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1.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type I

COL1A1/2 osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/2-OI) is characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, variable dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of COL1A1/2-OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal dentition, normal stature, and normal life span. Fractures can occur in any bone but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by gray or brown teeth that may appear translucent, wear down, and break easily. COL1A1/2-OI has been classified into four types based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. This classification system can be helpful in providing information about prognosis and management for a given individual. The four more common OI types are now referred to as follows: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (previously OI type I). Perinatally lethal OI (previously OI type II). Progressively deforming OI (previously OI type III). Common variable OI with normal sclerae (previously OI type IV). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
9799
Concept ID:
C0023931
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type III

COL1A1/2 osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/2-OI) is characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, variable dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of COL1A1/2-OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal dentition, normal stature, and normal life span. Fractures can occur in any bone but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by gray or brown teeth that may appear translucent, wear down, and break easily. COL1A1/2-OI has been classified into four types based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. This classification system can be helpful in providing information about prognosis and management for a given individual. The four more common OI types are now referred to as follows: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (previously OI type I). Perinatally lethal OI (previously OI type II). Progressively deforming OI (previously OI type III). Common variable OI with normal sclerae (previously OI type IV). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78664
Concept ID:
C0268362
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Osteogenesis imperfecta with normal sclerae, dominant form

COL1A1/2 osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/2-OI) is characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, variable dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of COL1A1/2-OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal dentition, normal stature, and normal life span. Fractures can occur in any bone but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by gray or brown teeth that may appear translucent, wear down, and break easily. COL1A1/2-OI has been classified into four types based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. This classification system can be helpful in providing information about prognosis and management for a given individual. The four more common OI types are now referred to as follows: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (previously OI type I). Perinatally lethal OI (previously OI type II). Progressively deforming OI (previously OI type III). Common variable OI with normal sclerae (previously OI type IV). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78665
Concept ID:
C0268363
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
4.

Brittle cornea syndrome 1

Brittle cornea syndrome (BCS) is characterized by blue sclerae, corneal rupture after minor trauma, keratoconus or keratoglobus, hyperelasticity of the skin, and hypermobility of the joints (Al-Hussain et al., 2004). It is classified as a form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (Malfait et al., 2017). Genetic Heterogeneity of Brittle Cornea Syndrome Brittle cornea syndrome-2 (BCS2; 614170) is caused by mutation in the PRDM5 gene (614161) on chromosome 4q27. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
78661
Concept ID:
C0268344
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 5

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Due to considerable phenotypic variability, Sillence et al. (1979) developed a classification of OI subtypes based on clinical features and disease severity: OI type I, with blue sclerae (166200); perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI (166210); OI type III, a progressively deforming form with normal sclerae (259420); and OI type IV, with normal sclerae (166220). Most forms of OI are autosomal dominant with mutations in one of the 2 genes that code for type I collagen alpha chains, COL1A1 (120150) and COL1A2 (120160). Glorieux et al. (2000) described a novel autosomal dominant form of OI, which they designated OI type V (OI5), in 7 patients. The disorder was similar to OI type IV but had distinctive clinical, histologic, and molecular characteristics. OI type V is characterized by calcification of the forearm interosseous membrane, radial head dislocation, a subphyseal metaphyseal radiodense line, and hyperplastic callus formation (summary by Cho et al., 2012). OI type V has a variable phenotype. For example, in patients with the more common c.-14C-T variant (614757.0001), distinctive radiographic findings (calcification of the forearm interosseous membrane, radial head dislocation, a subphyseal metaphyseal radiodense line, and hyperplastic callus formation) are often seen, whereas these findings are not seen in patients with the less common S40L variant (614757.0002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
419332
Concept ID:
C2931093
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 7

Osteogenesis imperfecta is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. OI type VII is an autosomal recessive form of severe or lethal OI (summary by Barnes et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
343981
Concept ID:
C1853162
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 9

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized clinically by bone fragility and increased susceptibility to fractures. Osteogenesis imperfecta type IX (OI9) is a severe autosomal recessive form of the disorder (summary by van Dijk et al., 2009). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
376720
Concept ID:
C1850169
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 11

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. The disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. OI type XI is an autosomal recessive form of OI (summary by Alanay et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462568
Concept ID:
C3151218
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 8

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Due to considerable phenotypic variability, Sillence et al. (1979) developed a classification of OI subtypes based on clinical features and disease severity: OI type I, with blue sclerae (166200); perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI (166210); OI type III, a progressively deforming form with normal sclerae (259420); and OI type IV, with normal sclerae (166220). Most forms of OI are autosomal dominant with mutations in one of the 2 genes that code for type I collagen alpha chains, COL1A1 (120150) and COL1A2 (120160). Cabral et al. (2007) described a form of autosomal recessive OI, which they designated OI type VIII, characterized by white sclerae, severe growth deficiency, extreme skeletal undermineralization, and bulbous metaphyses. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
410075
Concept ID:
C1970458
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 6

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. The disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Osteogenesis imperfecta type VI is a severe autosomal recessive form of the disorder (Glorieux et al., 2002; Becker et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481194
Concept ID:
C3279564
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 13

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Due to considerable phenotypic variability, Sillence et al. (1979) developed a classification of OI subtypes based on clinical features and disease severity: OI type I, with blue sclerae (166200); perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI (166210); OI type III, a progressively deforming form with normal sclerae (259420); and OI type IV, with normal sclerae (166220). Most cases of OI are autosomal dominant with mutations in 1 of the 2 genes that code for type I collagen alpha chains, COL1A1 (120150) and COL1A2 (120160). Martinez-Glez et al. (2012) described osteogenesis imperfecta type XIII, an autosomal recessive form of the disorder characterized by normal teeth, faint blue sclerae, severe growth deficiency, borderline osteoporosis, and an average of 10 to 15 fractures a year affecting both upper and lower limbs and with severe bone deformity. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766801
Concept ID:
C3553887
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 10

