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1.

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 1

POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+"). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
371919
Concept ID:
C1834846
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 17

The spectrum of BSCL2-related neurologic disorders includes Silver syndrome and variants of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 2, distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) type V, and spastic paraplegia 17. Features of these disorders include onset of symptoms ranging from the first to the seventh decade, slow disease progression, upper motor neuron involvement (gait disturbance with pyramidal signs ranging from mild to severe spasticity with hyperreflexia in the lower limbs and variable extensor plantar responses), lower motor neuron involvement (amyotrophy of the peroneal muscles and small muscles of the hand), and pes cavus and other foot deformities. Disease severity is variable among and within families. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
419034
Concept ID:
C2931276
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal recessive 1

POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+"). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
897191
Concept ID:
C4225153
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis

POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+"). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
375302
Concept ID:
C1843851
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4D

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4D (CMT4D) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the peripheral nervous system characterized by early-onset distal muscle weakness and atrophy, foot deformities, and sensory loss affecting all modalities. Affected individuals develop deafness by the third decade of life (summary by Okamoto et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, see CMT4A (214400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
371304
Concept ID:
C1832334
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 5A

Spastic paraplegia-5A (SPG5A) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with a wide phenotypic spectrum. Some patients have pure spastic paraplegia affecting only gait, whereas others may have a complicated phenotype with additional manifestations, including optic atrophy or cerebellar ataxia (summary by Arnoldi et al., 2012). The hereditary spastic paraplegias (SPG) are a group of clinically and genetically diverse disorders characterized by progressive, usually severe, lower extremity spasticity; see reviews of Fink et al. (1996) and Fink (1997). Inheritance is most often autosomal dominant (see 182600), but X-linked (see 303350) and autosomal recessive forms also occur. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Spastic Paraplegia Autosomal recessive forms of SPG include SPG7 (607259), caused by mutation in the paraplegin gene (602783) on chromosome 16q24; SPG9B (616586), caused by mutation in the ALDH18A1 gene (138250) on 10q24; SPG11 (604360), caused by mutation in the spatacsin gene (610844) on 15q21; SPG15 (270700), caused by mutation in the ZFYVE26 gene (612012) on 14q24; SPG18 (611225), caused by mutation in the ERLIN2 gene (611605) on 8p11; SPG20 (275900), caused by mutation in the spartin gene (607111) on 13q12; SPG21 (248900), caused by mutation in the maspardin gene (608181) on 15q21; SPG26 (609195), caused by mutation in the B4GALNT1 gene (601873) on 12q13; SPG28 (609340), caused by mutation in the DDHD1 gene (614603) on 14q22; SPG30 (610357), caused by mutation in the KIF1A gene (601255) on 2q37; SPG35 (612319), caused by mutation in the FA2H gene (611026) on 16q23; SPG39 (612020), caused by mutation in the PNPLA6 gene (603197) on 19p13; SPG43 (615043), caused by mutation in the C19ORF12 gene (614297) on 19q12; SPG44 (613206), caused by mutation in the GJC2 gene (608803) on 1q42; SPG45 (613162), caused by mutation in the NT5C2 gene (600417) on 10q24; SPG46 (614409), caused by mutation in the GBA2 gene (609471) on 9p13; SPG48 (613647), caused by mutation in the KIAA0415 gene (613653) on 7p22; SPG50 (612936), caused by mutation in the AP4M1 gene (602296) on 7q22; SPG51 (613744), caused by mutation in the AP4E1 gene (607244) on 15q21; SPG52 (614067), caused by mutation in the AP4S1 gene (607243) on 14q12; SPG53 (614898), caused by mutation in the VPS37A gene (609927) on 8p22; SPG54 (615033), caused by mutation in the DDHD2 gene (615003) on 8p11; SPG55 (615035), caused by mutation in the MTRFR gene on 12q24; SPG56 (615030), caused by mutation in the CYP2U1 gene (610670) on 4q25; SPG57 (615658), caused by mutation in the TFG gene (602498) on 3q12; SPG61 (615685), caused by mutation in the ARL6IP1 gene (607669) on 1p12; SPG62 (615681), caused by mutation in the ERLIN1 gene on 10q24; SPG63 (615686), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771) on 1p13; SPG64 (615683), caused by mutation in the ENTPD1 gene (601752) on 10q24; SPG72 (615625), caused by mutation in the REEP2 gene (609347) on 5q31; SPG74 (616451), caused by mutation in the IBA57 gene (615316) on 1q42; SPG75 (616680), caused by mutation in the MAG gene (159460) on 19q13; SPG76 (616907), caused by mutation in the CAPN1 gene (114220) on 11q13; SPG77 (617046), caused by mutation in the FARS2 gene (611592) on 6p25; SPG78 (617225), caused by mutation in the ATP13A2 gene (610513) on 1p36; SPG79 (615491), caused by mutation in the UCHL1 gene (191342) on 4p13; SPG81 (618768), caused by mutation in the SELENOI gene (607915) on 2p23; SPG82 (618770), caused by mutation in the PCYT2 gene (602679) on 17q25; SPG83 (619027), caused by mutation in the HPDL gene (618994) on 1p34; SPG84 (619621), caused by mutation in the PI4KA gene (600286) on 22q11; SPG85 (619686), caused by mutation in the RNF170 gene (614649) on 8p11; SPG86 (619735), caused by mutation in the ABHD16A gene (142620) on 6p21; SPG87 (619966), caused by mutation in the TMEM63C gene (619953) on 14q24; SPG89 (620379), caused by mutation in the AMFR gene (603243) on 16q13; and SPG90B (620417), caused by mutation in the SPTSSA gene (613540) on 14q13. Additional autosomal recessive forms of SPG have been mapped to chromosomes 3q (SPG14; 605229), 13q14 (SPG24; 607584), 6q (SPG25; 608220), and 10q22 (SPG27; 609041). A disorder that was formerly designated SPG49 has been reclassified as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy-9 with developmental delay (HSAN9; 615031). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
376521
Concept ID:
C1849115
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Neuropathy, hereditary sensory, type 2C

