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1.

Angelman syndrome

Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe developmental delay or intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, gait ataxia and/or tremulousness of the limbs, and unique behavior with an apparent happy demeanor that includes frequent laughing, smiling, and excitability. Microcephaly and seizures are also common. Developmental delays are first noted at around age six months; however, the unique clinical features of AS do not become manifest until after age one year. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
58144
Concept ID:
C0162635
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Wilson disease

Wilson disease is a disorder of copper metabolism that can present with hepatic, neurologic, or psychiatric disturbances, or a combination of these, in individuals ranging from age three years to older than 50 years; symptoms vary among and within families. Liver disease includes recurrent jaundice, simple acute self-limited hepatitis-like illness, autoimmune-type hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, or chronic liver disease. Neurologic presentations include movement disorders (tremors, poor coordination, loss of fine-motor control, chorea, choreoathetosis) or rigid dystonia (mask-like facies, rigidity, gait disturbance, pseudobulbar involvement). Psychiatric disturbance includes depression, neurotic behaviors, disorganization of personality, and, occasionally, intellectual deterioration. Kayser-Fleischer rings, frequently present, result from copper deposition in Descemet's membrane of the cornea and reflect a high degree of copper storage in the body. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
42426
Concept ID:
C0019202
Disease or Syndrome
3.

DiGeorge syndrome

Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) can present with a wide range of features that are highly variable, even within families. The major clinical manifestations of 22q11.2DS include congenital heart disease, particularly conotruncal malformations (ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, and truncus arteriosus), palatal abnormalities (velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate), immune deficiency, characteristic facial features, and learning difficulties. Hearing loss can be sensorineural and/or conductive. Laryngotracheoesophageal, gastrointestinal, ophthalmologic, central nervous system, skeletal, and genitourinary anomalies also occur. Psychiatric illness and autoimmune disorders are more common in individuals with 22q11.2DS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
4297
Concept ID:
C0012236
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Chorea-acanthocytosis

Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is characterized by a progressive movement disorder, cognitive and behavior changes, a myopathy that can be subclinical, and chronic hyperCKemia in serum. Although the disorder is named for acanthocytosis of the red blood cells, this feature is variable. The movement disorder is mostly limb chorea, but some individuals present with parkinsonism. Dystonia is common and affects the oral region and especially the tongue, causing dysarthria and serious dysphagia with resultant weight loss. Habitual tongue and lip biting are characteristic, as well as tongue protrusion dystonia. Progressive cognitive and behavioral changes resemble those in a frontal lobe syndrome. Seizures are observed in almost half of affected individuals and can be the initial manifestation. Myopathy results in progressive distal muscle wasting and weakness. Mean age of onset in ChAc is about 30 years, although ChAc can develop as early as the first decade or as late as the seventh decade. It runs a chronic progressive course and may lead to major disability within a few years. Life expectancy is reduced, with age of death ranging from 28 to 61 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
98277
Concept ID:
C0393576
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is characterized by distinctive facial features (widely spaced eyes, broad eyebrows with a medial flare, low-hanging columella, prominent or pointed chin, open-mouth expression, and uplifted earlobes with a central depression), congenital heart defects with predilection for abnormalities of the pulmonary arteries and/or valves, Hirschsprung disease or chronic constipation, genitourinary anomalies (particularly hypospadias in males), and hypogenesis or agenesis of the corpus callosum. Most affected individuals have moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. Speech is typically limited to a few words or is absent, with relative preservation of receptive language skills. Growth restriction with microcephaly and seizure disorder are also common. Most affected people have a happy demeanor and a wide-based gait that can sometimes be confused with Angelman syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
341067
Concept ID:
C1856113
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Dystonia 12

ATP1A3-related neurologic disorders represent a clinical continuum in which at least three distinct phenotypes have been delineated: rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP); alternating hemiplegia of childhood (ACH); and cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS). However, some affected individuals have intermediate phenotypes or only a few features that do not fit well into one of these major phenotypes. RDP has been characterized by: abrupt onset of dystonia over days to weeks with parkinsonism (primarily bradykinesia and postural instability); common bulbar involvement; and absence or minimal response to an adequate trial of L-dopa therapy, with few exceptions. Often fever, physiologic stress, or alcoholic binges trigger the onset of symptoms. After their initial appearance, symptoms often stabilize with little improvement; occasionally second episodes occur with abrupt worsening of symptoms. Rarely, affected individuals have reported a more gradual onset of symptoms over weeks to months. Anxiety, depression, and seizures have been reported. Age of onset ranges from four to 55 years, although a childhood variation of RDP with onset between ages nine and 14 months has been reported. AHC is a complex neurodevelopmental syndrome most frequently manifesting in infancy or early childhood with paroxysmal episodic neurologic dysfunction including alternating hemiparesis or dystonia, quadriparesis, seizure-like episodes, and oculomotor abnormalities. Episodes can last for minutes, hours, days, or even weeks. Remission of symptoms occurs with sleep and immediately after awakening. Over time, persistent neurologic deficits including oculomotor apraxia, ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, parkinsonism, and cognitive and behavioral dysfunction develop in the majority of those affected; more than 50% develop epilepsy in addition to their episodic movement disorder phenotype. CAPOS (cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss) syndrome is characterized by episodes of ataxic encephalopathy and/or weakness during and after a febrile illness. Onset is between ages six months and four years. Some acute symptoms resolve; progression of sensory losses and severity vary. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
358384
Concept ID:
C1868681
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Intellectual disability-hypotonic facies syndrome, X-linked, 1

Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, hypotonia, and mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID). Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or widely spaced eyes, short triangular nose, tented upper lip, and thick or everted lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. While all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies comprise a range from hypospadias and undescended testicles, to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female external genitalia. Alpha-thalassemia, observed in about 75% of affected individuals, is mild and typically does not require treatment. Osteosarcoma has been reported in a few males with germline pathogenic variants. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1676827
Concept ID:
C4759781
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome

Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked disorder, is characterized in males by neurologic findings (hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy, developmental delay / intellectual disability ranging from mild to profound) and later-onset pyramidal signs, extrapyramidal findings (dystonia, choreoathetosis, paroxysmal movement disorder, hypokinesia, masked facies), and seizures, often with drug resistance. Additional findings can include dysthyroidism (manifest as poor weight gain, reduced muscle mass, and variable cold intolerance, sweating, elevated heart rate, and irritability) and pathognomonic thyroid test results. Most heterozygous females are not clinically affected but may have minor thyroid test abnormalities. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
208645
Concept ID:
C0795889
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 2, juvenile

ALS2-related disorder involves retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprises a clinical continuum of the following three phenotypes: Infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP), characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome caused by progressive cranial nerve involvement. Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), characterized by upper motor neuron findings of pseudobulbar palsy and spastic quadriplegia without dementia or cerebellar, extrapyramidal, or sensory signs. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS or ALS2), characterized by onset between ages three and 20 years. All affected individuals show a spastic pseudobulbar syndrome (spasticity of speech and swallowing) together with spastic paraplegia. Some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
349246
Concept ID:
C1859807
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-D

Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
88602
Concept ID:
C0086650
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Lubs type

MECP2 duplication syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, feeding difficulty, gastrointestinal manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux and constipation, delayed psychomotor development leading to severe intellectual disability, poor speech development, progressive spasticity, recurrent respiratory infections (in ~75% of affected individuals), and seizures (in ~50%). MECP2 duplication syndrome is 100% penetrant in males. Occasionally females have been described with a MECP2 duplication and a range of findings from mild intellectual disability to a phenotype similar to that seen in males. In addition to the core features, autistic behaviors, nonspecific neuroradiologic findings on brain MRI, mottled skin, and urogenital anomalies have been observed in several affected boys. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
337496
Concept ID:
C1846058
Disease or Syndrome
12.

X-linked intellectual disability-psychosis-macroorchidism syndrome

The spectrum of MECP2-related phenotypes in females ranges from classic Rett syndrome to variant Rett syndrome with a broader clinical phenotype (either milder or more severe than classic Rett syndrome) to mild learning disabilities; the spectrum in males ranges from severe neonatal encephalopathy to pyramidal signs, parkinsonism, and macroorchidism (PPM-X) syndrome to severe syndromic/nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Females: Classic Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is characterized by apparently normal psychomotor development during the first six to 18 months of life, followed by a short period of developmental stagnation, then rapid regression in language and motor skills, followed by long-term stability. During the phase of rapid regression, repetitive, stereotypic hand movements replace purposeful hand use. Additional findings include fits of screaming and inconsolable crying, autistic features, panic-like attacks, bruxism, episodic apnea and/or hyperpnea, gait ataxia and apraxia, tremors, seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Males: Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, the most common phenotype in affected males, is characterized by a relentless clinical course that follows a metabolic-degenerative type of pattern, abnormal tone, involuntary movements, severe seizures, and breathing abnormalities. Death often occurs before age two years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
163232
Concept ID:
C0796222
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Arts syndrome

