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1.

Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease

PLP1 disorders of central nervous system myelin formation include a range of phenotypes from Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) to spastic paraplegia 2 (SPG2). PMD typically manifests in infancy or early childhood with nystagmus, hypotonia, and cognitive impairment; the findings progress to severe spasticity and ataxia. Life span is shortened. SPG2 manifests as spastic paraparesis with or without CNS involvement and usually normal life span. Intrafamilial variation of phenotypes can be observed, but the signs are usually fairly consistent within families. Heterozygous females may manifest mild-to-moderate signs of the disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61440
Concept ID:
C0205711
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Early-onset generalized limb-onset dystonia

DYT1 early-onset isolated dystonia typically presents in childhood or adolescence and only on occasion in adulthood. Dystonic muscle contractions causing posturing or irregular tremor of a leg or arm are the most common presenting findings. Dystonia is usually first apparent with specific actions such as writing or walking. Over time, the contractions frequently (but not invariably) become evident with less specific actions and spread to other body regions. No other neurologic abnormalities are present. Disease severity varies considerably even within the same family. Isolated writer's cramp may be the only sign. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
338823
Concept ID:
C1851945
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 2, juvenile

ALS2-related disorder involves retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprises a clinical continuum of the following three phenotypes: Infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP), characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome caused by progressive cranial nerve involvement. Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), characterized by upper motor neuron findings of pseudobulbar palsy and spastic quadriplegia without dementia or cerebellar, extrapyramidal, or sensory signs. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS or ALS2), characterized by onset between ages three and 20 years. All affected individuals show a spastic pseudobulbar syndrome (spasticity of speech and swallowing) together with spastic paraplegia. Some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
349246
Concept ID:
C1859807
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Sulfite oxidase deficiency

The spectrum of isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency ranges from classic early-onset (severe) disease to late-onset (mild) disease. Classic ISOD is characterized in the first few hours to days of life by intractable seizures, feeding difficulties, and rapidly progressive encephalopathy manifest as abnormal tone (especially opisthotonus, spastic quadriplegia, and pyramidal signs) followed by progressive microcephaly and profound intellectual disability. Lens subluxation or dislocation, another characteristic finding, may be evident after the newborn period. Children usually die during the first few months of life. Late-onset ISOD manifests between ages six and 18 months and is characterized by ectopia lentis (variably present), developmental delay/regression, movement disorder characterized by dystonia and choreoathetosis, ataxia, and (rarely) acute hemiplegia as a result of metabolic stroke. The clinical course may be progressive or episodic. In the episodic form encephalopathy, dystonia, choreoathetosis, and/or ataxia are intermittent. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78695
Concept ID:
C0268624
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 4

Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN) is characterized initially by gait changes followed by progressive spastic paresis, progressive dystonia (which may be limited to the hands and feet or more generalized), neuropsychiatric abnormalities (emotional lability, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, compulsions, hallucinations, perseveration, inattention, and hyperactivity), and cognitive decline. Additional early findings can include dysphagia, dysarthria, optic atrophy, axonal neuropathy, parkinsonism, and bowel/bladder incontinence. Survival is usually well into adulthood. End-stage disease is characterized by severe dementia, spasticity, dystonia, and parkinsonism. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
482001
Concept ID:
C3280371
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency

Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of neurological problems. Signs and symptoms of this condition usually first appear shortly after birth, and they can vary widely among affected individuals. The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, vomiting, severe breathing problems, and an abnormal heartbeat. People with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency usually have neurological problems as well. Most have delayed development of mental abilities and motor skills such as sitting and walking. Other neurological problems can include intellectual disability, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), poor coordination, and difficulty walking. Some affected individuals have abnormal brain structures, such as underdevelopment of the tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain (corpus callosum), wasting away (atrophy) of the exterior part of the brain known as the cerebral cortex, or patches of damaged tissue (lesions) on some parts of the brain. Because of the severe health effects, many individuals with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency do not survive past childhood, although some may live into adolescence or adulthood. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
343386
Concept ID:
C1855565
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Developmental malformations-deafness-dystonia syndrome

Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability. Many (but not all) affected individuals have pachygyria that is predominantly frontal, wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles, and sensory impairment due to iris or retinal coloboma and/or sensorineural deafness. Intellectual disability, which is common but variable, is related to the severity of the brain malformations. Seizures, congenital heart defects, renal malformations, and gastrointestinal dysfunction are also common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1848671
Concept ID:
C5848323
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Dystonia 16

Dystonia 16 is one of many forms of dystonia, which is a group of conditions characterized by involuntary movements, twisting (torsion) and tensing of various muscles, and unusual positioning of affected body parts. Dystonia 16 can appear at any age from infancy through adulthood, although it most often begins in childhood.

The signs and symptoms of dystonia 16 vary among people with the condition. In many affected individuals, the disorder first affects muscles in one or both arms or legs. Tensing (contraction) of the muscles often sets the affected limb in an abnormal position, which may be painful and can lead to difficulty performing tasks, such as walking. In others, muscles in the neck are affected first, causing the head to be pulled backward and positioned with the chin in the air (retrocollis).

In dystonia 16, muscles of the jaw, lips, and tongue are also commonly affected (oromandibular dystonia), causing difficulty opening and closing the mouth and problems with swallowing and speech. Speech can also be affected by involuntary tensing of the muscles that control the vocal cords (laryngeal dystonia), resulting in a quiet, breathy voice or an inability to speak clearly. Dystonia 16 gradually gets worse, eventually involving muscles in most parts of the body.

Some people with dystonia 16 develop a pattern of movement abnormalities known as parkinsonism. These abnormalities include unusually slow movement (bradykinesia), muscle rigidity, tremors, and an inability to hold the body upright and balanced (postural instability). In dystonia 16, parkinsonism is relatively mild if it develops at all.