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (HSAN2) is characterized by progressively reduced sensation to pain, temperature, and touch. Onset can be at birth and is often before puberty. The sensory deficit is predominantly distal with the lower limbs more severely affected than the upper limbs. Over time sensory function becomes severely reduced. Unnoticed injuries and neuropathic skin promote ulcerations and infections that result in spontaneous amputation of digits or the need for surgical amputation. Osteomyelitis is common. Painless fractures can complicate the disease. Autonomic disturbances are variable and can include hyperhidrosis, tonic pupils, and urinary incontinence in those with more advanced disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
481798
Concept ID:
C3280168
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Neuropathy, hereditary sensory and autonomic, type 1A

SPTLC1-related hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN) is an axonal form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy distinguished by prominent early sensory loss and later positive sensory phenomena including dysesthesia and characteristic "lightning" or "shooting" pains. Loss of sensation can lead to painless injuries, which, if unrecognized, result in slow wound healing and subsequent osteomyelitis requiring distal amputations. Motor involvement is present in all advanced cases and can be severe. After age 20 years, the distal wasting and weakness may involve proximal muscles, possibly leading to wheelchair dependency by the seventh or eighth decade. Sensorineural hearing loss is variable. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1716450
Concept ID:
C5235211
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 23

Spinocerebellar ataxia-23 (SCA23) is an adult-onset autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by slowly progressive gait and limb ataxia, with variable additional features, including peripheral neuropathy and dysarthria (Bakalkin et al., 2010). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
339942
Concept ID:
C1853250
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive, with axonal neuropathy 1

Spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy type 1 (SCAN1) is characterized by late-childhood-onset slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and distal sensorimotor axonal neuropathy. Gaze nystagmus and dysarthria usually develop after the onset of ataxic gait. As the disease advances, pain and touch sensation in the hands and feet become impaired; vibration sense is lost in hands and lower thighs. Individuals with advanced disease develop a steppage gait and pes cavus and eventually become wheelchair dependent. Cognitive dysfunction – present in some – manifests as mild intellectual disability and poor executive function. To date only seven affected individuals have been described from three apparently unrelated consanguineous families (one from Saudi Arabia and two from Oman); therefore, it is likely that the full phenotypic spectrum of this disorder is not yet known. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1683470
Concept ID:
C4759870
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease axonal type 2Z

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2Z (CMT2Z) is an autosomal dominant axonal peripheral neuropathy characterized by onset, usually in the first decade, of distal lower limb muscle weakness and sensory impairment. The disorder is progressive, and affected individuals tend to develop upper limb and proximal muscle involvement in an asymmetric pattern, resulting in severe disability late in adulthood. Rare occurrence of global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties has been observed. In some instances, the same mutation may result in different phenotypic manifestations (CMT2Z or DIGFAN), which highlights the clinical spectrum associated with MORC2 mutations and may render the classification of patients into one or the other disorder challenging (summary by Sevilla et al., 2016, Ando et al., 2017, Guillen Sacoto et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1800448
Concept ID:
C5569025
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, demyelinating, IIA 1I

Demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1I (CMT1I) is a neurologic disorder characterized predominantly by delayed motor development in the first years of life associated with gait abnormalities, sensory ataxia, hyporeflexia, and distal sensory impairment due to a sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy that mainly affects the lower limbs. The disorder is progressive, and some may have upper limb involvement. A subset of patients has central nervous system involvement that manifests as global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech difficulties. Other features may include spasticity, hyperreflexia, tremor, dysmetria, seizures, or cerebellar findings. Brain imaging may be normal or show nonspecific abnormalities, such as white matter signal changes and delayed myelination (summary by Djordjevic et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1, see CMT1B (118200). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1811493
Concept ID:
C5676914
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Autosomal dominant sensory ataxia 1

Autosomal dominant sensory ataxia-1 (SNAX1) is a peripheral neuropathy resulting from the degeneration of dorsal root ganglia that affects both central and peripheral neurites of sensory neurons. Affected individuals show adult onset of slowly progressive clumsiness, gait ataxia, walking difficulties, and distal sensory loss which may be associated with abnormal sensory nerve conduction values. Some patients have vestibular ocular dysfunction. Muscle weakness and atrophy are not observed, and brain imaging is normal (summary by Cortese et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
332346
Concept ID:
C1837015
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 26

MedGen UID:
1617917
Concept ID:
C4539948
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Impaired distal proprioception

A loss or impairment of the sensation of the relative position of parts of the body and joint position occuring at distal joints. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
867227
Concept ID:
C4021585
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