Arts syndrome, which is part of the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders, is characterized by profound congenital sensorineural hearing impairment, early-onset hypotonia, delayed motor development, mild to moderate intellectual disability, ataxia, and increased risk of infection, all of which – with the exception of optic atrophy – present before age two years. Signs of peripheral neuropathy develop during early childhood. Twelve of 15 boys from the two Dutch families reported with Arts syndrome died before age six years of complications of infection. Carrier females can show late-onset (age >20 years) hearing impairment and other findings. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
163205
Concept ID:
C0796028
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Christianson syndrome

Christianson syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview), an X-linked disorder, is characterized in males by cognitive dysfunction, behavioral disorder, and neurologic findings (e.g., seizures, ataxia, postnatal microcephaly, and eye movement abnormalities). Males with CS typically present with developmental delay, later meeting criteria for severe intellectual disability (ID). Behaviorally, autism spectrum disorder and hyperactivity are common, and may resemble the behaviors observed in Angelman syndrome. Hypotonia and oropharyngeal dysphagia in infancy may result in failure to thrive. Seizures, typically beginning before age three years, can include infantile spasms and tonic, tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Subsequently, regression (e.g., loss of ambulation and ability to feed independently) may occur. Manifestations in heterozygous females range from asymptomatic to mild ID and/or behavioral issues. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
394455
Concept ID:
C2678194
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Rett syndrome, congenital variant

The congenital variant of Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with features of classic Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750), but earlier onset in the first months of life. Classic Rett syndrome shows later onset and is caused by mutation in the MECP2 gene (300005). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462055
Concept ID:
C3150705
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations 7

Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-7 is an autosomal dominant, clinically heterogeneous disorder showing a wide spectrum of abnormalities of cortical brain development. The most severely affected patients are fetuses with microlissencephaly, absence of the cortical plate, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and severely hypoplastic brainstem and cerebellum. Other patients have lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, cortical dysplasia, or neuronal heterotopia. Those with less severe malformations can survive, but usually have some degree of neurologic impairment, such as mental retardation, seizures, and movement abnormalities (summary by Chang et al., 2006; Fallet-Bianco et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
765150
Concept ID:
C3552236
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 1

MBD5 haploinsufficiency is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, seizures, sleep disturbances, and abnormal behaviors. Most children lack speech entirely or have single words, short phrases, or short sentences. Seizures are present in more than 80% of children; onset is usually around age two years. Sleep disturbances, present in about 90%, can result in excessive daytime drowsiness. Abnormal behaviors can include autistic-like behaviors (80%) and self-injury and aggression (>60%). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
409857
Concept ID:
C1969562
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
18.

Pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency

Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of neurological problems. Signs and symptoms of this condition usually first appear shortly after birth, and they can vary widely among affected individuals. The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, vomiting, severe breathing problems, and an abnormal heartbeat. People with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency usually have neurological problems as well. Most have delayed development of mental abilities and motor skills such as sitting and walking. Other neurological problems can include intellectual disability, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), poor coordination, and difficulty walking. Some affected individuals have abnormal brain structures, such as underdevelopment of the tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain (corpus callosum), wasting away (atrophy) of the exterior part of the brain known as the cerebral cortex, or patches of damaged tissue (lesions) on some parts of the brain. Because of the severe health effects, many individuals with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency do not survive past childhood, although some may live into adolescence or adulthood. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
343386
Concept ID:
C1855565
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 5

SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability (SYNGAP1-ID) is characterized by developmental delay (DD) or intellectual disability (ID) (100% of affected individuals), generalized epilepsy (~84%), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other behavioral abnormalities (=50%). To date more than 50 individuals with SYNGAP1-ID have been reported. In the majority DD/ID was moderate to severe; in some it was mild. The epilepsy is generalized; a subset of individuals with epilepsy have myoclonic astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome) or epilepsy with myoclonic absences. Behavioral abnormalities can include stereotypic behaviors (e.g., hand flapping, obsessions with certain objects) as well as poor social development. Feeding difficulties can be significant in some. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
382611
Concept ID:
C2675473
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
20.

Troyer syndrome

Troyer syndrome is characterized by progressive spastic paraparesis, dysarthria, pseudobulbar palsy, distal amyotrophy, short stature, and subtle skeletal abnormalities. Most affected children exhibit delays in walking and speech and difficulty in managing oral secretions, followed by increased lower-limb spasticity and slow deterioration in both gait and speech. Mild cerebellar signs are common. The most severely affected individuals have choreoathetosis. Emotional lability / difficulty in controlling emotions and affective disorders, such as inappropriate euphoria and/or crying, are frequently described. Life expectancy is normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
97950
Concept ID:
C0393559
Disease or Syndrome
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