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1.

Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis due to citrin deficiency

Citrin deficiency can manifest in newborns or infants as neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD), in older children as failure to thrive and dyslipidemia caused by citrin deficiency (FTTDCD), and in adults as recurrent hyperammonemia with neuropsychiatric symptoms in citrullinemia type II (CTLN2). Often citrin deficiency is characterized by strong preference for protein-rich and/or lipid-rich foods and aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods. NICCD. Children younger than age one year have a history of low birth weight with growth restriction and transient intrahepatic cholestasis, hepatomegaly, diffuse fatty liver, and parenchymal cellular infiltration associated with hepatic fibrosis, variable liver dysfunction, hypoproteinemia, decreased coagulation factors, hemolytic anemia, and/or hypoglycemia. NICCD is generally not severe and symptoms often resolve by age one year with appropriate treatment, although liver transplantation has been required in rare instances. FTTDCD. Beyond age one year, many children with citrin deficiency develop a protein-rich and/or lipid-rich food preference and aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods. Clinical abnormalities may include growth restriction, hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, severe fatigue, anorexia, and impaired quality of life. Laboratory changes are dyslipidemia, increased lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, higher levels of urinary oxidative stress markers, and considerable deviation in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites. One or more decades later, some individuals with NICCD or FTTDCD develop CTLN2. CTLN2. Presentation is sudden and usually between ages 20 and 50 years. Manifestations are recurrent hyperammonemia with neuropsychiatric symptoms including nocturnal delirium, aggression, irritability, hyperactivity, delusions, disorientation, restlessness, drowsiness, loss of memory, flapping tremor, convulsive seizures, and coma. Symptoms are often provoked by alcohol and sugar intake, medication, and/or surgery. Affected individuals may or may not have a prior history of NICCD or FTTDCD. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
340091
Concept ID:
C1853942
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Polycystic kidney disease 2

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is generally a late-onset multisystem disorder characterized by bilateral kidney cysts, liver cysts, and an increased risk of intracranial aneurysms. Other manifestations include: cysts in the pancreas, seminal vesicles, and arachnoid membrane; dilatation of the aortic root and dissection of the thoracic aorta; mitral valve prolapse; and abdominal wall hernias. Kidney manifestations include early-onset hypertension, kidney pain, and kidney insufficiency. Approximately 50% of individuals with ADPKD have end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) by age 60 years. The prevalence of liver cysts increases with age and occasionally results in clinically significant severe polycystic liver disease (PLD), most often in females. Overall, the prevalence of intracranial aneurysms is fivefold higher than in the general population and further increased in those with a positive family history of aneurysms or subarachnoid hemorrhage. There is substantial variability in the severity of kidney disease and other extra-kidney manifestations. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
442699
Concept ID:
C2751306
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Citrullinemia type II

Citrin deficiency can manifest in newborns or infants as neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD), in older children as failure to thrive and dyslipidemia caused by citrin deficiency (FTTDCD), and in adults as recurrent hyperammonemia with neuropsychiatric symptoms in citrullinemia type II (CTLN2). Often citrin deficiency is characterized by strong preference for protein-rich and/or lipid-rich foods and aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods. NICCD. Children younger than age one year have a history of low birth weight with growth restriction and transient intrahepatic cholestasis, hepatomegaly, diffuse fatty liver, and parenchymal cellular infiltration associated with hepatic fibrosis, variable liver dysfunction, hypoproteinemia, decreased coagulation factors, hemolytic anemia, and/or hypoglycemia. NICCD is generally not severe and symptoms often resolve by age one year with appropriate treatment, although liver transplantation has been required in rare instances. FTTDCD. Beyond age one year, many children with citrin deficiency develop a protein-rich and/or lipid-rich food preference and aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods. Clinical abnormalities may include growth restriction, hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, severe fatigue, anorexia, and impaired quality of life. Laboratory changes are dyslipidemia, increased lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, higher levels of urinary oxidative stress markers, and considerable deviation in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites. One or more decades later, some individuals with NICCD or FTTDCD develop CTLN2. CTLN2. Presentation is sudden and usually between ages 20 and 50 years. Manifestations are recurrent hyperammonemia with neuropsychiatric symptoms including nocturnal delirium, aggression, irritability, hyperactivity, delusions, disorientation, restlessness, drowsiness, loss of memory, flapping tremor, convulsive seizures, and coma. Symptoms are often provoked by alcohol and sugar intake, medication, and/or surgery. Affected individuals may or may not have a prior history of NICCD or FTTDCD. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
350276
Concept ID:
C1863844
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 6 (hepatocerebral type)

MPV17-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance defect presents in the vast majority of affected individuals as an early-onset encephalohepatopathic (hepatocerebral) disease that is typically associated with mtDNA depletion, particularly in the liver. A later-onset neuromyopathic disease characterized by myopathy and neuropathy, and associated with multiple mtDNA deletions in muscle, has also rarely been described. MPV17-related mtDNA maintenance defect, encephalohepatopathic form is characterized by: Hepatic manifestations (liver dysfunction that typically progresses to liver failure, cholestasis, hepatomegaly, and steatosis); Neurologic involvement (developmental delay, hypotonia, microcephaly, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy); Gastrointestinal manifestations (gastrointestinal dysmotility, feeding difficulties, and failure to thrive); and Metabolic derangements (lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia). Less frequent manifestations include renal tubulopathy, nephrocalcinosis, and hypoparathyroidism. Progressive liver disease often leads to death in infancy or early childhood. Hepatocellular carcinoma has been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
338045
Concept ID:
C1850406
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Johanson-Blizzard syndrome

Johanson-Blizzard syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor growth, mental retardation, and variable dysmorphic features, including aplasia or hypoplasia of the nasal alae, abnormal hair patterns or scalp defects, and oligodontia. Other features include hypothyroidism, sensorineural hearing loss, imperforate anus, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (summary by Al-Dosari et al., 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
59798
Concept ID:
C0175692
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Fanconi-Bickel syndrome

Fanconi-Bickel syndrome is a rare but well-defined clinical entity, inherited in an autosomal recessive mode and characterized by hepatorenal glycogen accumulation, proximal renal tubular dysfunction, and impaired utilization of glucose and galactose (Manz et al., 1987). Because no underlying enzymatic defect in carbohydrate metabolism had been identified and because metabolism of both glucose and galactose is impaired, a primary defect of monosaccharide transport across the membranes had been suggested (Berry et al., 1995; Fellers et al., 1967; Manz et al., 1987; Odievre, 1966). Use of the term glycogenosis type XI introduced by Hug (1987) is to be discouraged because glycogen accumulation is not due to the proposed functional defect of phosphoglucomutase, an essential enzyme in the common degradative pathways of both glycogen and galactose, but is secondary to nonfunctional glucose transport. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
501176
Concept ID:
C3495427
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 1

Autosomal recessive mitochondrial complex III deficiency is a severe multisystem disorder with onset at birth of lactic acidosis, hypotonia, hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, encephalopathy, and delayed psychomotor development. Visceral involvement, including hepatopathy and renal tubulopathy, may also occur. Many patients die in early childhood, but some may show longer survival (de Lonlay et al., 2001; De Meirleir et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex III Deficiency Mitochondrial complex III deficiency can be caused by mutation in several different nuclear-encoded genes. See MC3DN2 (615157), caused by mutation in the TTC19 gene (613814) on chromosome 17p12; MC3DN3 (615158), caused by mutation in the UQCRB gene (191330) on chromosome 8q; MC3DN4 (615159), caused by mutation in the UQCRQ gene (612080) on chromosome 5q31; MC3DN5 (615160), caused by mutation in the UQCRC2 gene (191329) on chromosome 16p12; MC3DN6 (615453), caused by mutation in the CYC1 gene (123980) on chromosome 8q24; MC3DN7 (615824), caused by mutation in the UQCC2 gene (614461) on chromosome 6p21; MC3DN8 (615838), caused by mutation in the LYRM7 gene (615831) on chromosome 5q23; MC3DN9 (616111), caused by mutation in the UQCC3 gene (616097) on chromosome 11q12; and MC3DN10 (618775), caused by mutation in the UQCRFS1 gene (191327) on chromosome 19q12. See also MTYCB (516020) for a discussion of a milder phenotype associated with isolated mitochondrial complex III deficiency and mutations in a mitochondrial-encoded gene. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
762097
Concept ID:
C3541471
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3