The signs and symptoms of dystonia 16 usually do not get better when treated with drugs that are typically used for movement disorders. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
436979
Concept ID:
C2677567
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Hypermanganesemia with dystonia 2

SLC39A14 deficiency is characterized by evidence between ages six months and three years of delay or loss of motor developmental milestones (e.g., delayed walking, gait disturbance). Early in the disease course, children show axial hypotonia followed by dystonia, spasticity, dysarthria, bulbar dysfunction, and signs of parkinsonism including bradykinesia, hypomimia, and tremor. By the end of the first decade they develop severe, generalized, pharmaco-resistant dystonia, limb contractures, and scoliosis, and lose independent ambulation. Cognitive impairment appears to be less prominent than motor disability. Some affected children have succumbed in their first decade due to secondary complications such as respiratory infections. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
934732
Concept ID:
C4310765
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Torsion dystonia 4

Dystonia-4, also known as whispering dysphonia, is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by onset in the second to third decade of progressive laryngeal dysphonia followed by the involvement of other muscles, such as the neck or limbs. Some patients develop an ataxic gait (summary by Hersheson et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
342124
Concept ID:
C1851943
Disease or Syndrome
11.

NAD(P)HX dehydratase deficiency

Early-onset progressive encephalopathy with brain edema and/or leukoencephalopathy-2 (PEBEL2) is an autosomal recessive severe neurometabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration that is usually associated with a febrile illness. Affected infants tend to show normal early development followed by acute psychomotor regression with ataxia, hypotonia, and sometimes seizures, resulting in death in the first years of life. Brain imaging shows multiple abnormalities, including brain edema and signal abnormalities in the cortical and subcortical regions (summary by Van Bergen et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PEBEL, see PEBEL1 (617186). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1681210
Concept ID:
C5193026
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 13

MedGen UID:
1648370
Concept ID:
C4748770
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 17

MedGen UID:
1648418
Concept ID:
C4748786
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 8, autosomal recessive

Autosomal recessive idiopathic basal ganglia calcification-8 (IBGC8) is a progressive neurologic disorder with insidious onset of motor symptoms in adulthood. Affected individuals develop gait difficulties, parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, and dysarthria. Some may demonstrate cognitive decline or memory impairment. Brain imaging shows extensive calcifications in various brain regions including the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Because serum calcium and phosphate are normal, the disorder is thought to result from defects in the integrity of the neurovascular unit in the brain (summary by Schottlaender et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IBGC, see IBGC1 (213600). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1713414
Concept ID:
C5394199
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Neurodevelopmental disorder, nonprogressive, with spasticity and transient opisthotonus

Nonprogressive neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and transient opisthotonus (NEDSTO) is an autosomal recessive complex neurologic disorder characterized by delay of gross motor milestones, particularly walking, associated with axial hypotonia and peripheral spasticity apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals often show transient opisthotonic posturing in infancy, and later show abnormal involuntary movements, including chorea, dystonia, and dyspraxia. Some patients have impaired intellectual development, although the severity is highly variable; most have speech delay and articulation difficulties and a happy overall demeanor. Brain imaging shows myelination defects in some patients. The disorder is nonprogressive, and many patients may catch up developmentally in the second or third decades (summary by Wagner et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794250
Concept ID:
C5562040
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 29

Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-29 (SCAR29) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by delayed motor development in early infancy followed by difficulty walking due to an ataxic gait or inability to walk, hypotonia, and variably impaired intellectual development. Other features include dysarthria, nystagmus, peripheral spasticity, nystagmus, and visual impairment. Brain imaging typically shows atrophy of the cerebellar vermis, but other abnormalities may also be present. Some patients are wheelchair-bound and/or nonverbal (summary by Sanderson et al., 2021) In a review of the pathogenesis of disorders with prominent dystonia as a feature, Monfrini et al. (2021) classified SCAR29 as belonging to a group of neurologic disorders termed 'HOPS-associated neurologic disorders' (HOPSANDs), which are caused by mutations in genes encoding various components of the autophagic/endolysosomal system, including VPS41. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1788435
Concept ID:
C5543595
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth

Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth (NEDSG) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe early-onset encephalopathy with progressive microcephaly (Nahorski et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648309
Concept ID:
C4748081
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Dystonia 31

Dystonia-31 (DYT31) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by involuntary muscle twisting movements and postural abnormalities affecting the upper and lower limbs, neck, face, and trunk. Some patients may have orofacial dyskinesia resulting in articulation and swallowing difficulties. The age at onset ranges from childhood to young adulthood. There are usually no additional neurologic symptoms, although late-onset parkinsonism was reported in 1 family (summary by Zech et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794211
Concept ID:
C5562001
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Mitochondrial complex V (ATP synthase) deficiency, nuclear type 4A

Mitochondrial complex V deficiency nuclear type 4A (MC5DN4A) is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder characterized by poor feeding and failure to thrive in early infancy. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate, alanine, and ammonia, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Some affected individuals show spontaneous resolution of these symptoms in early childhood and have subsequent normal growth and development, whereas others show developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and movement abnormalities, including dystonia, ataxia, or spasticity; these neurologic deficits are persistent (Lines et al., 2021, Zech et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex V deficiency, nuclear types, see MC5DN1 (604273). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1841116
Concept ID:
C5830480
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Dystonia 22, juvenile-onset

Juvenile-onset dystonia-22 (DYT22JO) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive, generalized dystonia associated with cognitive decline and cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging (Mencacci et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1841281
Concept ID:
C5830645
Disease or Syndrome
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