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1.

Chédiak-Higashi syndrome

Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, and a mild bleeding tendency. Approximately 85% of affected individuals develop the accelerated phase, or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, a life-threatening, hyperinflammatory condition. All affected individuals including adolescents and adults with atypical CHS and children with classic CHS who have successfully undergone allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) develop neurologic findings during early adulthood. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
3347
Concept ID:
C0007965
Disease or Syndrome
2.

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to SH2D1A deficiency

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) has two recognizable subtypes, XLP1 and XLP2. XLP1 is characterized predominantly by one of three commonly recognized phenotypes: Inappropriate immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection leading to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or severe mononucleosis. Dysgammaglobulinemia. Lymphoproliferative disease (malignant lymphoma). XLP2 is most often characterized by HLH (often associated with EBV), dysgammaglobulinemia, and inflammatory bowel disease. HLH resulting from EBV infection is associated with an unregulated and exaggerated immune response with widespread proliferation of cytotoxic T cells, EBV-infected B cells, and macrophages. Dysgammaglobulinemia is typically hypogammaglobulinemia of one or more immunoglobulin subclasses. The malignant lymphomas are typically B-cell lymphomas, non-Hodgkin type, often extranodal, and in particular involving the intestine. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1770239
Concept ID:
C5399825
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Lysinuric protein intolerance

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) typically presents after an infant is weaned from breast milk or formula; variable findings include recurrent vomiting and episodes of diarrhea, episodes of stupor and coma after a protein-rich meal, poor feeding, aversion to protein-rich food, failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, and muscular hypotonia. Over time, findings include: poor growth, osteoporosis, involvement of the lungs (progressive interstitial changes, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis) and of the kidneys (progressive glomerular and proximal tubular disease), hematologic abnormalities (normochromic or hypochromic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, erythroblastophagocytosis in the bone marrow aspirate), and a clinical presentation resembling the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophagic activation syndrome. Hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and acute pancreatitis can also be seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75704
Concept ID:
C0268647
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Primary myelofibrosis

Primary myelofibrosis is a condition characterized by the buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the bone marrow, the tissue that produces blood cells. Because of the fibrosis, the bone marrow is unable to make enough normal blood cells. The shortage of blood cells causes many of the signs and symptoms of primary myelofibrosis.

Initially, most people with primary myelofibrosis have no signs or symptoms. Eventually, fibrosis can lead to a reduction in the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. A shortage of red blood cells (anemia) often causes extreme tiredness (fatigue) or shortness of breath. A loss of white blood cells can lead to an increased number of infections, and a reduction of platelets can cause easy bleeding or bruising.

Because blood cell formation (hematopoiesis) in the bone marrow is disrupted, other organs such as the spleen or liver may begin to produce blood cells. This process, called extramedullary hematopoiesis, often leads to an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly) or an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly). People with splenomegaly may feel pain or fullness in the abdomen, especially below the ribs on the left side. Other common signs and symptoms of primary myelofibrosis include fever, night sweats, and bone pain.

Primary myelofibrosis is most commonly diagnosed in people aged 50 to 80 but can occur at any age. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
7929
Concept ID:
C0001815
Neoplastic Process
5.

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to XIAP deficiency

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) has two recognizable subtypes, XLP1 and XLP2. XLP1 is characterized predominantly by one of three commonly recognized phenotypes: Inappropriate immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection leading to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or severe mononucleosis. Dysgammaglobulinemia. Lymphoproliferative disease (malignant lymphoma). XLP2 is most often characterized by HLH (often associated with EBV), dysgammaglobulinemia, and inflammatory bowel disease. HLH resulting from EBV infection is associated with an unregulated and exaggerated immune response with widespread proliferation of cytotoxic T cells, EBV-infected B cells, and macrophages. Dysgammaglobulinemia is typically hypogammaglobulinemia of one or more immunoglobulin subclasses. The malignant lymphomas are typically B-cell lymphomas, non-Hodgkin type, often extranodal, and in particular involving the intestine. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
336848
Concept ID:
C1845076
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 5

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-5 with or without microvillus inclusion disease (FHL5) is an autosomal recessive hyperinflammatory disorder characterized clinically by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, and other laboratory findings. Some patients have neurologic symptoms due to inflammatory CNS disease. There is uncontrolled and ineffective proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes, NK cells, and macrophages that infiltrate multiple organs, including liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and the CNS. The phenotype is variable: some patients may present in early infancy with severe diarrhea, prior to the onset of typical FHL features, whereas others present later in childhood and have a more protracted course without diarrhea. The early-onset diarrhea is due to enteropathy reminiscent of microvillus inclusion disease (see MVID, 251850). The enteropathy, which often necessitates parenteral feeding, may be the most life-threatening issue even after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). More variable features include sensorineural hearing loss and hypogammaglobulinemia. Treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and chemotherapy can ameliorate signs and symptoms of FHL in some patients, but the only curative therapy for FHL is HSCT. HSCT is not curative for enteropathy associated with the disorder, despite hematologic and immunologic reconstitution (summary by Meeths et al., 2010; Pagel et al., 2012; Stepensky et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL, HLH), see 267700. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
416514
Concept ID:
C2751293
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 2

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-2 (FHL2) is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized clinically by fever, edema, hepatosplenomegaly, and liver dysfunction. Neurologic impairment, seizures, and ataxia are frequent. Laboratory studies show pancytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, hypofibrinogenemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. There is increased production of cytokines, such as gamma-interferon (IFNG; 147570) and TNF-alpha (191160), by hyperactivation and proliferation of T cells and macrophages. Activity of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells is reduced, consistent with a defect in cellular cytotoxicity. Bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver show features of hemophagocytosis. Chemotherapy and/or immunosuppressant therapy may result in symptomatic remission, but the disorder is fatal without bone marrow transplantation (summary by Dufourcq-Lagelouse et al., 1999, Stepp et al., 1999, and Molleran Lee et al., 2004). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FHL, see 267700. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
400366
Concept ID:
C1863727
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Griscelli syndrome type 2

Griscelli syndrome type 2 (GS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by pigmentary dilution of the skin and hair, the presence of large clumps of pigment in hair shafts, and an accumulation of melanosomes in melanocytes. Patients also have immunologic abnormalities with or without neurologic impairment (summary by Menasche et al., 2000). Some GS2 patients have been reported in whom central nervous system manifestations are the first presentation (Rajadhyax et al., 2007, Masri et al., 2008; Mishra et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2017). For a discussion of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of Griscelli syndrome, see Griscelli syndrome type 1 (GS1; 214450). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
357030
Concept ID:
C1868679
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 1

Familial Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by a macrophage activation syndrome with an onset usually occurring within a few months or less common several years after birth. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
1642840
Concept ID:
C4551514
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 3

Secretion of the contents of cytolytic granules at the immunologic synapse is a highly regulated process essential for lymphocyte cytotoxicity. This process requires the rapid transfer of perforin (170280)-containing lytic granules to the target cell interface, followed by their docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by defective cytotoxicity. For a more detailed description of FHL, see 267700. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
332383
Concept ID:
C1837174
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 4

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a hyperinflammatory disorder clinically diagnosed based on the fulfillment of 5 of 8 criteria, including fever, splenomegaly, bicytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia and/or hypofibrinogenemia, hemophagocytosis, low or absent natural killer (NK) cell activity, hyperferritinemia, and high soluble IL2 receptor levels (IL2R; 147730). The disorder typically presents in infancy or early childhood. Persistent remission is rarely achieved with chemo- or immunotherapy; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only cure (summary by Muller et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL), see 267700. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
350245
Concept ID:
C1863728
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Lymphoproliferative syndrome 1

Lymphoproliferative syndrome-1 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by onset in early childhood of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated immune dysregulation, manifest as lymphoma, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Hodgkin disease, and/or hypogammaglobulinemia. Autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia or renal disease, may also occur. Patients show a high EBV viral load and decreased invariant natural killer T cells. It is unknown whether patients with ITK mutations are intrinsically susceptible to development of lymphoma or dysgammaglobulinemia in the absence of EBV infection (summary by Stepensky et al., 2011; Linka et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lymphoproliferative syndrome, see XLP1 (308240). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
765548
Concept ID:
C3552634
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Lymphoproliferative syndrome 2

Lymphoproliferative syndrome-2, also known as CD27 deficiency, is an autosomal recessive immunodeficiency disorder associated with persistent symptomatic EBV viremia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and impairment in specific antibody function resulting from impaired T cell-dependent B-cell responses and T-cell dysfunction (summary by van Montfrans et al., 2012). The phenotype can vary significantly, from asymptomatic borderline-low hypogammaglobulinemia, to a full-blown symptomatic systemic inflammatory response with life-threatening EBV-related complications, including hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, a lymphoproliferative disorder, and malignant lymphoma requiring stem cell transplantation (summary by Salzer et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lymphoproliferative syndrome, see XLP1 (308240). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
767454
Concept ID:
C3554540
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Autoinflammatory-pancytopenia syndrome due to DNASE2 deficiency

Autoinflammatory-pancytopenia syndrome (AIPCS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe anemia and thrombocytopenia apparent from early infancy, hepatosplenomegaly, and recurrent fevers associated with a hyperinflammatory state. Additional systemic features may include chronic diarrhea, proteinuria with renal disease, liver fibrosis with elevated liver enzymes, deforming arthropathy, and vasculitic skin lesions. Some patients may have motor delay or learning difficulties associated with subcortical white matter lesions on brain imaging. Laboratory studies show increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), consistent with a type I interferonopathy (Rodero et al., 2017). Treatment with a JAK (see 147795) inhibitor (baricitinib) may be effective (Hong et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1803642
Concept ID:
C5676977
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Immunodeficiency 98 with autoinflammation, X-linked

X-linked immunodeficiency-98 with autoinflammation (IMD98) is characterized by onset of recurrent infections associated with lymphoproliferation and autoinflammation in the first decade of life. Mostly males are affected; carrier females may have mild symptoms. Laboratory studies show evidence of immune dysregulation, including hypogammaglobulinemia with reduced memory B cells, skewed T-cell subsets, increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, activated T cells and monocytes, and autoimmune cytopenias, including neutropenia (Aluri et al., 2021; Fejtkova et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1805285
Concept ID:
C5676883
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Immunodeficiency 91 and hyperinflammation

Immunodeficiency-91 and hyperinflammation (IMD91) is an autosomal recessive complex immunologic disorder characterized by both immunodeficiency and recurrent infections, often to viruses or mycobacteria, as well as by hyperinflammation with systemic involvement. Affected individuals present in infancy with variable features, including fever, infection, thrombocytopenia, renal or hepatic dysfunction, recurrent infections, or seizures. Most patients eventually develop hepatic or renal failure, compromised neurologic function, lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly, and multiorgan failure resulting in death. More variable features may include intermittent monocytosis, features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and serologic evidence of hyperinflammation. The disorder is thought to result from dysregulation of the interferon response to viral stimulation in the innate immune system (summary by Le Voyer et al., 2021; Vavassori et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794283
Concept ID:
C5562073
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma

Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is an uncommon form of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in which cytotoxic CD8 (see 186910)+ T cells infiltrate adipose tissue forming subcutaneous nodules. Both children and adults can be affected, with a median age at diagnosis of 36 years and a female gender bias. Most patients have accompanying systemic features such as fever or flank pain. A subset (about 20%) of patients develop hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), usually associated with CD8+ T cells rimming adipocytes in the bone marrow. An infectious agent is not identified, and the disorder is believed to result from improperly activated inflammation. Immunosuppressive therapy may be helpful; hematopoietic bone marrow transplantation is usually curative (summary by Gayden et al., 2018). For a general discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLH, see HLH1 (267700). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
99306
Concept ID:
C0522624
Neoplastic Process
18.

Immunodeficiency 97 with autoinflammation

Immunodeficiency-97 with autoinflammation (IMD97) is an autosomal recessive complex immunologic disorder with variable features. Affected individuals present in the first decade of life with inflammatory interstitial lung disease or colitis due to abnormal tissue infiltration by activated T cells. Patients develop autoimmune cytopenias and may have lymphadenopathy; 1 reported patient had features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH; see FHL1, 267700). Some patients may have recurrent infections associated with mild lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and NK cell dysfunction. Immunologic workup indicates signs of significant immune dysregulation with elevation of inflammatory serum markers, variable immune cell defects involving neutrophils, NK cells, and myeloid cells, and disrupted levels of T regulatory cells (Tregs). Two unrelated patients have been reported (summary by Takeda et al., 2019 and Thian et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1802936
Concept ID:
C5676946
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Immunodeficiency 69

Immunodeficiency-69 (IMD69) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased susceptibility to disseminated mycobacterial infection, including after BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin) vaccination. Affected individuals develop fever, hepatosplenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis during the acute infection. There appears to be normal immunologic function against other pathogens, including viruses and bacteria. Immunologic work-up shows normal parameters, but patient T and NK cells fail to produce gamma-interferon (IFNG) when stimulated in vitro (summary by Kerner et al., 2020). IMD69 is a form of mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) (see, e.g., IMD27A; 209950). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1735911
Concept ID:
C5436498
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Hemophagocytosis

Phagocytosis by macrophages of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and their precursors in bone marrow and other tissues. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
163750
Concept ID:
C0876991
Disease or Syndrome
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