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. The disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. OI type X is an autosomal recessive form characterized by multiple bone deformities and fractures, generalized osteopenia, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and blue sclera (Christiansen et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462561
Concept ID:
C3151211
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 12

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. The disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. OI type XII is an autosomal recessive form characterized by recurrent fractures, mild bone deformations, generalized osteoporosis, delayed teeth eruption, progressive hearing loss, no dentinogenesis imperfecta, and white sclerae (summary by Lapunzina et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462783
Concept ID:
C3151433
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 17

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders that mainly affect the bones. The term "osteogenesis imperfecta" means imperfect bone formation. People with this condition have bones that break (fracture) easily, often from mild trauma or with no apparent cause. Multiple fractures are common, and in severe cases, can occur even before birth. Milder cases may involve only a few fractures over a person's lifetime.

The milder forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, including type I, are characterized by bone fractures during childhood and adolescence that often result from minor trauma, such as falling while learning to walk. Fractures occur less frequently in adulthood. People with mild forms of the condition typically have a blue or grey tint to the part of the eye that is usually white (the sclera), and about half develop hearing loss in adulthood. Unlike more severely affected individuals, people with type I are usually of normal or near normal height.

There are at least 19 recognized forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, designated type I through type XIX. Several types are distinguished by their signs and symptoms, although their characteristic features overlap. Increasingly, genetic causes are used to define rarer forms of osteogenesis imperfecta. Type I (also known as classic non-deforming osteogenesis imperfecta with blue sclerae) is the mildest form of osteogenesis imperfecta. Type II (also known as perinatally lethal osteogenesis imperfecta) is the most severe. Other types of this condition, including types III (progressively deforming osteogenesis imperfecta) and IV (common variable osteogenesis imperfecta with normal sclerae), have signs and symptoms that fall somewhere between these two extremes.

Other types of osteogenesis imperfecta are more severe, causing frequent bone fractures that are present at birth and result from little or no trauma. Additional features of these types can include blue sclerae of the eyes, short stature, curvature of the spine (scoliosis), joint deformities (contractures), hearing loss, respiratory problems, and a disorder of tooth development called dentinogenesis imperfecta. Mobility can be reduced in affected individuals, and some may use a walker or wheelchair. The most severe forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, particularly type II, can include an abnormally small, fragile rib cage and underdeveloped lungs. Infants with these abnormalities may have life-threatening problems with breathing and can die shortly after birth. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
903845
Concept ID:
C4225301
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Dentinogenesis imperfecta type 2

Some researchers believe that dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III, along with a condition called dentin dysplasia type II, are actually forms of a single disorder. The signs and symptoms of dentin dysplasia type II are very similar to those of dentinogenesis imperfecta. However, dentin dysplasia type II affects the primary teeth much more than the permanent teeth.

Researchers have described three types of dentinogenesis imperfecta with similar dental abnormalities. Type I occurs in people who have osteogenesis imperfecta, a genetic condition in which bones are brittle and easily broken. Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III usually occur in people without other inherited disorders. A few older individuals with type II have had progressive high-frequency hearing loss in addition to dental abnormalities, but it is not known whether this hearing loss is related to dentinogenesis imperfecta.

Dentinogenesis imperfecta is a disorder of tooth development. This condition causes the teeth to be discolored (most often a blue-gray or yellow-brown color) and translucent. Teeth are also weaker than normal, making them prone to rapid wear, breakage, and loss. These problems can affect both primary (baby) teeth and permanent teeth. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
424922
Concept ID:
C2973527
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Dentinogenesis imperfecta type 3

Dentinogenesis imperfecta, Shields type III (DGI-III) is an autosomal dominant disorder of dentin formation. DGI presents clinically with gray to brownish-blue discoloration of the teeth and rapid attrition of the crowns, which are bulbous. There are no skeletal manifestations. Both deciduous and permanent teeth are affected (summary by MacDougall et al., 1999). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
97995
Concept ID:
C0399378
Congenital Abnormality
17.

Cole-Carpenter syndrome 2

Cole-Carpenter syndrome-2 (CLCRP2) is a skeletal dysplasia associated with low bone mass or an osteogenesis imperfecta-like syndrome. It is characterized by bone fragility with craniosynostosis, ocular proptosis, hydrocephalus, and distinctive facial features such as marked frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, and micrognathia (summary by Takeyari et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
905199
Concept ID:
C4225382
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Cole-Carpenter syndrome 1

Cole-Carpenter syndrome is characterized by bone fragility, craniosynostosis, ocular proptosis, hydrocephalus, and distinctive facial features (Cole and Carpenter, 1987). Genetic Heterogeneity of Cole-Carpenter Syndrome Cole-Carpenter syndrome-2 (CLCRP2; 616294) is caused by mutation in the SEC24D gene (607186). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1374755
Concept ID:
C4317154
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Deafness, autosomal dominant 39, with dentinogenesis imperfecta 1

MedGen UID:
340145
Concept ID:
C1854146
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Osteogenesis imperfecta, type 19

Osteogenesis imperfecta type XIX (OI19) is characterized by prenatal fractures and generalized osteopenia, with severe short stature in adulthood, as well as variable scoliosis and pectal deformity, and marked anterior angulation of the tibia (Lindert et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648353
Concept ID:
C4746956
Disease or Syndrome
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