U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 14

1.

Friedreich ataxia 1

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is characterized by slowly progressive ataxia with onset usually before age 25 years (mean age at onset: 10-15 yrs). FRDA is typically associated with dysarthria, muscle weakness, spasticity particularly in the lower limbs, scoliosis, bladder dysfunction, absent lower-limb reflexes, and loss of position and vibration sense. Approximately two thirds of individuals with FRDA have cardiomyopathy, up to 30% have diabetes mellitus, and approximately 25% have an "atypical" presentation with later onset or retained tendon reflexes. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
383962
Concept ID:
C1856689
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and eventual deterioration of bulbar functions. Early in the disease, affected individuals may have gait disturbance, slurred speech, difficulty with balance, brisk deep tendon reflexes, hypermetric saccades, nystagmus, and mild dysphagia. Later signs include slowing of saccadic velocity, development of up-gaze palsy, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, and hypotonia. In advanced stages, muscle atrophy, decreased deep tendon reflexes, loss of proprioception, cognitive impairment (e.g., frontal executive dysfunction, impaired verbal memory), chorea, dystonia, and bulbar dysfunction are seen. Onset is typically in the third or fourth decade, although childhood onset and late-adult onset have been reported. Those with onset after age 60 years may manifest a pure cerebellar phenotype. Interval from onset to death varies from ten to 30 years; individuals with juvenile onset show more rapid progression and more severe disease. Anticipation is observed. An axonal sensory neuropathy detected by electrophysiologic testing is common; brain imaging typically shows cerebellar and brain stem atrophy. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155703
Concept ID:
C0752120
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Familial isolated deficiency of vitamin E

Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) generally manifests in late childhood or early teens between ages five and 15 years. The first symptoms include progressive ataxia, clumsiness of the hands, loss of proprioception, and areflexia. Other features often observed are dysdiadochokinesia, dysarthria, positive Romberg sign, head titubation, decreased visual acuity, and positive Babinski sign. The phenotype and disease severity vary widely among families with different pathogenic variants; age of onset and disease course are more uniform within a given family, but symptoms and disease severity can vary even among sibs. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
341248
Concept ID:
C1848533
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive, with axonal neuropathy 2

Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is characterized by onset of ataxia between age three and 30 years after initial normal development, axonal sensorimotor neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, cerebellar atrophy, and elevated serum concentration of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
340052
Concept ID:
C1853761
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Channelopathy-associated congenital insensitivity to pain, autosomal recessive

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (HSAN2) is characterized by progressively reduced sensation to pain, temperature, and touch. Onset can be at birth and is often before puberty. The sensory deficit is predominantly distal with the lower limbs more severely affected than the upper limbs. Over time sensory function becomes severely reduced. Unnoticed injuries and neuropathic skin promote ulcerations and infections that result in spontaneous amputation of digits or the need for surgical amputation. Osteomyelitis is common. Painless fractures can complicate the disease. Autonomic disturbances are variable and can include hyperhidrosis, tonic pupils, and urinary incontinence in those with more advanced disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
344563
Concept ID:
C1855739
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Posterior column ataxia-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome

Posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa (AXPC1) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by childhood-onset retinitis pigmentosa and later onset of gait ataxia due to sensory loss (summary by Ishiura et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
324636
Concept ID:
C1836916
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 35

Spinocerebellar ataxia-35 (SCA35) is an autosomal dominant adult-onset neurologic disorder characterized by difficulty walking due to cerebellar ataxia. The age at onset ranges from teenage years to late adulthood, and the disorder is slowly progressive. Additional features may include hand tremor, dysarthria, hyperreflexia, and saccadic eye movements (summary by Guo et al., 2014). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
854733
Concept ID:
C3888031
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Early-onset progressive neurodegeneration-blindness-ataxia-spasticity syndrome

Spastic paraplegia-79B (SPG79B) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of spastic paraplegia and optic atrophy in the first decade of life. Additional features are variable, but may include peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, and cognitive impairment (summary by Rydning et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
815995
Concept ID:
C3809665
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Congenital insensitivity to pain-hypohidrosis syndrome

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type VIII is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by congenital insensitivity to pain resulting in ulceration to the fingers, tongue, lips, and other distal appendages. Affected individuals may also have decreased sweating and tear production (summary by Chen et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, see HSAN1A (162400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
894363
Concept ID:
C4225308
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Visceral neuropathy, familial, 1, autosomal recessive

Autosomal recessive familial visceral neuropathy-1 (VSCN1) is characterized by a broad spectrum of developmental anomalies associating neural crest and extraneural crest features, including intestinal dysmotility due to aganglionosis (Hirschsprung disease), hypoganglionosis, and/or chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Some patients develop progressive peripheral neuropathy, and arthrogryposis has been observed. Hypoplasia or aplasia of the olfactory bulb and of the external auditory canals, as well as microtia or anotia, have been reported. Patients also exhibit facial dysmorphisms, including microretrognathia in most; other variable features include structural cardiac anomalies and arthrogryposis with multiple pterygia (Le et al., 2021). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Visceral Neuropathy Autosomal recessive familial visceral neuropathy-2 (VSCN2; 619465) is caused by mutation in the ERBB2 gene (164870) on chromosome 17q12. Also see VSCN3 (609629) for an autosomal dominant form of the disorder. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
340946
Concept ID:
C1855733
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Spastic paraplegia 85, autosomal recessive

Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-85 (SPG85) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of motor symptoms in the first few years of life. Affected individuals have spasticity and hyperreflexia of the lower limbs resulting in gait abnormalities. Older patients may have upper limb involvement and demonstrate axonal polyneuropathy. Additional features include optic atrophy, dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia, and urinary incontinence. Brain imaging may show cerebellar atrophy (summary by Wagner et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794263
Concept ID:
C5562053
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Posterior column ataxia

MedGen UID:
357379
Concept ID:
C1867923
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, mitochondrial form, 1

Mitochondrial form of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-1 (CMTMA1) is inherited only through the maternal line. The disorder is characterized by onset of distal muscle weakness and atrophy mainly affecting the lower limbs and resulting in difficulty walking in the second decade of life, although both earlier and later onset can occur. Upper limb involvement often develops with time, and affected individuals have weakness and atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles. Other features may include distal sensory impairment, foot deformities, scoliosis, hypo- or hyperreflexia, spastic paraparesis, and neurogenic bladder. Electrophysiologic studies are compatible with an axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, and muscle and nerve biopsy show evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction with decreased activities of respiratory complexes, mtDNA deletions, and mitochondrial hyperplasia (summary by Fay et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1731194
Concept ID:
C5435765
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Impaired proprioception

A loss or impairment of the sensation of the relative position of parts of the body and joint position. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
346424
Concept ID:
C1856691
Finding
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity