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1.

CHARGE syndrome

CHD7 disorder encompasses the entire phenotypic spectrum of heterozygous CHD7 pathogenic variants that includes CHARGE syndrome as well as subsets of features that comprise the CHARGE syndrome phenotype. The mnemonic CHARGE syndrome, introduced in the premolecular era, stands for coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies (including deafness). Following the identification of the genetic cause of CHD7 disorder, the phenotypic spectrum expanded to include cranial nerve anomalies, vestibular defects, cleft lip and/or palate, hypothyroidism, tracheoesophageal anomalies, brain anomalies, seizures, and renal anomalies. Life expectancy highly depends on the severity of manifestations; mortality can be high in the first few years when severe birth defects (particularly complex heart defects) are present and often complicated by airway and feeding issues. In childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, decreased life expectancy is likely related to a combination of residual heart defects, infections, aspiration or choking, respiratory issues including obstructive and central apnea, and possibly seizures. Despite these complications, the life expectancy for many individuals can be normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75567
Concept ID:
C0265354
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Alagille syndrome due to a JAG1 point mutation

Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical variability; this variability is seen even among individuals from the same family. The major clinical manifestations of ALGS are bile duct paucity on liver biopsy, cholestasis, congenital cardiac defects (primarily involving the pulmonary arteries), butterfly vertebrae, ophthalmologic abnormalities (most commonly posterior embryotoxon), and characteristic facial features. Renal abnormalities, growth failure, developmental delays, splenomegaly, and vascular abnormalities may also occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
365434
Concept ID:
C1956125
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Holt-Oram syndrome

Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is characterized by upper-limb defects, congenital heart malformation, and cardiac conduction disease. Upper-limb malformations may be unilateral, bilateral/symmetric, or bilateral/asymmetric and can range from triphalangeal or absent thumb(s) to phocomelia. Other upper-limb malformations can include unequal arm length caused by aplasia or hypoplasia of the radius, fusion or anomalous development of the carpal and thenar bones, abnormal forearm pronation and supination, abnormal opposition of the thumb, sloping shoulders, and restriction of shoulder joint movement. An abnormal carpal bone is present in all affected individuals and may be the only evidence of disease. A congenital heart malformation is present in 75% of individuals with HOS and most commonly involves the septum. Atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect can vary in number, size, and location. Complex congenital heart malformations can also occur in individuals with HOS. Individuals with HOS with or without a congenital heart malformation are at risk for cardiac conduction disease. While individuals may present at birth with sinus bradycardia and first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block, AV block can progress unpredictably to a higher grade including complete heart block with and without atrial fibrillation. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
120524
Concept ID:
C0265264
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome

ESCO2 spectrum disorder is characterized by mild-to-severe prenatal growth restriction, limb malformations (which can include bilateral symmetric tetraphocomelia or hypomelia caused by mesomelic shortening), hand anomalies (including oligodactyly, thumb aplasia or hypoplasia, and syndactyly), elbow and knee flexion contractures (involving elbows, wrists, knees, ankles, and feet [talipes equinovarus]), and craniofacial abnormalities (which can include bilateral cleft lip and/or cleft palate, micrognathia, widely spaced eyes, exophthalmos, downslanted palpebral fissures, malar flattening, and underdeveloped ala nasi), ear malformation, and corneal opacities. Intellectual disability (ranging from mild to severe) is common. Early mortality is common among severely affected pregnancies and newborns; mildly affected individuals may survive to adulthood. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
95931
Concept ID:
C0392475
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Radial aplasia-thrombocytopenia syndrome

Thrombocytopenia absent radius (TAR) syndrome is characterized by bilateral absence of the radii with the presence of both thumbs, and thrombocytopenia that is generally transient. Thrombocytopenia may be congenital or may develop within the first few weeks to months of life; in general, thrombocytopenic episodes decrease with age. Cow's milk allergy is common and can be associated with exacerbation of thrombocytopenia. Other anomalies of the skeleton (upper and lower limbs, ribs, and vertebrae), heart, and genitourinary system (renal anomalies and agenesis of uterus, cervix, and upper part of the vagina) can occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61235
Concept ID:
C0175703
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis

The phenotypic spectrum of SHOX deficiency disorders, caused by haploinsufficiency of the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX), ranges from Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) at the severe end of the spectrum to nonspecific short stature at the mild end of the spectrum. In adults with SHOX deficiency, the proportion of LWD versus short stature without features of LWD is not well defined. In LWD the classic clinical triad is short stature, mesomelia, and Madelung deformity. Mesomelia, in which the middle portion of a limb is shortened in relation to the proximal portion, can be evident first in school-aged children and increases with age in frequency and severity. Madelung deformity (abnormal alignment of the radius, ulna, and carpal bones at the wrist) typically develops in mid-to-late childhood and is more common and severe in females. The phenotype of short stature caused by SHOX deficiency in the absence of mesomelia and Madelung deformity (called SHOX-deficient short stature in this GeneReview) is highly variable, even within the same family. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75562
Concept ID:
C0265309
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy 3

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
19860
Concept ID:
C0036069
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Baller-Gerold syndrome

Baller-Gerold syndrome (BGS) can be suspected at birth in an infant with craniosynostosis and upper limb abnormality. The coronal suture is most commonly affected; the metopic, lambdoid, and sagittal sutures may also be involved alone or in combination. Upper limb abnormality can include a combination of thumb hypo- or aplasia and radial hypo- or aplasia and may be asymmetric. Malformation or absence of carpal or metacarpal bones has also been described. Skin lesions may appear anytime within the first few years after birth, typically beginning with erythema of the face and extremities and evolving into poikiloderma. Slow growth is apparent in infancy with eventual height and length typically at 4 SD below the mean. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
120532
Concept ID:
C0265308
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Spondyloperipheral dysplasia

Spondyloperipheral dysplasia is a disorder that impairs bone growth. This condition is characterized by flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly) and unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly), with the exception of the first (big) toes. Other skeletal abnormalities associated with spondyloperipheral dysplasia include short stature, shortened long bones of the arms and legs, exaggerated curvature of the lower back (lordosis), and an inward- and upward-turning foot (clubfoot). Additionally, some affected individuals have nearsightedness (myopia), hearing loss, and intellectual disability. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
163223
Concept ID:
C0796173
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Duane-radial ray syndrome

SALL4-related disorders include Duane-radial ray syndrome (DRRS, Okihiro syndrome), acro-renal-ocular syndrome (AROS), and SALL4-related Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) – three phenotypes previously thought to be distinct entities. DRRS is characterized by uni- or bilateral Duane anomaly and radial ray malformation that can include thenar hypoplasia and/or hypoplasia or aplasia of the thumbs, hypoplasia or aplasia of the radii, shortening and radial deviation of the forearms, triphalangeal thumbs, and duplication of the thumb (preaxial polydactyly). AROS is characterized by radial ray malformations, renal abnormalities (mild malrotation, ectopia, horseshoe kidney, renal hypoplasia, vesicoureteral reflux, bladder diverticula), ocular coloboma, and Duane anomaly. Rarely, pathogenic variants in SALL4 may cause clinically typical HOS (i.e., radial ray malformations and cardiac malformations without additional features). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
301647
Concept ID:
C1623209
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy 1

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). Genetic Heterogeneity of Asphyxiating Thoracic Dysplasia SRTD1 has been mapped to chromosome 15q13. See also SRTD2 (611263), caused by mutation in the IFT80 gene (611177); SRTD3 (613091), caused by mutation in the DYNC2H1 gene (603297); SRTD4 (613819), caused by mutation in the TTC21B gene (612014); SRTD5 (614376), caused by mutation in the WDR19 gene (608151); SRTD6 (263520), caused by mutation in the NEK1 gene (604588); SRTD7 (614091), caused by mutation in the WDR35 gene (613602); SRTD8 (615503), caused by mutation in the WDR60 gene (615462); SRTD9 (266920), caused by mutation in the IFT140 gene (614620); SRTD10 (615630), caused by mutation in the IFT172 gene (607386); SRTD11 (615633), caused by mutation in the WDR34 gene (613363); SRTD13 (616300), caused by mutation in the CEP120 gene (613446); SRTD14 (616546), caused by mutation in the KIAA0586 gene (610178); SRTD15 (617088), caused by mutation in the DYNC2LI1 gene (617083); SRTD16 (617102), caused by mutation in the IFT52 gene (617094); SRTD17 (617405), caused by mutation in the TCTEX1D2 gene (617353); SRTD18 (617866), caused by mutation in the IFT43 gene (614068); SRTD19 (617895), caused by mutation in the IFT81 gene (605489); SRTD20 (617925), caused by mutation in the INTU gene (610621); and SRTD21 (619479), caused by mutation in the KIAA0753 gene (617112). See also SRTD12 (Beemer-Langer syndrome; 269860). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648057
Concept ID:
C4551856
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
12.

Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with congenital joint dislocations

CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
373381
Concept ID:
C1837657
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Ulnar-mammary syndrome

Ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by posterior limb deficiencies or duplications, apocrine/mammary gland hypoplasia and/or dysfunction, abnormal dentition, delayed puberty in males, and genital anomalies (Bamshad et al., 1996). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
357886
Concept ID:
C1866994
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Miller syndrome

Miller syndrome, or postaxial acrofacial dysostosis, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by severe micrognathia, cleft lip and/or palate, hypoplasia or aplasia of the postaxial elements of the limbs, coloboma of the eyelids, and supernumerary nipples (summary by Ng et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120522
Concept ID:
C0265257
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Symphalangism-brachydactyly syndrome

Multiple synostoses syndrome is characterized by multiple joint fusions, usually commencing in the hands, conductive deafness, and characteristic facial features, including a broad, tubular-shaped nose and a thin upper vermilion. Other features include brachydactyly, hypoplastic or absent middle phalanges, radial head dislocation, and pectus carinatum (summary by Takahashi et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Synostoses Syndrome Other forms of multiple synostoses syndrome include SYNS2 (610017), caused by mutation in the GDF5 gene (601146) on chromosome 20q11; SYNS3 (612961), caused by mutation in the FGF9 gene (600921) on chromosome 13q12; and SYNS4 (617898), caused by mutation in the GDF6 gene (601147) on chromosome 8q22. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
90977
Concept ID:
C0342282
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Diamond-Blackfan anemia 11

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
766956
Concept ID:
C3554042
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Langer mesomelic dysplasia syndrome

Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD) is characterized by severe limb aplasia or severe hypoplasia of the ulna and fibula, and a thickened and curved radius and tibia. These changes can result in displacement deformities of the hands and feet. Hypoplasia of the mandible is also observed (Langer, 1967). See also Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (127300), a less severe phenotype that results from heterozygous defect in the SHOX or SHOXY genes. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
96585
Concept ID:
C0432230
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Oculootoradial syndrome

IVIC syndrome (IVIC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by upper limb anomalies (radial ray defects, carpal bone fusion), extraocular motor disturbances, and congenital bilateral nonprogressive mixed hearing loss. More variable features include heart involvement, mild thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis (before age 50), shoulder girdle hypoplasia, imperforate anus, kidney malrotation, and rectovaginal fistula (summary by Paradisi and Arias, 2007). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
233003
Concept ID:
C1327918
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome

Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome (CLSS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mainly by anomalies of distal limb development, with fusion and disorganization of metacarpal and phalangeal bones, radius and ulnar shortening, radioulnar synostosis, and severe syndactyly of hands and feet. Mild facial dysmorphism is present in most patients. Kidney anomalies, including renal agenesis and hypoplasia, occur in over half of patients (summary by Li et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
395226
Concept ID:
C1859309
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Grebe syndrome

Acromesomelic dysplasia-2A (AMD2A), or Grebe chondrodysplasia, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe abnormality of the limbs and limb joints. The severity of limb shortening progresses in a proximal-distal gradient, with the hands and feet being most affected. The fingers and toes lack articulation and appear as skin appendages. In contrast, axial skeletal structures and the craniofacial skeleton are not affected. Heterozygous individuals are of average stature and have mild skeletal abnormalities (summary by Thomas et al., 1997). Because Grebe syndrome exhibits increasing severity in a proximal-distal gradient, it is classified as a form of acromesomelic dysplasia (Costa et al., 1998). For discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of acromesomelic dysplasia, see AMD1 (602875). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75557
Concept ID:
C0265260
Disease or Syndrome
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