Most people with PFIC3 have signs and symptoms related to liver disease only. Signs and symptoms of PFIC3 usually do not appear until later in infancy or early childhood; rarely, people are diagnosed in early adulthood. Liver failure can occur in childhood or adulthood in people with PFIC3.

The signs and symptoms of PFIC2 are typically related to liver disease only; however, these signs and symptoms tend to be more severe than those experienced by people with PFIC1. People with PFIC2 often develop liver failure within the first few years of life. Additionally, affected individuals are at increased risk of developing a type of liver cancer called hepatocellular carcinoma.

In addition to signs and symptoms related to liver disease, people with PFIC1 may have short stature, deafness, diarrhea, inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), and low levels of fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K) in the blood. Affected individuals typically develop liver failure before adulthood.

There are three known types of PFIC: PFIC1, PFIC2, and PFIC3. The types are also sometimes described as shortages of particular proteins needed for normal liver function. Each type has a different genetic cause.

Signs and symptoms of PFIC typically begin in infancy and are related to bile buildup and liver disease. Specifically, affected individuals experience severe itching, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice), failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive), high blood pressure in the vein that supplies blood to the liver (portal hypertension), and an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly).

Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a disorder that causes progressive liver disease, which typically leads to liver failure. In people with PFIC, liver cells are less able to secrete a digestive fluid called bile. The buildup of bile in liver cells causes liver disease in affected individuals. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
356333
Concept ID:
C1865643
Disease or Syndrome
9.

McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome

McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome (designated as MLS throughout this review) is a multisystem disorder with central nervous system (CNS), neuromuscular, cardiovascular, and hematologic manifestations in males: CNS manifestations are a neurodegenerative basal ganglia disease including movement disorders, cognitive alterations, and psychiatric symptoms. Neuromuscular manifestations include a (mostly subclinical) sensorimotor axonopathy and muscle weakness or atrophy of different degrees. Cardiac manifestations include dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and tachyarrhythmia. Hematologically, MLS is defined as a specific blood group phenotype (named after the first proband, Hugh McLeod) that results from absent expression of the Kx erythrocyte antigen and weakened expression of Kell blood group antigens. The hematologic manifestations are red blood cell acanthocytosis and compensated hemolysis. Alloantibodies in the Kell and Kx blood group system can cause strong reactions to transfusions of incompatible blood and severe anemia in affected male newborns of Kell-negative mothers. Females heterozygous for XK pathogenic variants have mosaicism for the Kell and Kx blood group antigens. Although they usually lack CNS and neuromuscular manifestations, some heterozygous females may develop clinical manifestations including chorea or late-onset cognitive decline. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
140765
Concept ID:
C0398568
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis 1

Any arthrogryposis-renal dysfunction-cholestasis syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the VPS33B gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
347219
Concept ID:
C1859722
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 5A (Zellweger)

The peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 5 (CG5, equivalent to CG10 and CGF) have mutations in the PEX2 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766854
Concept ID:
C3553940
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Cholesteryl ester storage disease

Deficiency of lysosomal acid lipase causes 2 distinct phenotypes in humans: Wolman disease (WOLD; 620151) and cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). WOLD is an early-onset fulminant disorder of infancy with massive infiltration of the liver, spleen, and other organs by macrophages filled with cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Death occurs early in life. CESD is a milder, later-onset disorder with primary hepatic involvement by macrophages engorged with cholesteryl esters. This slowly progressive visceral disease has a wide spectrum of involvement ranging from early onset with severe cirrhosis to later onset of more slowly progressive hepatic disease with survival into adulthood (summary by Du et al., 2001). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
40266
Concept ID:
C0008384
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Hereditary cryohydrocytosis with reduced stomatin

Stomatin-deficient cryohydrocytosis with neurologic defects is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, seizures, cataracts, and pseudohyperkalemia resulting from defects in the red blood cell membrane. The disorder combines the neurologic features of Glut1 deficiency syndrome-1 (GLUT1DS1; 606777), resulting from impaired glucose transport at the blood-brain barrier, and hemolytic anemia/pseudohyperkalemia with stomatocytosis, resulting from a cation leak in erythrocytes (summary by Bawazir et al., 2012). For a discussion of clinical and genetic heterogeneity of red cell stomatocyte disorders, see 194380. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
332390
Concept ID:
C1837206
Disease or Syndrome
14.

COG6-ongenital disorder of glycosylation

CDG2L is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder apparent from birth or early infancy. It is characterized by poor growth, gastrointestinal and liver abnormalities, delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, recurrent infections, hematologic abnormalities, increased bleeding tendency, and hyperhidrosis or hyperkeratosis. More variable features include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features and cardiac septal defects. The disorder often results in death in infancy or the first years of life (summary by Rymen et al., 2015). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766144
Concept ID:
C3553230
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Lathosterolosis

Lathosterolosis (LATHOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of multiple congenital anomalies involving axial and appendicular skeleton, liver, central nervous and urogenital systems, and lysosomal storage. It is caused by a defect of cholesterol biosynthesis due to sterol C5-desaturase deficiency (summary by Rossi et al., 2007). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
375885
Concept ID:
C1846421
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 9

A rare mitochondrial disease due to a defect in mitochondrial protein synthesis characterized by initially normal growth and development followed by the infantile-onset of failure to thrive, psychomotor delay, poor feeding, dyspnea, severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hepatomegaly. Laboratory studies report increased plasma lactate and alanine, abnormal liver enzymes and decreased activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, III, IV, and V. Caused by compound heterozygous mutation in the MRPL3 gene on chromosome 3q22. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
1634481
Concept ID:
C4706315
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Severe early-onset pulmonary alveolar proteinosis due to MARS deficiency

Interstitial lung and liver disease is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of respiratory insufficiency and progressive liver disease in infancy or early childhood. Pathologic examination of lung lavage is consistent with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (summary by Hadchouel et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
895551
Concept ID:
C4225400
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Isolated neonatal sclerosing cholangitis

Neonatal sclerosing cholangitis (NSC) is a rare autosomal recessive form of severe liver disease with onset in infancy. Affected infants have jaundice, cholestasis, acholic stools, and progressive liver dysfunction resulting in fibrosis and cirrhosis; most require liver transplantation in the first few decades of life. Cholangiography shows patent biliary ducts, but there are bile duct irregularities (summary by Girard et al., 2016; Grammatikopoulos et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1393230
Concept ID:
C4479344
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 30

A rare mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation disorder with characteristics of neonatal onset of hypotonia, feeding difficulties, deafness, and early fatal respiratory failure. Cardiac and liver involvement has been reported. Serum lactate is increased and metabolic studies show decreased activity of mitochondrial respiratory complexes I and IV in skeletal muscle. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
1799028
Concept ID:
C5567605
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Transient infantile hypertriglyceridemia and hepatosteatosis

Transient infantile hypertriglyceridemia (HTGTI) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of moderate to severe transient hypertriglyceridemia in infancy that normalizes with age. The hypertriglyceridemia is associated with hepatomegaly, moderately elevated transaminases, persistent fatty liver, and the development of hepatic fibrosis. The long-term outcome of affected individuals is unclear (summary by Basel-Vanagaite et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
482583
Concept ID:
C3280953
Disease or Syndrome
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