier et al., 2015). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766426
Concept ID:
C3553512
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Reticular dysgenesis

Reticular dysgenesis, the most severe form of inborn severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), is characterized by absence of granulocytes and almost complete deficiency of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, hypoplasia of the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs, and lack of innate and adaptive humoral and cellular immune functions, leading to fatal septicemia within days after birth (summary by Pannicke et al., 2009). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
124417
Concept ID:
C0272167
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Immunodeficiency 36

Immunodeficiency-36 with lymphoproliferation (IMD36) is an autosomal dominant primary immunodeficiency with a highly heterogeneous clinical phenotype, characterized primarily by recurrent respiratory tract infections, lymphoproliferation, and antibody deficiency. Other features include growth retardation, mild neurodevelopmental delay, and autoimmunity. The major complication is development of B-cell lymphoma (Elkaim et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
863371
Concept ID:
C4014934
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Immunodeficiency, common variable, 2

MedGen UID:
461704
Concept ID:
C3150354
Disease or Syndrome
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